2004 Indian general election

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2004 Indian general election
Flag of India.svg
  1999 20 April, 26 April, 5 and 10 May 2004 2009  

543 of the 545 seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Turnout58.07% (Decrease2.svg1.92%) [1]
 First partySecond party
  Sonia Gandhi (cropped).jpg Atal Bihari Vajpayee.jpg
Leader Sonia Gandhi Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Party INC BJP
Alliance UPA NDA
Leader since19 March 199816 May 1996
Leader's seat Raebareli Lucknow
Last election28.30%, 114 seats23.75%, 182 seats
Seats won145138
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 31Decrease2.svg 44
Popular vote103,408,94986,371,561
Percentage26.53%22.16%
SwingDecrease2.svg 1.77ppDecrease2.svg 1.59pp

Wahlergebnisse Indien 2004.svg

Prime Minister before election

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
BJP

Subsequent Prime Minister

Manmohan Singh
INC

General elections were held in India in four phases between 20 April and 10 May 2004. Over 670 million people were eligible to vote, electing 543 members of the 14th Lok Sabha. Seven states also held assembly elections to elect state governments.

Contents

On 13 May the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the lead party of the National Democratic Alliance conceded defeat. The Indian National Congress, which had governed India for all but five years from independence until 1996, returned to power after a record eight years out of office. It was able to put together a comfortable majority of more than 335 members out of 543 with the help of its allies. The 335 members included both the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, the governing coalition formed after the election, as well as external support from the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Samajwadi Party (SP), Kerala Congress (KC) and the Left Front.

After facing critisism from her own party and from the country Congress President Sonia Gandhi asked the 22nd Finance Minister Manmohan Singh, an economist, to head the new government. Singh had previously served in the Congress government of Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao in the early 1990s, when he was seen as one of the architects of India's first economic liberalisation plan, which staved off an impending monetary crisis. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat, his considerable goodwill and Sonia Gandhi's nomination won him the support of the UPA allies and the Left Front.

The elections saw the evolution of a Two-party system with political competition primarily concentrated between the UPA and NDA.

Background

Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee had recommended premature dissolution of the 13th Lok Sabha (in accordance with a provision of the Constitution) to pave the way for early elections apparently in view of the recent good showing of the BJP in the Assembly elections in four states.[ citation needed ]

Organisation

The election dates for the parliamentary elections were:

Counting began simultaneously on 13 May. Over 370 million of the 675 million eligible citizens voted, with election violence claiming 48 lives, less than half the number killed during the 1999 election. The Indian elections were held in phases in order to maintain law and order. A few states considered sensitive areas required deployment of the armed forces. The average enrolment of voters in each constituency is 1.2 million, although the largest constituency has 3.1 million.

The Election Commission of India is responsible for deciding the dates and conducting elections according to constitutional provisions. The Election Commission employed more than a million electronic voting machines for these elections.

According to the magazine India Today , 115.62 billion rupees (approx US$2.6 billion) were expected to have been spent in campaigning for the elections by all political parties combined. Most of the money was spent on the people involved in the election. The Election Commission limited poll expenses to Rs. 2.5 million ($57,000 approx.) per constituency. Thus, the actual spending is expected to have been approximately 10 times the limit. About 6.5 billion rupees (approx. $150 million) are estimated to have been spent on mobilising 150,000 vehicles. About a billion rupees are estimated to have been spent on helicopters and aircraft.

Pre-poll alliances

In these elections, compared to all the Lok Sabha elections of the 1990s, the battle was more of a head-to-head contest in the sense that there was no viable third front alternative. Largely the contest was between BJP and its allies on one hand and Congress and its allies on the other. The situation did, however, show large regional differences.

The BJP fought the elections as part of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), although some of its seat-sharing agreements were made with strong regional parties outside of the NDA such as Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in Andhra Pradesh and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) in Tamil Nadu.

Ahead of the elections there were attempts to form a Congress-led national level joint opposition front. In the end, an agreement could not be reached, but on regional level alliances between Congress and regional parties were made in several states. This was the first time that Congress contested with that type of alliances in a parliamentary election.

