Janata Dal (United)

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Janata Dal (United)
AbbreviationJD(U)
President Nitish Kumar
Secretary-General K.C. Tyagi
Lok Sabha leader Kaushalendra Kumar
Rajya Sabha leader Ramchandra Prasad Singh
Founder Nitish Kumar
Founded30 October 2003(15 years ago) (2003-10-30)
Split from Janata Dal
Headquarters7, Jantar Mantar Road, New Delhi, India-110001
Ideology Socialism [1]
Secularism [1]
Political position Centre-left
ECI Status State Party [2]
Alliance NDA
National convener Nitish Kumar
Seats in  Lok Sabha
2 / 545
[3] (currently 518 members + 1 Speaker )
Seats in  Rajya Sabha
6 / 245
Seats in  Bihar
70 / 243
Seats in  Nagaland
1 / 60
Number of states and union territories in government
2 / 31
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Arrow.png
Website

Janata Dal (United) (JD(U)) is a centre-left Indian political party with political presence mainly in Bihar and Jharkhand. [4] The Janata Dal (United) was formed with the merger of the Sharad Yadav faction of the Janata Dal, the Lokshakti Party and the Samta Party on 30 October 2003. Janata Dal (United)'s party mentor and patron is the veteran socialist leader George Fernandes. [5] JD(U) is currently a part of BJP led National Democratic Alliance (NDA).

Bihar State in Eastern India

Bihar is state in eastern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.

Jharkhand State in Eastern India

Jharkhand is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). It is the 16th largest state by area, and the 14th largest by population. Hindi is official language of the state. The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. The state is known for its waterfalls, hills and holy places. Baidyanath Dham, Parasnath and Rajrappa are major religious places.

Sharad Yadav Indian politician

Sharad Yadav is a politician from the Loktantrik Janata Dal party. He has been elected to Lok Sabha seven times and to Rajya Sabha thrice from JD(U). He was the national president of Janata Dal (United) since its formation till year 2016. He was disqualified from Rajya Sabha and removed from party leadership positions for engaging in anti-party activities. He also has been removed from the post of president of JD(U).

Contents

History

Formation

The Janata Dal (United)'s origins go back to before the 1999 General Election. A faction led by then Chief Minister of Karnataka J. H. Patel had lent support to the National Democratic Alliance, leading to the split in the Janata Dal leading to the formation of Janata Dal (Secular) under H. D. Deve Gowda, who wanted to remain equidistant from both national parties; and Janata Dal under Sharad Yadav.

Jayadevappa Halappa Patel was the 15th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 31 May 1996 to 7 October 1999.

Janata Dal (Secular) political party of India, established 1999

The Janata Dal (Secular) is an Indian political party led by former Prime Minister of India, H. D. Deve Gowda. The party is recognized as a State Party in the states of Karnataka and Kerala. It was formed in July 1999 by the split of Janata Dal party. It has a political presence mainly in Karnataka. In Kerala, the party is part of the Left Democratic Front.

H. D. Deve Gowda Indian politician

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda is an Indian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996.

The Janata Dal (United) was formed with the merger of the Sharad Yadav faction of the Janata Dal, the Lokshakti Party and the Samata Party. [6] On 30 October 2003, the Samata Party led by George Fernandes and Nitish Kumar merged with the Janata Dal. The merged entity was called Janata Dal (United) with the arrow symbol of Janata Dal (United) and the green and white flag of the Samata Party. [5] The uniting force is believed to be common opposition to Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar especially after the RJD welcomed Samata Party rebels like Raghunath Jha into the party.

George Fernandes Indian trade unionist and politician from Janata Dal and Samata party

George Mathew Fernandes was an Indian trade unionist, statesman, journalist, freethinker, and member of Rajya Sabha from Bihar. He was a key member of the Janata Dal and the founder of the Samata Party. He held several ministerial portfolios including communications, industry, railways, and defence.

Nitish Kumar Indian politician and Current Chief Minister of Bihar

Nitish Kumar is an Indian politician. He is the present Chief Minister of Bihar, a state in India, since 2017 and has served in that role on five previous occasions. He has also served as a minister in the Union Government of India.

Rashtriya Janata Dal Political party of India

The Rashtriya Janata Dal is an Indian political party, based in the northern state of Bihar. The party was founded in 1997 by Lalu Prasad Yadav.

