Kashmir Valley

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Kashmir Valley
Kashmir-sat-nasa.jpg
Kashmir valley seen from a satellite. Snow-capped peaks of the Pir Panjal Range (left in the image; southwest in compass) and the Himalayas (right in image; northeast in compass) flank the valley
Kashmir border.JPG
Kashmir Division (bordered orange) shown within the wider Kashmir region
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
Union territory Jammu and Kashmir
Districts Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian and Srinagar.
Headquarters Srinagar
Historical divisions
Government
  Type Division
   Divisional Commissioner Pandurang Kondbarao Pole
Area
  Total15,948 km2 (6,158 sq mi)
Dimensions
  Length135 [2]  km (83.885 mi)
  Width32 [2]  km (19.884 mi)
Elevation
1,620 [2]  m (5,314 ft)
Population
 (2011 [3] )
  Total6,907,622 [3]
  Density450.06/km2 (1,165.7/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Kashmiris, Koshur
Ethnicity and language
  Languages Kashmiri, Urdu, Hindi, [4] English, [5] Pahari people (Kashmir), Gojri, Shina
  Ethnic groups Kashmiri, Pahari people, Gujar, Shina
  Religions97.16% Islam, [6]
1.84% Hinduism,
0.88% Sikhism,
0.11% Buddhism [6]
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registration JK
Highest peak Machoi Peak (5458 metres)
Largest lake Wular lake(260 km2 (100 sq mi)) [7]
Longest river Jhelum river(725 kilometres) [8]
Website http://kashmirdivision.nic.in/

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is an intermontane valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India. The valley is bounded on the southwest by the Pir Panjal Range and on the northeast by the main Himalayas range. It is approximately 135 km (84 mi) long and 32 km (20 mi) wide, and drained by the Jhelum River. [2]

Contents

The Kashmir Division is a revenue and administrative division of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmir division borders Jammu Division to the south and Ladakh to the east while Line of Control forms its northern and the western border. The division consists of the following districts: Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian and Srinagar. [9]

Districts

Kashmir Division consists of ten districts:

Name of districtHeadquartersAreaPopulation
(2001)
Population
(2011)
Total
(km2)
Total
(sq mile)
Rural
(km2)
Urban
(km2)
Anantnag District Anantnag 3,5741,3803,475.7698.24 [10] 734,5491,069,749
Kulgam district Kulgam 410158360.2049.80 [11] 437,885423,181
Pulwama district Pulwama 1,0864191,047.4538.55 [12] 441,275570,060
Shopian district Shopian 312120306.565.44 [13] 211,332265,960
Budgam district Budgam 1,3615251,311.9549.05 [14] 629,309755,331
Srinagar district Srinagar 1,9797641,684.42294.53 [15] 990,5481,250,173
Ganderbal district Ganderbal 259100233.6025.40 [16] 211,899297,003
Bandipore district Bandipore 345133295.3749.63 [17] 316,436385,099
Baramulla district Baramulla 4,2431,6384,179.4463.56 [18] 853,3441,015,503
Kupwara district Kupwara 2,3799192,331.6647.34 [19] 650,393875,564


Srinagar is its main city and also the summer capital of the Jammu and Kashmir. Other main cities are Baramulla, Anantnag, Pulwama.

Climate

Srinagar
Climate chart (explanation)
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22
6
 
 
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15
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54
 
 
8
−2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HKO [20]

Kashmir Valley has a moderate climate, which is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Karakoram Range in the north, Pir Panjal Range in the south and west and Zanskar Range in the east. [21] It can be generally described as cool in the spring and autumn, mild in the summer and cold in the winter. As a large valley with significant differences in geo-location among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly areas compared to the flat lower part.

Summer is usually mild and fairly dry, but relative humidity is generally high and the nights are cool. The precipitation occurs throughout the year and no month is particularly dry. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 16 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C) and the coldest are December–January (mean minimum temperature −15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C).

