1989 Indian general election

Last updated

1989 Indian general election
Flag of India.svg
  1984 22 and 26 November 1989 [1] 1991  

529 of the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha
265 seats needed for a majority
Turnout61.95% (Decrease2.svg2.06%)
 First partySecond partyThird party
  Rajiv Gandhi (1987).jpg V. P. Singh (cropped).jpg Lal Krishna Advani 2008-12-4.jpg
Leader Rajiv Gandhi V. P. Singh L. K. Advani
Party INC JD BJP
Leader's seat Amethi Fatehpur New Delhi
Seats won19714385
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 217Increase2.svg 129Increase2.svg 83
Popular vote118,894,70253,518,52134,171,477
Percentage39.53%17.79%11.36%

Wahlergebnisse Indien 1989.svg

Prime Minister before election

Rajiv Gandhi
INC

Subsequent Prime Minister

V. P. Singh
National Front

General elections were held in India on 22 and 26 November 1989 to elect the members of the 9th Lok Sabha. [2] The incumbent Indian National Congress (I) government under the premiership of Rajiv Gandhi was defeated by the National Front, an alliance forged by Janata Dal, which won a plurality of seats. The alliance formed the government with outside support from Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). [3] [4] V. P. Singh was sworn in as the seventh Prime Minister of India on 2 December 1989.

Contents

Background

The 1989 Indian general election were held because the previous Lok Sabha has been in power for a five years, and the constitution allowed for new elections. Even though Rajiv Gandhi had won the last election by a landslide, this election saw him trying to fight off scandals that had marred his administration.

The Bofors scandal, rising militancy in Punjab, the civil war between LTTE and Sri Lankan government were just some of the problems that stared at Rajiv's government. Rajiv's biggest critic was Vishwanath Pratap Singh, who had held the portfolios of the finance ministry and the defence ministry in the government.

But Singh was soon sacked from the Cabinet and he then resigned from his memberships in the Congress and the Lok Sabha. He formed the Jan Morcha with Arun Nehru and Arif Mohammad Khan and re-entered the Lok Sabha from Allahabad. Witnessing V P Singh's meteoric rise on national stage, Rajiv tried to counter [5] him with another prominent Rajput stalwart Satyendra Narain Singh but failed eventually.

In this election, Assam never went to the polls. Moreover, the State of Goa, Daman and Diu was bifurcated into Goa and Daman & Diu with Goa retaining its 2 seats and the latter gaining 1 seat. Thus the total Lok Sabha seats went up by 1 to a total of 543. Since Assam never went to the polls, the total seats contested in this election was down to 529.