In NDA

JD(U) joined NDA and along with its alliance partner, the BJP defeated the RJD-led UPA government in Bihar in November 2005. New government was headed by JD(U) leader, Nitish Kumar and NDA continued to govern state. The alliance contested Indian general election, 2009 and won 32 seats. BJP won 12 while JD(U) won 20. [7] JD(U) won 115 and BJP won 91 seats in Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2010. Thus together holding 206 seats in 243 member Bihar Legislative Assembly.

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition of Progressive centre-right to right-wing political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and had 13 constituent parties. Its chairman was late Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former Deputy Prime Minister, who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister and the Leader of the House in Lok Sabha; and Arun Jaitley, Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha and Finance minister. The coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 General election with a combined vote share of 38.5%. Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014.

Bharatiya Janata Party Major right-wing political party in India

The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. As of 2018, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies, and it is the world's largest party in terms of primary membership. BJP is a right-wing party, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions. It has close ideological and organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).

United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of centre-left political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election. The largest member party of the UPA is the INC, whose Former National President Sonia Gandhi is chairperson of the UPA. It formed a government with support from some other left-aligned parties in 2004.

Out of NDA

JD(U) broke its 17 years old alliance with the BJP in Bihar in protest against the elevation of Narendra Modi as a head of the election campaign committee of BJP for Indian general election, 2014. JD(U) President Sharad Yadav and then Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar announced their end of coalition at a press conference on 16 June 2013, exactly a week after Narendra Modi was made the BJP's campaign committee chairman, who was later made the prime ministerial candidate of NDA. Just after this split, Sharad Yadav relinquished his position as the NDA convenor. The JD(U) contested the election in Bihar in an alliance with the Communist Party of India but they won only two seats out of total forty seats of Bihar while the BJP-LJP alliance won 31 seats. [7] [8] [9] Following poor performance in election, Nitish Kumar resigned as Chief Minister of Bihar and Jitan Ram Manjhi sworn in as a new Chief Minister. When the trust vote was demanded by the BJP to prove majority in Bihar Legislative Assembly, the RJD supported the JD(U) in the assembly on 23 May 2014 to pass the majority mark. [10]

Narendra Modi Current prime minister of the Republic of India

Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, and is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation.

Communist Party of India Indian political party, established 1925

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist party in India. There are different views on exactly when it was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. The Communist Party of India (Marxist), which separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1925.

Jitan Ram Manjhi Chief Minister of the Bihar state of India

Jitan Ram Manjhi is an Indian politician from the eastern state of Bihar who served as its 23rd Chief Minister from 20 May 2014 to 20 February 2015. Previously, he had served as minister for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes welfare in Nitish Kumar's cabinet. He has been a minister in several Bihar state governments, under multiple chief ministers like Chandrashekhar Singh, Bindeshwari Dubey, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Jagannath Mishra, Laloo Prasad Yadav and Rabri Devi.

The Mahagathbandhan (grand alliance)

On 29 December 2014, Kerala-based Socialist Janata (Democratic) merged with the JD(U) with its leader M.P. Veerendra Kumar accepting the party flag from JD(U) leader Nitish Kumar. This was an important milestone in bringing a pan-Indian appeal to the JD(U) which is largely limited to the state of Bihar. [11]

Socialist Janata (Democratic) Party broke away from Janata Dal (S).It merged with Janata Dal (United) on 29 December 2014.

On 14 April 2015, the JD(U), Janata Dal (Secular), Rashtriya Janata Dal, the Indian National Lok Dal, Samajwadi Party, and Samajwadi Janata Party announced that they would merge into a new national Janata Parivar alliance in order to oppose the BJP, thus leaving the UPA but this could not happen for some reasons and then the Samajwadi party was offered 3 seats out of 243 assembly seats in Bihar elections which caused it to leave the alliance and fight separately. [12] On 9 May, MLA Jitan Ram Manjhi was expelled from the JD(U) and founded the Hindustani Awam Morcha along with 17 other dissent JD(U) MLAs. [13]

In the Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015 JD(U) contested the election in an alliance with the RJD and Congress. It won 71 seats out of the 101 seats it contested and the alliance won 178 seats out the 243 seats in the assembly. Subsequently, Nitish Kumar again became the Chief Minister of Bihar.

