|Union Territory||Jammu and Kashmir|
|• Mayor||Junaid Azim Mattu|
|• City||294 km2 (114 sq mi)|
|• Metro||766 km2 (296 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,585 m (5,200 ft)|
|• Density||4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro Rank||38th|
|• Official||Kashmiri, Urdu, Hindi, Dogri, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||JK 01|
|Sex ratio||888 ♀/ 1000 ♂|
|Distance from Delhi||876 kilometres (544 mi) NW|
|Distance from Mumbai||2,275 kilometres (1,414 mi) NE (land)|
|Precipitation||710 millimetres (28 in)|
|Avg. summer temperature||23.3 °C (73.9 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||3.2 °C (37.8 °F)|
Srinagar (English : // ( listen ), Kashmiri pronunciation: [siriːnagar] ), is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus, and Dal and Anchar lakes. The city is known for its natural environment, gardens, waterfronts and houseboats. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts like Kashmir shawls and also dried fruits. It is the northernmost city of India with over one million people.
The earliest records, such as Kalhana's Rajatarangini , mentions the Sanskrit name shri-nagara which have been interpreted distinctively by scholars in two ways: one being sūrya-nagar, meaning "City of the Surya " (trans) "City of Sun"and other being "The city of "Shri" (श्री), the Hindu goddess of wealth, meaning "City of Lakshmi ".
In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the insurgency against Indian rule. The area continues to be a highly politicised hotbed of separatist activity with frequent spontaneous protests and strikes ("bandhs" in local parlance). On 19 January 1990, the Gawakadal massacre of at least 50 unarmed protestors by Indian forces, and up to 280 by some estimates from eyewitness accounts, set the stage for bomb blasts, shootouts, and curfews that characterised Srinagar throughout the early and mid-1990s.As a result, bunkers and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as militancy has declined. However, frequent protests still occur against Indian rule, such as the 22 August 2008 rally in which hundreds of thousands of Kashmiri civilians protested against Indian rule in Srinagar. Similar protests took place every summer for the next 4 years. In 2010 alone 120 protesters, many of whom were stone pelters and arsonists, were killed by police and CRPF. Large scale protests were seen following the execution of Afzal Guru in February 2013. In 2016, after the death of militant leader Burhan Wani, there were mass protests in the valley and about 87 protesters were killed by Indian Army, CRPF and police in the 2016 Kashmir unrest.
The city also saw increased violence against minorities, particularly the Hindu Kashmiri Pandits, starting from mid-1980s and resulting in their ultimate exodus.Posters were pasted to walls of houses of Pandits, telling them to leave or die, temples were destroyed and houses burnt; but a very small minority of pandits still remains in the city. In 2015 protests in Srinagar from local Kashmiri pandits were held in order to express demands from the government related to their official status, temples, and the ability to visit a temple in Pakistani-administered Kashmir.
After revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and the subsequent devolution of the state into a union territory in August 2019, a lockdown was imposed in Kashmir, including in Srinagar.This lockdown has been ongoing for over a year. Thousands, including two former chief ministers, were arrested during this lockdown.
The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River, which is called Vyath in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the Wular Lake. The city is known for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.
There are a number of lakes and swamps in and around the city. These include the Dal, the Nigeen, the Anchar, Khushal Sar, Gil Sar and Hokersar.
Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.
Hokersar is 14 km (8.7 mi) north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over 13.75 km2 (5.31 sq mi) including lake and marshy area. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.
Birds found in Hokersar are migratory ducks and geese which include brahminy duck, tufted duck, gadwall, garganey, greylag goose, mallard, common merganser, northern pintail, common pochard, ferruginous pochard, red-crested pochard, ruddy shelduck, northern shoveller, common teal, and Eurasian wigeon.
Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa). The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime temperature averaging to 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and drops below freezing point at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the highway connecting Srinagar with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads and avalanches. Summers are warm with a July daytime average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 720 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) and the lowest is −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F).
|Climate data for Srinagar (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1901–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.2|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||11.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.9|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−5.7|
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.4|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||53.9|
|Average rainy days||4.9||5.9||7.9||6.9||6.2||3.9||5.2||5.5||2.6||2.0||2.0||3.2||56.3|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||69||62||54||49||50||46||54||56||51||54||61||70||56|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||74.4||101.7||136.4||189.0||238.7||246.0||241.8||226.3||228.0||226.3||186.0||108.5||2,203.1|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||2.4||3.6||4.4||6.3||7.7||8.2||7.8||7.3||7.6||7.3||6.2||3.5||6.0|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department|
|Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun 1945–1988), Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)|
In November 2011, the City Mayors Foundation –an advocacy think tank –announced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.