The left parties, most notably the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India, contested on their own in their strongholds West Bengal, Tripura and Kerala, confronting both Congress and NDA forces. In several other states, such as Punjab and Andhra Pradesh, they took part in seat sharings with Congress. In Tamil Nadu they were part of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)-led Democratic Progressive Alliance.

Two parties refused to go along with either Congress or BJP, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party. Both are based in Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of India (in terms of population). Congress made several attempts to form alliances with them, but in vain. Many believed that they would become the 'spoilers' that would rob Congress of an electoral victory. The result was a four-cornered contest in UP, which didn't really hurt or benefit Congress or BJP significantly.

Forecast and campaigns

Most analysts believed the NDA would win the elections. This assessment was also supported by opinion polls. The economy had shown steady growth in the last few months and the disinvestment of government owned production units (a continuation of India's liberalisation policies initiated in the early 1990s) had been on track. The Foreign Exchange Reserves of India stood at more than US$100 billion (7th largest in the world and a record for India). The service sector had also generated a lot of jobs. The party was supposed to have been riding on a wave of the so-called "feel good factor", typified by its promotional campaign "India Shining".

In the past, BJP has largely been seen as a hard-line Hindu party with close ties with the Hindu organisation the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Over the years, the party has slightly distanced itself from its Hindutva policies, a change that is being questioned after the party's poor showing in the elections. These elections were marked by the campaign's emphasis on economic gains. From the last few elections, BJP had realised that its voter base had reached a ceiling and had concentrated on pre-poll rather than post-poll alliances. The foreign origin of Sonia Gandhi also constituted part of the NDA's campaign.