Results

Lok Sabha Zusammensetzung 1989.svg
PartyVotes%Seats
Indian National Congress 118,894,70239.53197
Janata Dal 53,518,52117.79143
Bharatiya Janata Party 34,171,47711.3685
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 19,691,3096.5533
Telugu Desam Party 9,909,7283.292
Communist Party of India 7,734,6972.5712
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 7,196,0992.390
Bahujan Samaj Party 6,213,3902.073
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 4,518,6491.5011
Janata Party 3,029,7431.010
Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann) 2,318,8720.776
Revolutionary Socialist Party 1,854,2760.624
Pattali Makkal Katchi 1,561,3710.520
Doordarshi Party 1,338,5660.450
All India Forward Bloc 1,261,3100.423
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 1,032,2760.343
Indian Congress (Socialist) – Sarat Chandra Sinha 978,3770.331
Indian Union Muslim League 974,2340.322
Indian People's Front 737,5510.251
Peasants and Workers Party of India 636,5890.210
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen 617,3760.211
Lok Dal (Bahuguna)602,1100.200
Bharatiya Republican Paksha572,4340.190
Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha495,5650.160
Republican Party of India (Khobragade) 468,6150.160
Gorkha National Liberation Front 435,0700.141
Shiromani Akali Dal (Badal)427,6090.140
Jharkhand Dal367,8380.120
Kerala Congress (M) 352,1910.121
Shiv Sena 339,4260.111
Marxist Co-ordination Committee 247,0130.081
Nagaland People's Council 239,1240.080
Hindu Mahasabha 217,5140.071
Manipur Peoples Party 147,1280.050
Republican Party of India 129,3000.040
Humanist Party of India122,9470.040
All India Dalit Muslim Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh120,1590.040
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party 116,3920.041
Kuki National Assembly108,0850.040
Shiromani Akali Dal 100,5700.030
Marxist Communist Party of India (S.S. Srivastava) 100,3000.030
People's Party of Arunachal 96,1810.030
Uttar Pradesh Republican Party91,7400.030
Sikkim Sangram Parishad 91,6080.031
Amra Bangali 80,8340.030
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference 71,1940.023
Mizo National Front 70,7490.020
Kerala Congress 68,8110.020
Tharasu Makkal Mandaram64,8850.020
Democratic Party43,6670.010
Shoshit Samaj Dal42,2820.010
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal 39,4650.010
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) 38,9370.010
Muslim Majlis Uttar Pradesh 25,8390.010
Proutist Bloc Of India23,3310.010
Jammu & Kashmir Panthers Party22,6250.010
Bharatiya Jana Sangh 22,4460.010
Karnataka Gana Parishad19,5930.010
Socialist Party (Lohiya)17,6390.010
Tamiliar Kazhagam12,8590.000
Rising Sun Party 12,8580.000
Indian Congress (J) Trikha Group 12,5390.000
Socialist Party 12,4300.000
Socialist Unity Centre of India 8,7470.000
All India Garib Congress7,6350.000
Hul Jharkhand Party 6,6630.000
Bhatiya Krishi Udyog Sangh5,8950.000
Lok Party4,7310.000
Akhil Bhartiya Gorkha League (Budhiman Gurung) 4,4260.000
Shoshit Samaj Party3,7560.000
Scientific Vedic Revolutionary Party3,4700.000
Deseeya Karshaka Party3,0590.000
Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad 2,9980.000
Barat Desam Labour Party2,9440.000
Progressive Hul Jharkhand2,8900.000
Republicon Presidium Party2,7910.000
West Orissa Peoples Front2,6820.000
West Bengal Socialist Party (Biman Mitra)2,4110.000
All India Shiromani Baba Jiwan Singh Mazhbi Dal2,3680.000
Akhil Bhartiya Hindustani Krantikari Samajwadi Party2,2630.000
Green Party of India2,1420.000
Akhil Baratiya Pichhra Varg Party2,0550.000
Tamil Nadu Peoples Welfare Association1,9640.000
Sadharam Rajya Parishad1,9280.000
Indian National Congress (O) Anti-Merger Group1,7350.000
Gujarat Janata Parishad1,5770.000
All India Justice Party1,4280.000
Peoples Democracy of India1,3920.000
Punjab Peoples Party1,3740.000
Hindustan Janata Party 1,3610.000
Bharatha Makkal Congress1,3570.000
Deccan Congress1,3320.000
Akhil Bhartiya Lok Tantrik Party1,2720.000
Vijaya Shakti1,0930.000
Bhartiya Loktantrik Mazdoor Dal1,0350.000
Pandav Dal9180.000
National Republican Party8390.000
Bhartiya Loktantrik Mazdoor Sangh7030.000
Mahabharat Peples Party6940.000
Indian Union Muslim League (IML)6870.000
Manipur Peoples Council6770.000
Vishal Bharat Pary6210.000
Republican Party of India (Gavai Group)5390.000
Punjab Kairon Dal4930.000
Peoples Party of India4780.000
Indian Labour Party4060.000
Socialist Labour League3910.000
Bharatiya Krantikari Kisan Sang3670.000
Kamaraj Desiya Congress3220.000
Punjab Naya Front3140.000
Hindu Shiv Sena1600.000
Bhartiya Lok Kalyan Dal1450.000
Labour Party of India990.000
Independents15,793,7815.2512
Nominated Anglo-Indians 2
Total300,776,423100.00531
Valid votes300,776,42397.32
Invalid/blank votes8,274,0722.68
Total votes309,050,495100.00
Registered voters/turnout498,906,12961.95
Source: ECI

Aftermath

V. P. Singh, who was the head of the Janata Dal, was chosen leader of the National Front government. [6] His government fell after Singh, along with Bihar's Chief Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav's government, had Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra, which was going to the Babri Masjid site in Ayodhya on 23 October 1990. Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew their support to Singh government, causing them to lose parliamentary vote of confidence on 7 November 1990. [7]

Chandra Shekhar broke away from the Janata Dal with 64 MPs and formed the Samajwadi Janata Party in 1990. He got outside support from the Congress and became the 9th Prime Minister of India. He finally resigned on 21 June 1991, after the Congress alleged that the government was spying on Rajiv Gandhi.

