Revolutionary Socialist Party (India)

Last updated

Revolutionary Socialist Party
General Secretary Manoj Bhattacharya [1]
Founder Tridib Chaudhuri
Founded19 March 1940(82 years ago) (1940-03-19)
Headquarters17, Firoz Shah Road, New Delhi – 110001
28°37′20.5″N77°13′27.9″E / 28.622361°N 77.224417°E / 28.622361; 77.224417
Student wing All India Progressive Students' Union
Youth wing Revolutionary Youth Front
Women's wing All India United Mahila Sangh
Labour wing United Trade Union Congress
Peasant's wingSamyukta Kisan Sabha
Ideology Communism
Marxism–Leninism [2]
Revolutionary socialism
Political position Far-left
Colours  Red
ECI StatusState Party [3]
Alliance Left Front
(West Bengal)
Left Front
United Democratic Front (2014–present)
Seats in  Lok Sabha
1 / 543
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Spade and Stoker.png
Party flag
RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala Kerala2006 (11).JPG
RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala
RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran Rspharipada.JPG
RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran
RSP mural in Agartala Rspagartalamural (16).JPG
RSP mural in Agartala
RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura Rspamarpur (40).JPG
RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura

Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) is a communist party in India. The party was founded on 19 March 1940 by Tridib Chaudhuri and has its roots in the Bengali liberation movement Anushilan Samiti and the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. [4]


The party got around 0.4% of the votes and three seats in the Lok Sabha elections in 1999 and 2004. It is part of the Left Front (West Bengal), Left Front (Tripura) and Congress-led United Democratic Front (Kerala).


Development of Anushilan Marxism

A major section of the Anushilan movement had been attracted to Marxism during the 1930s, many of them studying Marxist–Leninist literature whilst serving long jail sentences. A minority section broke away from the Anushilan movement and joined the Communist Consolidation, and later the Communist Party of India. The majority of the Anushilan Marxists did however, whilst having adopted Marxist–Leninist thinking, feel hesitant over joining the Communist Party. [5]

The Anushilanites distrusted the political lines formulated by the Communist International. They criticised the line adopted at the 6th Comintern congress of 1928 as 'ultra-left sectarian'. The Colonial theses of the 6th Comintern congress called upon the communists to combat the 'national-reformist leaders' and to 'unmask the national reformism of the Indian National Congress and oppose all phrases of the Swarajists, Gandhists, etc. about passive resistance'. Moreover, when Indian left-wing elements formed the Congress Socialist Party in 1934, the CPI branded it as Social Fascist. [6] When the Comintern policy swung towards Popular Frontism at its 1935 congress, at the time by which the majority of the Anushilan movement were adopting a Marxist–Leninist approach, the Anushilan Marxists questioned this shift as a betrayal of the internationalist character of the Comintern and felt that the International had been reduced to an agency of Soviet foreign policy. [7] Moreover, the Anushilan Marxists opposed the notion of 'Socialism in One Country'.

However, although sharing some critiques against the leadership of Joseph Stalin and the Comintern, the Anushilan Marxists did not embrace Trotskyism. Buddhadeva Bhattacharya writes in 'Origins of the RSP' that the "rejection of Stalinism did not automatically mean for them [the Anushlian Samiti] acceptance of Trotskyism. Incidentally, the leninist conception of international socialist revolution is different from Trotsky's theory of Permanent Revolution which deduces the necessity of world revolution primarily from the impossibility of the numerically inferior proletariat in a semi-feudal and semi-capitalist peasant country like Russia holding power for any length of time and successfully undertaking the task of socialist construction in hand without the proletariat of the advanced countries outside the Soviet Union coming to power through an extension of sociaist revolution in these countries and coming to the aid of the proletariat of the U.S.S.R."