Compared with other plain parts of India, Kashmir valley enjoys a more moderate climate but weather conditions are unpredictable. The recorded high temperature is 33 °C and the recorded low is −18 °C. On 5 and 6 January 2012, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures (winter storm) shocked the valley covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice.

Kashmir Valley has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation in the last few years. This is most likely because of the commercial afforestation projects which also include expanding parks and green cover.

Transport

Kashmir valley is connected to Jammu region and Ladakh union territory by road and air. It has access to Jammu region and the rest of India through the Banihal road tunnel near Qazigund on national highway NH 1A and through NH 1B that passes through Sinthan pass and Kishtwar.

Srinagar Airport (SXR) is the main airport in Kashmir valley and has scheduled flights from Jammu, Leh, Mumbai, Chandigarh and New Delhi. Kashmir valley has a 119 km (74 mi) long modern railway line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla in the western part of the valley to Srinagar and Qazigund. It further links the Kashmir Valley to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through the new 11.215 km (6.969 mi) long Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel or Banihal rail tunnel from 26 June 2013. Banihal railway station will be linked to the rest of India in another few years as the construction of the railway line from Jammu to Banihal progresses steadily. Transport within the valley is predominantly by road. Other airports are in Udhampur, Leh and Jammu. Another airport is proposed in Anantnag.

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    Jammu and Kashmir (state) Former state administered by India

    Jammu and Kashmir was a region formerly administered by India as a state from 1954 to 2019, constituting the southern and southeastern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India, Pakistan and China since the mid-20th century. The underlying region of this state were parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose western districts, now known as Azad Kashmir, and northern territories, now known as Gilgit-Baltistan, are administered by Pakistan. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.

    Baramulla district District in India

    Baramulla district (pronounced,Bārāmūla) is one of the 22 districts in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Baramulla city is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district covered an area of 4,190 km² in 2001 but it was reduced to 3,353 km² at the time of 2011 census.

    Pir Panjal Range

    The Pir Panjal Range, also Panchaladeva in Hindu scriptures, is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, the Indian administrated Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistani administered territory of Azad Kashmir, where the average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). The Himalayas show a gradual elevation towards the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges. Pir Panjal is the largest range of the Lesser Himalayas. Near the bank of the Sutlej River, it dissociates itself from the Himalayas and forms a divide between the Beas and Ravi rivers on one side and the Chenab on the other. The renowned Galyat mountains are also located in this range. The region is connected to the Valley of Kashmir via Mughal Road and used to be the historical connction of Kashmir with India.

    Baramulla town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Baramulla (pronounced,Bārāmūla) is a city and a municipality in the Baramulla district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is on the bank of the Jhelum River downstream from Srinagar, the state capital. The city was earlier known as Vārāhamūla. The name is derived from two Sanskrit words, Vārāha and Mūla.

    Jammu–Baramulla line railway line in northern India

    The Jammu–Baramulla line is a railway track being laid to connect the Kashmir Valley in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir with Jammu railway station and thence to the rest of the country. The 356 km railway track will start from Jammu and end at Baramulla. It comes under the jurisdiction of the Firozpur railway division of Indian Railways' Northern zone. The 359 m (1,178 ft) tall Chenab Bridge lies on this line, which once completed will be the tallest railway bridge in the world.

    Anantnag City in Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Anantnag, also called Islamabad, is the administrative headquarters of the Anantnag district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is located at a distance of 53 kilometres from the union territory's capital Srinagar. It is the third largest city in Jammu and Kashmir after Srinagar and Jammu with an urban agglomerate population of more than 200,000 and municipal limit population over 100,000.

    Banihal Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Banihal is a town and a notified area committee in Ramban district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a rural and hilly area with Kamirwah being one of the most spectacular hills. It is located about 35 km (22 mi) away from Qazigund of Anantnag district on NH 44. However, the distance between Banihal and Qazigund is only 18 km by train on the new railway line which is much shorter than the road. The most common language spoken in the region is Kashmiri; Urdu Gujjari English being other familiar languages.