Results

Lok Sabha Zusammensetzung 2004.svg
PartyVotes%Seats
Indian National Congress 103,408,94926.53145
Bharatiya Janata Party 86,371,56122.16138
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 22,070,6145.6643
Bahujan Samaj Party 20,765,2295.3319
Samajwadi Party 16,824,0724.3236
Telugu Desam Party 11,844,8113.045
Rashtriya Janata Dal 9,384,1472.4124
Janata Dal (United) 9,144,9632.358
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 8,547,0142.190
All India Trinamool Congress 8,071,8672.072
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 7,064,3931.8116
Shiv Sena 7,056,2551.8112
Nationalist Congress Party 7,023,1751.809
Janata Dal (Secular) 5,732,2961.473
Communist Party of India 5,484,1111.4110
Biju Janata Dal 5,082,8491.3011
Shiromani Akali Dal 3,506,6810.908
Lok Janshakti Party 2,771,4270.714
Rashtriya Lok Dal 2,463,6070.633
Telangana Rashtra Samithi 2,441,4050.635
Pattali Makkal Katchi 2,169,0200.566
Asom Gana Parishad 2,069,6000.532
Indian National Lok Dal 1,936,7030.500
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 1,846,8430.475
Revolutionary Socialist Party 1,689,7940.433
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1,679,8700.434
All India Forward Bloc 1,365,0550.353
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation 1,281,6880.330
Apna Dal 844,0530.220
Muslim League Kerala State Committee 770,0980.201
Gondwana Ganatantra Party 720,1890.180
Naga People's Front 715,3660.181
Janata Party 517,6830.130
Haryana Vikas Party 506,1220.130
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference 493,0670.132
Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh 428,5660.110
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen 417,2480.111
Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann) 387,6820.100
Republican Party of India (Athawale) 367,5100.091
National Loktantrik Party 367,0490.091
Kerala Congress 353,9050.091
Kannada Nadu Party 349,1830.090
Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) 337,3860.091
Peasants and Workers Party of India 319,5720.080
Republican Party of India 295,5450.080
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party 275,2670.070
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party 267,4570.071
Peoples Republican Party 261,2190.070
Indian Federal Democratic Party 256,4110.071
Kerala Congress (M) 209,8800.050
Rashtriya Samanta Dal 209,6940.050
Samta Party 201,2760.050
Lok Bhalai Party 187,7870.050
Mizo National Front 182,8640.051
Bharatiya Navshakti Party 171,0800.041
All Jharkhand Students Union 157,9300.040
Sikkim Democratic Front 153,4090.041
Marxist Co-ordination Committee 147,4700.040
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 146,5710.040
Rashtriya Parivartan Dal 139,1450.040
Jharkhand Disom Party 135,6850.030
Pyramid Party of India 130,3620.030
Ekta Shakti 126,9240.030
Autonomous State Demand Committee 101,8080.030
Akhil Bharatiya Sena 92,2100.020
Hindu Mahasabha 88,2140.020
Federal Party of Manipur 88,1790.020
Bihar People's Party 86,4180.020
Party of Democratic Socialism 81,9990.020
Samata Samaj Party 78,7910.020
Mahabharat People's Party77,0550.020
Arunachal Congress 76,5270.020
Jharkhand Party 74,3640.020
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party 70,0780.020
Indian Justice Party 67,9140.020
Jharkhand Party (Naren)67,7820.020
United Minorities Front, Assam 64,6570.020
Labour Party (Secular)63,9890.020
Rashtriya Swabhimaan Party 58,2960.010
Pragatisheel Manav Samaj Party 54,7460.010
Lok Rajya Party 54,0970.010
Bahujan Kisan Dal52,6690.010
Majlis Bachao Tahreek 47,5600.010
Peoples Democratic Party 45,7200.010
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal 43,8990.010
Marxist Communist Party of India (S.S. Srivastava) 38,7660.010
Amra Bangali 38,1070.010
Vidharbha Rajya Party36,9740.010
Urs Samyuktha Paksha 33,1280.010
Ambedkarist Republican Party31,4670.010
Prabuddha Republican Party29,7920.010
Rashtravadi Communist Party 28,7570.010
Rashtriya Samajik Nayak Paksha27,5940.010
Sampurna Vikas Dal 27,1350.010
Tamil Desiyak Katchi25,3480.010
Kosi Vikas Party25,2580.010
Chhattisgarhi Samaj Party24,6960.010
Bharatiya Manavata Vikas Party 24,1760.010
Loktantrik Samajwadi Party 22,8110.010
Savarn Samaj Party21,2460.010
Ambedkar Samaj Party 20,7670.010