See also

Related Research Articles

Vishwanath Pratap Singh 7th Prime Minister of India

Vishwanath Pratap Singh, also known as V. P. Singh was an Indian politician who was the 7th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990 and the 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda. He is India's only prime minister to have been a former ruler.

National Democratic Alliance Coalition of Bharatiya Janata Party and its alliances

National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is an Indian political alliance made up of predominantly right-wing political parties and led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). It was founded in 1998 and currently controls the Indian union government as well as the government of 18 Indian states.

Janata Dal Political party of India, active 1988–98

Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.

Janata Party Indian political party

The Janata Party was a political party that was founded as an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the Emergency that was imposed between 1975 to 1977 by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of the Indian National Congress. In the 1977 general election, the party defeated the Congress and Janata leader Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress prime minister in independent modern India's history.

Rajiv Pratap Rudy Indian politician

Rajiv Pratap Rudy is an Indian politician, representing Bharatiya Janata Party, and a Member of Parliament representing Saran in Bihar, India. In November 2014, he was made Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in Narendra Modi's government, a key ministry in view of Modi's slogan of 'Make in India' and associated attempts to make India a production hub. He also shared Parliamentary Affairs department jointly with another Minister of State, Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi. Rudy was a General Secretary of Bharatiya Janata Party, a position relinquished soon after he joined the government. He also holds a commercial pilot's license. Rudy is in Limca Book of Records for being the only parliamentarian to fly a commercial aircraft having flown Airbus-320 and Indigo airlines.

The Indian National Congress (Organisation) or Congress (O) was a political party in India formed when the Congress party split following the expulsion of Indira Gandhi.

India is a parliamentary democracy but the country's politics have become increasingly dynastic, possibly due to the absence of party organizations, Independent civil society associations that mobilize support for the party, and centralized financing of elections. The dynastic phenomenon is present at national, state, regional and district levels. The Nehru–Gandhi family produced three Indian prime ministers. Family members have also led the Congress party for most of the period since 1978 when Indira Gandhi floated the Congress(I) faction of the party. The ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) also has several senior leaders who are dynasts but dynastism is at a much lower level in the BJP than the Congress party. Dynastic politics is also prevalent in a number of political parties with regional presence, including the NCP, which has particularly high level of dynasticism.

Raghunath Jha was an Indian politician who was Union minister of State for Heavy Industries and Public Enterprise and member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. He represented the Bettiah constituency of Bihar and was a member of the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) political party. Born in Village Amba Ojha Tola, in Sheohar He started his career by becoming the Mukhiya of his home panchayat in the year 1967. Thereafter, in 1967 he became Chairman of Zila Parishad. He started his legislative career in 1972 when he was elected as a MLA on Congress Ticket. He was elected from Sheohar for a record six consecutive terms till 1998. He was twice elected as a Member of Parliament from Gopalganj and Bettiah respectively.

Vidya Charan Shukla was an Indian politician whose political career spanned six decades. He was predominantly a member of the Indian National Congress, but also had spells in Jan Morcha, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party and Bharatiya Janata Party. He was known as a close associate of Indira Gandhi.

1980 Indian general election General election in India

General elections were held in India on 3 and 6 January 1980 to elect the members of the 7th Lok Sabha. The Janata Party alliance came into power in the 1977 general elections amidst public anger with the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Emergency. However, its position was weak; the loose coalition barely held on to a majority with only 295 seats in the Lok Sabha and never quite had a firm grip on power. Bharatiya Lok Dal leaders Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram, who had quit the INC, were members of the Janata alliance but were at loggerheads with Prime Minister Morarji Desai. The tribunals the government had set up to investigate human rights abuses during the Emergency appeared vindictive.

1991 Indian general election General election in India

General elections were held in India on 20 May, 12 June and 15 June 1991 to elect the members of the 10th Lok Sabha, although they were delayed until 19 February 1992 in Punjab.