In the biennial elections to the Rajya Sabha held in March 2016, the ruling UDF of Kerala state gave one seat to JD(U) Kerala State Unit President M.P. Veerendra Kumar. In spite of having just 2 MLAs in the Legislative Assembly, the Congress gave a berth to its ally. [14]

Alliance with NDA

On 26 July 2017 5 pm, Nitish Kumar tendered his resignation as CM of Bihar, ending 20-month-old Mahgathbandhan (grand alliance) rule. Next day on 27 July 2017 10 am he again took oath as CM of Bihar with the support of BJP. Same day evening, Kerala JD(U) chief MP Veerendra Kumar announced the split of Kerala unit of the JD(U) from the party, due to Nitish Kumar led Bihar unit joined hands with the BJP. [15] On 28 July 2017, new NDA government won trust vote in Bihar assembly by 131 votes in favour and 108 against, four legislators did not vote. [16]

Electoral Performance

Lok Sabha Elections

Lok Sabha TermIndian
General Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
Votes Polled% of
votes
% of votes in
seats contested
State (seats)
13th Lok Sabha 1999 6021112,82,0843.1028.01Bihar (18)
Karnatak (3)
14th Lok Sabha 2004 73891,44,9632.53Bihar (6) Lakshadweep(1) Uttar Pradesh(1)
15th Lok Sabha 2009 272059,36,786Bihar (20)
16th Lok Sabha 2014 93259,92,2811.08Bihar (2)
17th Lok Sabha 2019 TBATBATBABihar( )
Lakshdweep()
Manipur( )

Vidhan Sabha Elections

Bihar Vidhan Sabha

Prominent members

List of Chief Ministers

Related Research Articles

The Samta Party (SP) is a political party in India, initially formed in 1994 by George Fernandes and Nitish Kumar. It was an offshoot of the Janata Dal, with the alleged casteism of the parent party being the reason given for the split. The party has socialist leanings, and at one point wielded considerable political and social influence in North India, particularly in Bihar. In 2003, the bulk of the party merged with the Janata Dal (United), but a small breakaway faction led by Brahmanand Mandal, Raghunath Jha and N. K. Singh continues to function under the name of the Samta Party.

Lok Janshakti Party Political Party of India

The Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) is a state political party in the state of Bihar, India. It is led by Ram Vilas Paswan. The party was formed in 2000 when Paswan split from Janata Dal (United). The party has considerable following amongst Dalits in Bihar. Currently the party is a member of the National Democratic Alliance.

Janata Parivar Alliance is an alliance in Indian politics to describe the various political parties that emerged from Janata Dal or others. The Janata Parivar includes, amongst others, Janata Dal (United) and Janata Dal (Secular).

Om Prakash Yadav Indian politician

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The Indian general election, 2009 in Bihar were held for 40 seats with the state going to polls in the first four phases of the general elections. The major contenders in the state were the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Indian National Congress and the Fourth Front. NDA consisted of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Janata Dal (United) whereas the fourth front was constituted of the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD), Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) and the Samajwadi Party (SP).

2010 Bihar Legislative Assembly election

The Bihar legislative assembly election, 2010 was held in six phases over a period of one month starting from 21 October until 20 November in all 243 constituencies of Bihar, India. The election is conducted to elect the government in Bihar for a five-year term. The votes were scheduled to be counted on 24 November.

Elections in Bihar

Elections in the state of Bihar, India are conducted in accordance with the Constitution of India. The Assembly of Bihar creates laws regarding the conduct of local body elections unilaterally while any changes by the state legislature to the conduct of state level elections need to be approved by the Parliament of India.

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Dr. Abdul Ghafoor: is the Former Minister of Minority Welfare in Nitish Kumar government of Bihar, he is a current member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly representing the Mahishi vidhan sabha for the fourth time. His political party is Rashtriya Janta Dal (RJD).

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There was a political crisis in Bihar state of India during February 2015 over the post of the Chief Minister of Bihar. Incumbent Chief Minister Jitan Ram Manjhi did not vacate the post for former Chief Minister Nitish Kumar, who wanted to return, resulting in a split in the political party, JD(U). After days, the Governor asked Manjhi to prove majority in house by trust vote. Manjhi quit the post on day of vote and later Nitish Kumar took oath as chief minister again on 22 February 2015 ending the crisis.

The Loktantrik Janata Dal (LJD) is a political party in India launched by Sharad Yadav in May 2018 after he parted ways from Janata Dal (United) due to its alliance with Bharatiya Janata Party in Bihar.

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