Indian National League 20,1590.010
Bharatiya Gaon Taj Dal19,9090.010
Akhil Bharatiya Congress Dal (Ambedkar)19,5480.010
Socialist Party (Lohia)18,6280.000
Shivrajya Party18,3740.000
Samajwadi Jan Parishad 17,7170.000
Hindustan Janata Party 17,4100.000
Revolutionary Communist Party of India (Rasik Bhatt) 16,6910.000
Bharatiya Republican Paksha16,5460.000
Rashtriya Vikas Party15,1590.000
Trinamool Gana Parishad 14,9330.000
Manuvadi Party14,2330.000
Bharat Kranti Rakshak Party12,5470.000
Rashtriya Hamara Dal12,3460.000
Parivartan Samaj Party12,2730.000
Bharatiya Eklavya Party12,1970.000
Proutist Sarva Samaj Party11,5610.000
Bharatiya Rashtravadi Paksha 11,4590.000
Pachim Banga Rajya Muslim League10,4460.000
Rajasthan Vikash Party10,0320.000
Lokpriya Samaj Party9,9130.000
Bharatiya Jana Sangh 9,7070.000
Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi Party9,1450.000
Vidarbha Janata Congress 9,0970.000
Shoshit Samaj Dal8,8620.000
Jai Hind Party8,6450.000
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh 8,2000.000
Akhil Bharatiya Desh Bhakt Morcha7,6960.000
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party 7,5840.000
Rashtriya Sawarn Dal7,3740.000
Navbharat Nirman Party7,1690.000
Krantikari Samyavadi Party 6,9480.000
Democratic Bharatiya Samaj Party 6,7170.000
Youth and Students Party6,5800.000
Ephraim Union 6,5120.000
Akhil Bharatiya Lok Tantrik Alp-Sankhyak Jan Morcha6,0030.000
United Goans Democratic Party 5,8810.000
Pichhra Samaj Party5,6720.000
All India Momin Conference 5,1130.000
Labour Party of India (V.V. Prasad)4,9770.000
All India Minorities Front 4,8740.000
Republican Party of India (Khobragade) 4,7900.000
Naari Shakti Party4,6490.000
Bahujan Vikas Party4,5330.000
Bharatiya Ekta Dal4,3120.000
Shikshit Berozgar Sena4,3030.000
Yuva Gantantra Party4,1400.000
Rashtravadi Janata Party 3,7370.000
Kranti Kari Jai Hind Sena3,3930.000
Mudiraj Rashtriya Samithi3,3450.000
Sikkim Sangram Parishad 3,2160.000
Janata Vikas Party3,1730.000
National Students Party3,0690.000
Secular Party of India3,0410.000
Vikas Party2,9980.000
Social Action Party2,9870.000
Akhil Bharatiya Rashtriya Azad Hind Party2,8010.000
Loktantrik Chetna Party2,7760.000
Sikkim Himali Rajya Parishad 2,7650.000
Janmangal Paksh2,6840.000
Sanatan Samaj Party2,6790.000
Lok Sewa Dal2,6460.000
Jana Unnayan Mancha 2,5920.000
Rashtriya Lok Seva Morcha2,4760.000
Republican Party of India (Democratic) 2,3700.000
Bhartiya Lok Kalyan Dal2,2420.000
Panchayat Raj Party2,1650.000
Bharatiya Backward Party2,1620.000
All Kerala M.G.R. Dravida Munnetra Party 2,1580.000
Akhil Bhartiya Rajarya Sabha2,0800.000
Bharat Ki Lok Jimmedar Party2,0550.000
Rashtriya Garima Party2,0430.000
Rashtriya Garib Dal1,9770.000
Ekta Krandi Dal U.P.1,9390.000
Bharatiya Labour Party1,7580.000
Phule Bharti Lok Party1,6900.000
Bharatiya Prajatantrik Shudh Gandhiwadi Krishak Dal1,6890.000
Mool Bharati (S) Party1,6750.000
Bharatiya Nagrik Party1,5800.000
Jammu and Kashmir Awami League 1,5190.000
Hind Morcha1,4590.000
Jharkhand People's Party 1,4490.000
Maharashtra Rajiv Congress1,3990.000
Janhit Samaj Party 1,3100.000
Vijeta Party1,3040.000
Socialistic Democratic Party1,2650.000
Jansatta Party1,1890.000
Federal Congress of India1,0370.000
Nidaya Malik (N) Party1,0300.000
Indian Bahujan Samajwadi Party9720.000
Desh Bhakt Party9120.000
Ambedkar National Congress 8250.000
NTR Telugu Desam Party (Lakshmi Parvathi) 7590.000
Akhil Bhartiya Loktantra Party7540.000
Jebamani Janata 7340.000
Niswarth Sewa Party7300.000
Jan Chetna Party6710.000
Hindu Ekta Andolan Party6200.000
Krantikari Manuwadi Morcha 5970.000
Bharatiya Prajatantra Party5730.000
Bharatiya Muhabbat Party (All India)5660.000
Manav Jagriti Manch5520.000
Bharatiya Janvadi Party5430.000
Bharatiya Surajya Manch5150.000
Rashtriya Janadhikar Party4870.000
Praja Party4850.000
Bharti Sarvadarshi Parishad4270.000
Shoshit Samaj Party3950.000
Rashtriya Sakar Party3790.000
Bharatiya Sarvkalyan Krantidal3650.000
Awami Party3270.000
Swaraj Dal2980.000
Akhand Bharti1380.000
Parmarth Party1260.000
Independents16,549,9004.255
Nominated Anglo-Indians 2
Total389,779,784100.00545
Valid votes389,779,78499.96
Invalid/blank votes168,5460.04
Total votes389,948,330100.00
Registered voters/turnout671,487,93058.07
Source: ECI