1996 Indian general election General election in India

General elections were held in India on 27 April, 2 May and 7 May 1996 to elect the members of the 11th Lok Sabha. The elections resulted in a hung parliament with no single party having a clear majority. The Bharatiya Janata Party, which had won the most seats, formed a short-lived government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. However, two weeks later the United Front coalition was able to secure a parliamentary majority and H. D. Deve Gowda of Janata Dal became Prime Minister. In 1997 Inder Kumar Gujral, also from the United Front, succeeded Gowda as Prime Minister. Due to the instability, early elections were held in 1998. The elections were the first since 1980 in which every states' seats were elected in a single election period.

Chapra Lok Sabha constituency was in Bihar and it existed until 2008, after which it was replaced by Saran constituency when delimitation was done.

Major Nawab Sayyid Zulfikar Ali Khan Bahadur was an Indian politician and an Indian army officer who ruled as Titular Nawab of Rampur from 1982 to 1992, succeeding his elder brother Murtaza Ali Khan Bahadur.

Chandra Shekhar Eighth Prime Minister of India

Chandra Shekhar Singh was an Indian politician who served as the eighth Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991. He headed a minority government of a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal with outside support from the Indian National Congress. He is the first Indian Prime Minister who has never held any Government office. His government was largely seen as a "puppet" and "lame duck" and the government was formed with the fewest party MPs in the Lok Sabha. His government could not pass the budget at a crucial time when Moody had downgraded India and it further went down after the budget was not passed and global credit-rating agencies further downgraded India from investment grade making it impossible to even get short-term loans and in no position to give any commitment to reform, the World Bank and IMF stopped their assistance. Chandrasekhar had to authorise mortgaging of gold to avoid default of payment and this action came in for particular criticism as it was done secretly in the midst of the election. The Indian economic crisis, 1991, and the Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi plunged his government into crisis.

Sanjaya Sinh Indian politician

Sanjaya Sinh is an Indian politician and a former member of the Rajya Sabha. He was twice elected to the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh during the 1980s and held state ministerial posts. In 1990, he became a member of the upper house of the Parliament of India, which is known as the Rajya Sabha, and in 1998 he was elected to the lower house, called the Lok Sabha. His term in the 12th Lok Sabha session lasted until the following year. Subsequently, in 2009, he was successful in obtaining a second term in that house as a member of the 15th Lok Sabha representing the Sultanpur constituency of Uttar Pradesh. He represented the state of Assam in the Rajya Sabha. He resigned from Rajya Sabha and Indian National Congress to join Bharatiya Janata Party on 30 July 2019.

Third Front in Indian politics refers to various alliances formed by smaller parties at various points of time since 1989 to offer a third option to Indian voters, challenging the Indian National Congress and Bharatiya Janata Party.

Conservatism in India refers to the political philosophy which seeks to promote preservation of certain traditional values that are cherished and have developed in the subcontinent of India. Politics in India since the 1990s has been predominantly involved with the conflict of the left wing and the right wing of the government machinery. Historically, Conservatism in India has been divided between liberal conservatives and social conservatives.

General elections were held in India in 1989 to elect the members of the 9th Lok Sabha. The incumbent Indian National Congress (I) government under the premiership of Rajiv Gandhi was defeated by the National Front, an alliance forged by Janata Dal, which won a plurality of seats. The alliance formed the government with outside support from Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). V. P. Singh was sworn in as the seventh Prime Minister of India on 2 December 1989.

Premiership of Vishwanath Pratap Singh Premiership of V. P. Singh

Vishwanath Pratap Singh held office for slightly less than a year, from 2 December 1989 to 10 November 1990. After state legislative elections in March 1990, Singh's governing coalition achieved control of both houses of India's parliament. Singh becomes the 8th Prime Minister of India, after the loss of Rajiv Gandhi in the 1989 Indian general election. Singh's newly formed National Front (India) won 143 seats in the Lok Sabha and was supported by Bharatiya Janata Party from outside.

References

  1. "INDIA: Parliamentary elections Lok Sabha, 1989". Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  2. "Elections 1989: Congress(I) faces prospect of being routed in Bihar".
  3. "V. P. Singh, a Leader of India Who Defended Poor, Dies at 77". The New York Times. 29 November 2008.
  4. Indian Parliamentary Democracy. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 2003. p. 124. ISBN   978-81-269-0193-7.
  5. "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Opinions".
  6. "V. P. Singh: Prime Minister of India who tried to improve the lot of the poor". The Independent. 19 December 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  7. "India's Cabinet Falls as Premier Loses Confidence Vote, by 142–346, and Quits". The New York Times. 8 November 1990.