Anushilan Marxists adhered to the Marxist–Leninist theory of 'Permanent' or 'Continuous' Revolution. ' is our interest and task to make the revolution permanent' declared Karl Marx as early as 1850 in course of his famous address to the Communist League, 'until all more or less possessing classes have been forced out of their position of dominance, the proletariat has conquered state power, and the association of proletarians, not only in one country but in all dominant countries of the world, has advanced so far that competition among the proletarians of these countries has ceased and that at least the decisive productive forces are concentrated in the hands of the proletarians.'" [8]

By the close of 1936 the Anushilan Marxists at the Deoli Detention Jail in Rajputana drafted a document formulating their political line. This document was then distributed amongst the Anushilan Marxists at other jails throughout the country. When they were collectively released in 1938 the Anushilan Marxists adopted this document, The Thesis and Platform of Action of the Revolutionary Socialist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist): What Revolutionary Socialism Stands for, as their political programme in September that year. [9]

At this point the Anushilan Marxists, recently released from long jail sentences, stood at a cross-roads. Either they would continue as a separate political entity or they would join an existing political platform. They felt that they lacked the resources to build a separate political party. Joining the CPI was out of the question, due to sharp differences in political analysis. Neither could they reconcile their differences with the Royists. In the end, the Congress Socialist Party, appeared to be the sole platform acceptable for the Anushilan Marxists. The CSP had adopted Marxism in 1936 and their third conference in Faizpur they had formulated a thesis that directed the party to work to transform the Indian National Congress into an anti-imperialist front.

During the summer of 1938 a meeting took place between Jayaprakash Narayan (leader of CSP), Jogesh Chandra Chatterji, Tridib Chaudhuri and Keshav Prasad Sharma. The Anushilan Marxists then discussed the issue with Acharya Narendra Deva. The Anushilan Marxists decided to join CSP, but keeping a separate identity within the party. [10]

In the CSP

The great majority of the Anushilan Samiti had joined the CSP, not only the Marxist sector. The non-Marxists (who constituted about a half of the membership of the Samiti), although not ideologically attracted to the CSP, felt loyalty towards the Marxist sector. Moreover, around 25% of the HSRA joined the CSP. This group was led by Jogesh Chandra Chatterji.

In the end of 1938 Anushilan Marxists began publishing The Socialist from Calcutta. The editor of the journal was Satish Sarkar. Although the editorial board included several senior CSP leaders like Acharya Narendra Deva, it was essentially an organ of the Anushilan Marxist tendency. Only a handful issues were published. [11]

The Anushilan Marxists were soon to be disappointed by developments inside the CSP. The party, at that the time Anushilan Marxists had joined it, was not a homogenous entity. There was the Marxist trend led by J.P. Narayan and Narendra Deva, the Fabian socialist trend led by Minoo Masani and Asoka Mehta and a Gandhian socialist trend led by Ram Manohar Lohia and Achyut Patwardan. To the Anushilan Marxists differences emerged between the ideological stands of the party and its politics in practice. These differences surfaced at the 1939 annual session of the Indian National Congress at Tripuri. Ahead of the session there were fierce political differences between the leftwing Congress president, Subhas Chandra Bose, and the section led by Gandhi. As the risk of world war loomed, Bose wanted to utilise the weakening of the British empire for the sake of Indian independence. Bose was re-elected as the Congress president, defeating the Gandhian candidate. But at the same session a proposal was brought forward by Govind Ballabh Pant, through which gave Gandhi veto over the formation of the Congress Working Committee. In the Subjects Committee, the CSP opposed the resolution along with other leftwing sectors. But when the resolution was brought ahead of the open session of the Congress, the CSP leaders remained neutral. According to Subhas Chandra Bose himself, the Pant resolution would have been defeated if the CSP had opposed it in the open session. J.P. Narayan stated that although the CSP was essentially supporting Bose's leadership, they were not willing to risk the unity of the Congress. Soon after the Tripuri session the CSP organised a conference in Delhi, in which fierce criticism was directed against their 'betrayal' at Tripuri. [12]

The Anushilan Marxists had clearly supported Bose both in the presidential election as well by opposing the Pant resolution. Jogesh Chandra Chatterji renounced his CSP membership in protest against the action by the party leadership.