By states and territories

States

StatesPartySeats won% of VotesAlliance
Andhra Pradesh Indian National Congress 2941.56 United Progressive Alliance
Telugu Desam Party 533.12 National Democratic Alliance
Telangana Rashtra Samithi 56.83 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 11.34 Left Front
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 11.04 Left Front
Others17.7None
Arunachal Pradesh Bharatiya Janata Party 253.85 National Democratic Alliance
Arunachal Congress 019.88 INC affiliated parties
Independent 012.14 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 09.96 United Progressive Alliance
Others04.16None
Assam Indian National Congress 935.07 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 222.94 National Democratic Alliance
Asom Gana Parishad 219.95None
Independent 113.41None
Others08.63None
Bihar Rashtriya Janata Dal 2230.67 United Progressive Alliance
Janata Dal (United) 622.36 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 514.57 National Democratic Alliance
Lok Janshakti Party 48.19 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 34.49 United Progressive Alliance
Others017.92None
Chhattisgarh Bharatiya Janata Party 1047.78 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 140.16 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 04.54None
Independent 03.86None
Others03.66None
Goa Bharatiya Janata Party 146.83 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 129.76 United Progressive Alliance
National Congress Party 016.04 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 02.17 Left Front
Others05.20None
Gujarat Bharatiya Janata Party 1447.37 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 1243.86 United Progressive Alliance
Independent 03.45None
Bahujan Samaj Party 01.48None
Others03.84None
Haryana Indian National Congress 942.13 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 117.21 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Lok Dal 022.43None
Haryana Vikas Party 06.25None
Others011.98None
Himachal Pradesh Indian National Congress 351.81 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 144.25 National Democratic Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 01.74None
Independent 01.66None
Jammu & Kashmir Indian National Congress 227.83 United Progressive Alliance
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference 222.02None
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party 111.94 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 023.04 National Democratic Alliance
Independent 115.17None
Jharkhand Indian National Congress 621.44 United Progressive Alliance
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 416.28 United Progressive Alliance
Rashtriya Janata Dal 2n/a United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 133.01 National Democratic Alliance
Communist Party of India 1n/a Left Front
Independent 06.89None
Karnataka Bharatiya Janata Party 1834.77 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 836.82 United Progressive Alliance
Janata Dal (Secular) 220.45None
Independent 02.34None
Others05.62None
Kerala Communist Party of India (Marxist) 1231.52 Left Front
Communist Party of India 37.89 Left Front
Indian Union Muslim League 14.86 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 032.13 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 05.1 National Democratic Alliance
Others418.5None
Madhya Pradesh Bharatiya Janata Party 2548.13 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 434.07 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 04.75None
Independent 04.02None
Others09.03None
Maharashtra Indian National Congress 1323.77 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 1322.61 National Democratic Alliance
Shiv Sena 1220.11 National Democratic Alliance
Nationalist Congress Party 918.31 United Progressive Alliance
Others115.20 United Progressive Alliance
Manipur Independent 122.46None
Indian National Congress 114.88 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 020.65 National Democratic Alliance
Nationalist Congress Party 010.37 United Progressive Alliance
Others031.64None
Meghalaya Indian National Congress 145.55 United Progressive Alliance
All India Trinamool Congress 128.27 National Democratic Alliance
Independent (politician) 017.55None
Bharatiya Janata Party 08.63 National Democratic Alliance
Mizoram Mizo National Front 152.46None
Independent 045.67None
Ephraim Union 01.87None
Nagaland Nagaland People's Front 173.12None
Indian National Congress 025.78 United Progressive Alliance
Independent 00.56None
Janata Dal (Secular) 00.54None
Orissa Biju Janata Dal 1130.02 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 719.30 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 240.43 United Progressive Alliance
Independent 04.50None
Others15.75 United Progressive Alliance
Punjab Shiromani Akali Dal 834.28 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 310.48 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 234.17 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 07.67None
Others013.40None
Rajasthan Bharatiya Janata Party 2149.01 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 441.42 United Progressive Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 03.16None
Independent 02.72None
Others03.69None
Sikkim Sikkim Democratic Front 169.84None
Indian National Congress 027.43 United Progressive Alliance
Sikkim Sangram Parishad 01.46None
Sikkim Himali Rajya Parishad 01.26None
Tamil Nadu Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1624.60 United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 1014.40 United Progressive Alliance
Pattali Makkal Katchi 56.71 United Progressive Alliance
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 45.85 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 22.97 Left Front
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 22.87 Left Front
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 029.77 National Democratic Alliance
Others012.83 National Democratic Alliance (BJP)
Tripura Communist Party of India (Marxist) 268.80Left Front
Indian National Congress 014.28 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 07.82 National Democratic Alliance
All India Trinamool Congress 05.09 National Democratic Alliance
Uttar Pradesh Samajwadi Party 3526.74None
BSP 1924.67None
Bharatiya Janata Party 1022.17 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 912.04 United Progressive Alliance
Others714.38 National Democratic Alliance (1)
Uttarakhand Bharatiya Janata Party 340.98 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 138.31 United Progressive Alliance
Samajwadi Party 17.93None
Bahujan Samaj Party 06.77None
Others06.01None
West Bengal Communist Party of India (Marxist) 2638.57 Left Front
Indian National Congress 614.56 United Progressive Alliance
Communist Party of India 34.01 Left Front
All India Forward Bloc 33.66 Left Front
Revolutionary Socialist Party 34.48 Left Front
All India Trinamool Congress 121.04 National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 08.06 National Democratic Alliance
Others05.62None