Srinagar is one of several places that have been called the "Venice of the East". –noted for its houseboats – and Nigeen Lake. Apart from Dal Lake and Nigeen Lake, Wular Lake and Manasbal Lake both lie to the north of Srinagar. Wular Lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia.Lakes around the city include Dal Lake
Srinagar has some Mughal gardens, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; the Naseem Bagh. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden is a botanical garden in the city, set up in 1969.The Indian government has included these gardens under "Mughal Gardens of Jammu and Kashmir" in the tentative list for sites to be included in world Heritage sites.
The Sher Garhi Palace houses administrative buildings from the state government.Another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel.
The Shankaracharya Temple which lies on a hill top in the middle of the city, besides the Kheer Bhawani Temple are important Hindu temples in the city.
The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC) under leadership of Mayor. The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam and Ganderbal districts forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.
Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs.Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals.
The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs.
As of 2011 census Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,273,312 population.Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 70%. The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population. Males constituted 53.0% and females 47% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1,000. The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 96% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 2.75% of the population. The remaining population constitutes Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.
The city is served by many highways, including National Highway 1A and National Highway 1D.
Srinagar International Airport has regular domestic flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh, Delhi and Mumbai and occasional international flights. An expanded terminal capable of handling both domestic and international flights was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with Air India Express flights to Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia.
Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Banihal-Baramulla line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track also connects to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for a train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 55 billion INR. The train also runs during heavy snow.
There are proposals to develop a metro system in the city.The feasibility report for the Srinagar Metro is planned to be carried out by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.
Srinagar Cable Car
In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of 300 million INR was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the Gulmarg Gondola.
Whilst popular since the 7th century, water transport is now mainly confined to Dal Lake, where shikaras (wooden boats) are used for local transport and tourism. There are efforts to revive transportation on the River Jhelum.
Like the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.
There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include:
Additional structures include the Dastgeer Sahib shrine, Mazar-e-Shuhada, Roza Bal shrine, Khanqah of Shah Hamadan, Pathar Masjid ("The Stone Mosque"), Hamza Makhdoom shrine, tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-abidin, tomb of Pir Haji Muhammad, Akhun Mulla Shah Mosque, cemetery of Baha-ud-din Sahib, tomb and Madin Sahib Mosque at Zadibal.
The Sheikh Bagh Cemetery is a Christian cemetery located in Srinagar that dates from the British colonial era. The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of a British colonel from the 9th Lancers of 1850 and the cemetery is valued for the variety of persons buried there which provides an insight into the perils faced by British colonisers in India.It was damaged by floods in 2014. It contains a number of war graves. The notable interments here are Robert Thorpe and Jim Borst.
Srinagar is home to The National Institute of Technology Srinagar, formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC Srinagar). It is one of the oldest among the National Institutes of Technology that were established during the second Five year plan. Other educational institutions are:
General degree colleges
Srinagar is broadcasting hub for radio channels in UT which are Radio Mirchi 98.3FM,Red FM 93.5 and AIR Srinagar. State television channel DD Kashir is also broadcast.
The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, where international cricket matches have been played. [ citation needed ] Srinagar has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches. It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered as one of the best golf courses of India. Football is also followed by the youth of Srinagar and Polo ground is maintained for the particular sports recently. There are certain other sports being played but those are away from the main city like in Pahalgam (Water rafting), Gulmarg (skiing).The first international match was played in 1983 in which West Indies defeated India and the last international match was played in 1986 in which Australia defeated India by six wickets. Since then no international matches have been played in the stadium due to the security situation (although the situation has now improved quite considerably).
Kashmir, IPA: [kaʃmiːr], is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, the term encompasses a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.
The Kashmiri Pandits are a group of Kashmiri Hindus and a part of the larger Saraswat Brahmin community of India. They belong to the Pancha Gauda Brahmin group from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region located within the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmiri Pandits originally lived in the Kashmir Valley before Muslim influence entered the region, following which large numbers converted to Islam. They are the only remaining Hindu community native to Kashmir.