    Kokernag Sub-District in Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Kokernag is a sub-district town and a notified area committee in Breng Valley, Anantnag district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The place is known for its gardens, pristine fresh water springs and rainbow trout farms. It is 25.3 km from Anantnag via NH244.It is one of the most popular weekend getaways from the state capital Srinagar.

    Qazigund Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Quazigund, also known as Qazigund, is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Qazigund is located at 33.59°N 75.16°E. It has an average elevation of 1670 m (5478 feet) above mean sea level.

    Ramban district District of Jammu and Kashmir in India

    Ramban is one of the 20 districts in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Ramban is located in the lap of the Pir Panjal mountain range. It was carved out of the erstwhile Doda District on 1 April 2007. Ramban town is the district headquarters. The town is located midway between Jammu and Srinagar along the Chenab river in Chenab Valley on National Highway-44, approximately 150 km from Jammu and Srinagar.

    Kulgam district District of Jammu and Kashmir in India

    Kulgam District is a district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The district contains the block, tehsil and town of Kulgam.

    Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Railway tunnel in India

    The Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel or Banihal railway tunnel is an 11.215-kilometre-long (6.969 mi) railway tunnel located in Pir Panjal Range of middle Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, India, north of Banihal town. It is a part of the Jammu–Baramulla line.

    Qazigund railway station

    Qazigund railway station lies on Northern Railway network zone of Indian Railways. It is the main transport hub for the people of Qazigund.

    Sadura Place in India

    Sadura is a village located in Anantnag district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It has a railway station which lies on Banihal-Anantnag railway line.

    Sangaldan Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Sangaldan is a town and block in the Ramban district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It falls in Gool-Gulabgarh area of Chenab Valley. In the 2011 census it had a population of 876 people in 476 households. Female Population is 47.4%. Village literacy rate is 54.9% and the Female Literacy rate is 21.9%.

    Jammu-Srinagar National Highway

    The Jammu-Srinagar National Highway is the northernmost segment of NH 44. It runs from Srinagar in the Kashmir Valley southward to the city of Jammu.

    Banihal railway station

    Banihal railway station, a part of Jammu–Baramulla line, is situated in notified area of Banihal in Ramban district, Jammu and Kashmir. It was commissioned on 26 June 2013 and passenger trains run from Banihal to Qazigund. The station was inaugurated by former prime minister Manmohan Singh and UPA Chairperson Sonia Gandhi on the same day at 2.22 pm. They enjoyed the 12-minute ride in train through Pir panjal tunnel up to Qazigund with 100 students, mostly girls, of the Banihal Higher Secondary School, and made the 17.8-km ride back to Banihal, passing through the tunnel again, the second longest in Asia.

    Jammu and Kashmir (union territory) Region administered by India as a Union Territory

    Jammu and Kashmir is a region which is administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962. The region of Jammu and Kashmir is separated by the Line of Control from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north, respectively. It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh, which is also subject to the dispute as a part of Kashmir, and administered by India as a union territory.

    References

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      District Census Handbook Anantnag, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). July 2016. pp. 12, 22. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
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      District Census Handbook Kulgam, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). 16 June 2014. pp. 12, 22. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
      Part B page 12 says the are of the district is 404 sq km, but page 22 says 410 sq km.
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      District Census Handbook Shupiyan, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). 16 June 2014. pp. 12, 22. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
      Part B pages 12 and 22 say the district area is 312.00 sq km, but Part A page 10 says 307.42 sq km.
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      Part B page 11 says the district area is 393.04 sq km, but pages 12 and 22 say 259.00 sq km.
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      District Census Handbook Baramulla, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). 16 June 2014. p. 22. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
    19. District Census Handbook Kupwara, Part A (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). July 2016. p. 7. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
      District Census Handbook Kupwara, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). 16 June 2014. pp. 11, 12. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
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    Coordinates: 34°02′00″N74°40′00″E / 34.0333°N 74.6667°E / 34.0333; 74.6667