Territories

TerritoriesPartySeats won% of VotesAlliance
Andaman & Nicobar Islands Indian National Congress 155.77 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 035.95 National Democratic Alliance
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 02.71 Left Front
Independent 01.72None
Others03.85None
Chandigarh Indian National Congress 152.06 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 035.22 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Lok Dal 06.61None
Independent 03.42None
Others02.69None
National Capital Territory of Delhi Indian National Congress 654.81 United Progressive Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 140.67 National Democratic Alliance
Bahujan Samaj Party 02.48None
Independent 01.27None
Lakshadweep Janata Dal (United) 149.02 National Democratic Alliance
Indian National Congress 048.79 United Progressive Alliance
Janata Party 01.47None
Samajwadi Party 00.72None

Analysis

Though pre-poll predictions were for an overwhelming majority for the BJP, the exit polls (immediately after the elections and before the counting began) predicted a hung parliament. However, even the exit polls could only indicate the general trend and nowhere close to the final figures. There is also the general perception that as soon as the BJP started realising that events might not proceed entirely in its favour, it changed the focus of its campaign from India Shining to issues of stability. The Congress, who was regarded as "old-fashioned" by the ruling BJP, was largely backed by poor, rural, lower-caste and minority voters that did not participate in the economic boom of previous years that created a large wealthy middle class and thus achieved its overwhelming victory. Another reason which was not mentioned much but still spoken of in the public was that BJP supporters are working-class people, and the poll surveys predicted BJP win, and therefore they did not reach the ballot. Whereas the Congress support base, the weaker sections of the society, don't miss voting at all.[ citation needed ]

Another more prominent reason came from checking the RSS contribution, RSS cadres reached Vajpayee over the killing of 4 RSS workers in Tripura (August 1999), and Vajpayee disappointed them. RSS backed off, and results were evident.

Other possible reasons that have been given for the NDA defeat are[ citation needed ]:

Impact

The rout of the ruling parties in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the general elections led to calls for the dissolution of the governments of these states.

The stock market (Bombay Stock Exchange) fell in the week prior to the announcement of the results due to fears of an unstable coalition. As soon as counting began, however, it became clear that the Congress coalition was headed for a sizeable lead over the NDA and the market surged, only to crash the following day when the left parties, whose support would be required for government formation, announced that it was their intention to do away with the disinvestment ministry. Following this, Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister (in office 2004-14) and the prime architect of the economic liberalisation of the early 1990s, hurried to reassure investors that the new government would strive to create a business-friendly climate.

Events

See also

Further reading

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1999 Indian general election General election in India

General elections were held in India between 5 September and 3 October 1999, a few months after the Kargil War.

2007 Indian presidential election

The Election Commission of India held indirect 13th presidential elections of India on 19 July 2007. Pratibha Patil with 638,116 votes won over her nearest rival Bhairon Singh Shekhawat who got 331,306 votes. This result meant that Pratibha Patil became the first female President of India.

2009 Indian general election General election in India

General elections were held in India in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009 to elect the members of the 15th Lok Sabha. With an electorate of 716 million, it was the largest democratic election in the world until surpassed by the 2014 election.

2014 Indian general election General election held in India in 2014

General elections were held in India in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May 2014 to elect the members of the 16th Lok Sabha. With 834 registered million voters, they were the largest-ever elections in the world until being surpassed by the 2019 elections. Around 23.1 million or 2.7% of the total eligible voters were aged 18–19 years. A total of 8,251 candidates contested the 543 elected Lok Sabha seats. The average election turnout over all nine phases was around 66.40%, the highest ever in the history of Indian general elections.