Soon after the Tripuri session, Bose resigned as Congress president and formed the Forward Bloc. The Forward Bloc was intended to function as a unifying force for all leftwing elements. The Forward Bloc held its first conference on 22–23 June 1939, and at the same time a Left Consolidation Committee consisting of the Forward Bloc, CPI, CSP, the Kisan Sabha, League of Radical Congressmen, Labour Party and the Anushilan Marxists. Bose wanted the Anushilan Marxists to join his Forward Bloc. But the Anushilan Marxists, although supporting Bose's anti-imperialist militancy, considered that Bose's movement was nationalistic and too eccletic. [13] The Anushilan Marxists shared Bose's view that the relative weakness of the British empire during the war should have been utilised by independence movement. At this moment, in October 1939, J.P. Narayan tried to stretch out an olive branch to the Anushilan Marxists. He proposed the formation of a 'War Council' consisting of himself, Pratul Ganguly, Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee and Acharya Narendra Deva. But few days later, at a session of the All India Congress Committee, J.P. Narayan and the other CSP leaders pledged not to start any other movements parallel to those initiated by Gandhi. [14]

Foundation of RSPI(ML)

The Left Consolidation Committee soon fell into pieces, as the CPI, the CSP and the Royists deserted it. Bose assembled the Anti-Compromise Conference in Ramgarh, Bihar, now Jharkhand. The Forward Bloc, the Anushilan Marxists (still members of the CSP at the time), the Labour Party and the Kisan Sabha attended the conference. The conference spelled out that no compromise towards Britain should be made on behalf of the Indian independence movement. At that conference the Anushilan Marxists assembled to launch their own party, the Revolutionary Socialist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist), severing all links to the CSP. The first general secretary of the party was Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee. [15]

The first War Thesis of RSP in 1940 took the call for "turning imperialist war into civil war". But after the attack by Germany on the Soviet Union, the line of the party was clarified. RSP meant that the socialist Soviet Union had to be defended, but that the best way for Indian revolutionaries to do that was to overthrow the colonial rule in their own country. RSP was in sharp opposition to groups like Communist Party of India and the Royist RDP, who meant that antifascists had to support the Allied war effort.

After Independence

In October 1949 the Kerala Socialist Party passed through a split. A section of its cadres, like N. Sreekandan Nair, Baby John and K. Balakrishnan, joined RSP and built a branch of the party in Kerala.

Ahead of the 1952 general election, negotiations took place between RSP and the United Socialist Organisation of India. USOI, a coalition of socialist groups, wanted RSP to join its ranks. RSP declined, but a partial electoral agreement was made. USOI supported RSP candidates in two Lok Sabha constituencies in West Bengal, but in other constituencies USOI and RSP candidates contested against each other. In the end three RSP candidates were elected, 2 from Bengal and 1 from Kerala.

1952 Lok Sabha election
StateConstituencyCandidateVotes %Elected?
Travancore-Cochin Quilon-cum-MavilekaraN. Sreekanthan Nair22031221.42%Yes
Uttar Pradesh Mainpuri District (E)Putto Singh1972214.15%No
Allahabad Dist. (E) cum Jaunpur Dist. (W)Badri Prasad181293.01%No
Gondi Dist. (E) cum Basti Dist. (W)Harban Singh42383.61%No
Ghazipur Dist. (W)Balrup2270213.37%No
West Bengal BirbhumS.K. Ghose205014.07%No
Berhampore Tridib Chaudhuri 8257946.17%Yes
Calcutta North EastLahiri Tarapado58014.05%No
Calcutta North WestMeghnath Shah7412453.05%Yes

In 1953 Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee left the party and rejoined the Indian National Congress. Tribid Kumar Chaudhuri became the new general secretary of the party.