The Srinagar District is one of the 20 districts of the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Situated in the centre of the Kashmir Valley, it is the second-most populous district of the union territory after Jammu District as per the 2011 national census, and is home to the summer capital city of Srinagar. Likewise, the city of Srinagar also serves as the Srinagar District's headquarters.
The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir is an uprising or revolt against the Indian administration of Jammu and Kashmir, a region constituting the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947.
Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an urban lake, which is the second largest in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the "Lake of Flowers", "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel". The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.
Amarnath Cave Temple is a Hindu shrine located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The cave is situated at an altitude of 3,888 m (12,756 ft), about 141 km (88 mi) from Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, reached through Pahalgam town. The shrine represents an important part of Hinduism, and is considered to be one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism. The cave is surrounded by snowy mountains. The cave itself is covered with snow most of the year, except for a short period of time in summer when it is open to pilgrims. Hundreds of thousands of Hindus and other devotees make an annual pilgrimage to the Amarnath cave across challenging mountainous terrain.
Bandipore or Bandipora is the headquarters of district of Bandipore in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is located on the northern banks of Wullar Lake—the second-largest freshwater lake in Asia. Bandipora has a terraced garden similar to that of Nishat Bagh in Srinagar. Bandipora is bound by mountains on three sides and by Wular Lake on the fourth. Bandipora is famous for three A's - A'lim (knowledge), Adab and Aab (water). As can be known from the folklore, the name of Bandipora originated either from Bund of Wular as Bund e pur, from the local folk-singing bands (bāṇd) as Baand e pur or from the enclosed (band) geographical location as Bandh e pur. Bandipora is bound by mountains on three sides and by Wular Lake in the fourth.
Hari Parbat, also called as Koh-i-Maran, is a hill overlooking Srinagar, the largest city and summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is the site of a fort, built in the Durrani era, and of a Hindu temple, mosques, and gurdwara.
Amitabh Mattoo is one of India's leading thinkers and writers on international relations. He was awarded a Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2009. He is Professor of Disarmament Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University and Honorary Professor of International Relations at the University of Melbourne. He serves as Chairman of the Governing Board of Miranda House, University of Delhi, the highest ranked women's college in India. He has also been a member of the Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing. In 2002, he was the youngest person to be appointed as Vice Chancellor of a public university in independent India. Mattoo's advice on policy matters has been sought across political parties and across governments, including by Prime Ministers Atal Behari Vajpayee and Dr Manmohan Singh. Until 19 June 2018, he served as Advisor to the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, with the status of a Cabinet Minister. Following the abrogation of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, he has offered a political roadmap for securing the future of Jammu and Kashmir. He has been a persistent advocate of multiculturalism and of reconciliation between Kashmiri Pandits and Kashmiri Muslims.
Sharada Peeth is a ruined Hindu temple and ancient centre of learning located in present-day Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Between the 6th and 12th centuries CE, it was among the most prominent temple universities in the Indian subcontinent. Known in particular for its library, stories recount scholars travelling long distances to access its texts. It played a key role in the development and popularisation of the Sharada script in North India, causing the script to be named after it, and Kashmir to acquire the moniker "Sharada Desh", meaning "country of Sharada".
Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Chenab Valley, Sindh Valley and Lidder Valley. Some major tourist attractions in Jammu and Kashmir are Srinagar, the Mughal Gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Patnitop and Jammu. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath which has had significant impact on the state's economy.
On 26 May 2008, the government of India and the state Government of Jammu and Kashmir reached an agreement to transfer 99 acres (0.40 km2) of forest land to the Shri Amarnathji Shrine Board (SASB) in the main Kashmir valley to set up temporary shelters and facilities for Hindu pilgrims. This caused a controversy, with demonstrations from the Kashmir valley against the land transfer and protests from the Jammu region supporting it. The largest demonstration saw more than 500,000 protesters at a single rally, among the largest in Kashmir's history.
Human rights abuses in Kashmir is an issue connected to the territory's disputed and divided status with respect to the conflict between India and Pakistan. The issue pertains to abuses in both the region administered by India and the region administered by Pakistan, particularly since the beginning of the dispute in 1947 after the partition of India.