1998 Indian general election in Tamil Nadu

The 1998 Indian general election polls in Tamil Nadu were held for 39 seats in the state. New elections were called when Indian National Congress (INC) left the United Front government led by I. K. Gujral, after they refused to drop the regional Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) party from the government after the DMK was linked by an investigative panel to Sri Lankan separatists blamed for the killing of Rajiv Gandhi. The result was a landslide victory for the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) winning 29 seats, which helped result in Atal Bihari Vajpayee being sworn in as the 16th Prime Minister of India. J. Jayalalithaa and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, broke off from their long alliance with Indian National Congress and formed an alliance with Bharatiya Janata Party, by joining the National Democratic Alliance. This state proved to be very important in determining the prime minister, since the 18 seats of AIADMK proved valuable for BJP to hold power. That was short-lived, since the AIADMK left the alliance in less than a year, and BJP lost the vote of confidence resulting in fresh elections being called.

2009 Indian general election in Tamil Nadu

The 2009 Indian general election polls in Tamil Nadu was held for 39 seats in the state. There was a radical change in the alliances in this election compared to the last election, reminiscent of the 1999 election in Tamil Nadu. In this election the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) decided to stay with the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), but the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK), Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and the left parties decided to ally itself with the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and the newly formed Third Front.

By-elections to nine state assembly constituencies were held in Tamil Nadu, in four separate phases. Election for Thirumangalam was held on 9 January and for Bargur, Thondamuthur, Ilayankudi, Cumbum, and Srivaikuntam constituencies on 18 August. Also, election took place for Vandavasi and Tiruchendur constituency on 19 December 2009 and finally for Pennagaram constituency on 27 March 2010. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) defeated All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) in Thirumangalam in the first phase and kept the winning momentum in the following general election.

2014 Indian general election in Tamil Nadu

The 2014 Indian general election polls in Tamil Nadu were held for 39 seats in the state on 24 April 2014.

2014 Indian general election in Uttar Pradesh

The 2014 Indian general election polls in Uttar Pradesh for 80 Lok Sabha seats was held in six phases on 10, 17, 24, 30 April and 7, 12 May 2014. The total voter strength of Uttar Pradesh was 134,351,297.

2014 Indian general election in Andhra Pradesh

The 2014 general election was the last election that a united Andhra Pradesh took part in, as the state was bifurcated into Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states less than a month after the polls. In Andhra Pradesh there are 25 Lok sabha constituencies and were scheduled to go for voting on 7 May 2014 and results are announced on 16 May 2014, and the new state of Telangana was carved out from Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.

2019 Indian general election Elections for the 17th Lok Sabha

General elections were held in India in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to elect the members of the 17th Lok Sabha. Votes were counted and the result declared on 23 May. Around 912 million people were eligible to vote, and voter turnout was over 67 percent – the highest ever, as well as the highest ever participation by women voters.

2015 Bihar Legislative Assembly election Election held in Bihar, India

The Legislative Assembly election was held over five-phases in Bihar through October–November 2015 before the end of the tenure of the prior Legislative Assembly of Bihar on 29 November 2015.

2019 Indian general election in Kerala

The 2019 Indian general election was held in Kerala on 23 April 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha.

2019 Indian general election in Tamil Nadu Elections for the 17th Lok Sabha seats in Tamil Nadu state

The 2019 elections for Tamil Nadu's 39 seats in the 17th Lok Sabha were held on 18 April, in the second phase of the 2019 Indian general elections. The United Progressive Alliance, led by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, won a landslide victory, taking 38 of the 39 seats.

2019 Indian general election in Maharashtra

The 2019 Indian general election in Maharashtra held in April 2019. These were held for 48 seats in 4 phases; 11 April, 18 April, 23 April and 29 April 2019.

To constitute India's 17th Lok Sabha, general elections were held in April–May 2019. The results were announced on 23 May 2019. The main contenders were two alliance groups of the Incumbent National Democratic Alliance and the Opposition United Progressive Alliance; led by Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress respectively.

2020 Bihar Legislative Assembly election Bihar state assembly election 2020

The Bihar Legislative Assembly election was held in three phases through October–November to elect members to the Seventeenth Bihar Legislative Assembly. The term of the previous Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Bihar ended on 29 November 2020.

References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)