Dina Nath Walli (1908–2006), also known by his pen name Almast Kashmiri, was a renowned water colour artist and poet from Srinagar city in Kashmir valley. He was the part of the modern art movement in the state of Jammu and Kashmir and was known for painting everyday scenes of Kashmir.
Anchar Lake is a lake in highly deteriorated condition located near Soura area in the city of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Situated close to Ganderbal, the lake is connected with the famous Dal Lake via a channel "Amir Khan Nallah" which passes through Gilsar and Khushal Sar. In case of flooding, the excessive water of Dal is diverted here.
The Jammu Division is a revenue and administrative division within Jammu and Kashmir, a union territory of India. It consists of the districts of Jammu, Doda, Kathua, Ramban, Reasi, Kishtwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur and Samba. Most of the land is hilly or mountainous, including the Pir Panjal Range which separates it from the Kashmir Valley and part of the Great Himalayas in the eastern districts of Doda and Kishtwar. Its principal river is the Chenab.
Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi, the city of Jammu, with an area of 240 km2 (93 sq mi), is surrounded by the Himalayas in the north and the northern-plains in the south. Jammu is the second most populous city of the union territory.
Rajendra Tiku, is an Indian sculptor and art teacher known for his outdoor stone sculptures. He was honoured by the Government of India, in 2013, by bestowing on him the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for his contributions to the field of art.
The Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus, also sometimes known as the Exodus of Kashmiri Pandits, refers to the series of anti-Hindu pogroms and attacks that took place shortly after the inception of the Muslim-dominated insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir in 1989, which eventually forced Kashmiri Hindu Pandits out of the Kashmir Valley. The peak phase of the exodus was in the early 1990s, when Kashmiri Hindus, as a result of being targeted by the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front and other pro-Pakistan Islamist insurgents, fled from the Kashmir Valley to seek refuge elsewhere in India. As of 2016, only 2,000–3,000 Kashmiri Hindus remain in the Kashmir Valley compared to approximately 300,000–600,000 in 1990. Consequently, 19 January 1990 is widely known by Kashmiri Hindus as "Exodus Day", in memory of the Kashmiri Hindus who were either killed or forced out of Kashmir.
SRINAGAR * or Suryea Nagar , the City of the Sun , built by Rajah Pravarasene about the beginning of the 6th century , is the Capital of Kashmir , and a plan of it will be found in Montgomerie's Jamoo and Kashinir Map . It is situated about ...
Old Srinagar Kalhana , who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century , mentions in his Rajtarangni the city of Srinagar , a city in the south - east ... Shri here does not mean Surya or the son and it is a mistake to call Srinagar , the city of sun .
Shri Nagar or , as it is commonly called , Srinagar , is the chief town of the country . ' Shri ' means beauty or wealth of knowledge and ' nagar ' a city
Shri ' is said to be another name for Laxmi , the Goddess of Wealth and Beauty and ' nagari ' means the city . Hence ' Shrinagar ' is the city of wealth and beauty .
The name Srinagar which means the city of Sri or Lakshmi appears to have been assigned to the capital to commemorate the Buddhist Monastry built by Ashoka between Pandrethan and the nearby steep hill side at a distance of 2 miles from ...
According to Kalhana, ancient Kashmir has had a number of capitals. The most important of these ancient cities was Srinagari, which was founded by Asoka in 250 B.C. 3 Srinagari, the city of Sri, an appellation of the goddess '. Lakshmi ...
Shri Nagar or , as it is commonly called , Srinagar , is the chief town of the country . ' Shri ' means beauty or wealth of knowledge and ' nagar ' a city . In ancient times this city was one of the chief seats of learning in Asia
At least 52 people were allegedly killed in security forces' firing during a protest demonstration on January 21, 1990 near Gow Kadal, in heart of Srinagar.
A Kashmiri Muslim watches a protest march Friday by hundreds of thousands of Muslims in Srinagar, Indian Kashmir's main city. It was the largest protest against Indian rule in the Himalayan region in more than a decade
Hundreds of thousands of Muslims have taken part in a protest rally called by separatist leaders in Indian-controlled Kashmir's main city, Srinagar.
In all three years, hundreds of thousands of young men took to the streets, hurling rocks and abuse at Indian forces.[ permanent dead link ]
“We will soon have the feasibility of metro services in both cities analysed by experts. Ideally, we would like DMRC to send a team and prepare a project report,” minister for urban development Nasir Aslam Wani said.
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