In 1969 RSP sympathizers in East Pakistan formed the Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal. RSP and SKSD maintains a close relations from that moment onwards.

Ahead of the 1977 elections, a section of the party in Kerala broke away and formed the National Revolutionary Socialist Party. The NRSP contested the election in alliance with the Communist Party of India (Marxist).

List of General secretaries

Recent history

In 2000 a severe split affected the Kerala branch, when the regional party chief Baby John broke away and formed Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik). The RSP(B) joined the Congress-led United Democratic Front.

In 2002 RSP supported, along with the other Left Front parties, the presidential candidature of Lakshmi Sahgal. Saghal, who challenged the main candidate A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, got around 10% of the votes.

The erstwhile RSP, which was part of the LDF for almost three decades, decided to walk out of the LDF in March 2014, after the CPI(M) arbitrarily announced the candidature of politburo member and sitting legislator M.A. Baby for the Kollam Lok Sabha seat. Later RSP was offered the loksabha seat by the UDF. The RSP candidate N.K. Premachandran defeated LDF candidate M.A. Baby in the election of 2014. Later in June 2014, both the factions of RSP in Kerala- RSP(B) and RSP merged. [16] Later, a faction headed by Kovoor Kunjumon left the party to form a new party named Revolutionary Socialist Party (Leninist). The main faction of the RSP successfully defended its bastion Kollam Loksabha seat in 2019 fielding N.K. Premachandran again despite aggressive campaign by the LDF but suffered huge defeats in the 2016 and 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly elections, with all its candidates losing. But, Kovoor Kunjumon was elected to the Legislative Assembly from Kunnathur, and his party supports the LDF.

Current situation

RSP has always had its stronghold in West Bengal, but has branches in a total of 18 states. In Kerala, it is concentrated to the Kollam area, with support amongst fishing communities. Its Kerala branch originates from a split in the Kerala Socialist Party. K. Pankajakshan, general secretary until 2008, was a KSP member.

RSP is part of the Left Front in West Bengal and Tripura. In Kerala, RSP is the part of the UDF and RSP (Leninist), the faction led by Kovoor Kunjimon is the part of the LDF. In 2021 Kerala Legislative Election RSP participated in 5 seats are Chavara, Kunnathoor, Eravipuram, Attingal and Mattannur. But it did not succeed anywhere. Currently, the RSP's presence in the Kerala Legislative Assembly is said to be Mr. Kovur Kunjumon, who contested as an ILDF representative from Kunnathoor. Kollam MPNK Premachandran is the RSP presence in Parliament.

Splits and Factions

  1. RSP(Bolshevik)------Led by A.V. Thamarakshan
  2. RSP(Marxist)------Led by Babu Divakaran
  3. RSP(Leninist) Kunjumon------Led by Kovoor Kunjumon MLA (Kunnathur)
  4. RSP(Leninist) Ambalathara------Led by Ambalathara Sreedharan Nair
  5. Revolutionary Socialist Party (Left) RSP(Left) (Sasikumar Kumar Cherukole)--------led by Sasikumar Kumar Cherukole

Principal mass organisations


Lok Sabha election results

StateNo. of candidates 2004No. of elected 2004No. of candidates 1999No. of elected 1998Total no. of seats from state
Assam 100014
Bihar 001040 (2004) /54 (1999)
Odisha 100021
Uttar Pradesh 1100080 (2004) /85 (1999)
West Bengal 434342

State Assembly election results

StateNo. of candidatesNo. of electedTotal no. of seats in assemblyYear of election
Assam 301262001
Bihar 403242000
Kerala 501402021
Madhya Pradesh 102302003
Odisha 201472004
Rajasthan 102002003
Tamil Nadu 102342001
Tripura 22602003
West Bengal 113294 2016

Results from the website of the Election Commission of India.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Communist Party of India</span> Political party in India

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest Marxist–Leninist communist party in India and one of the eight national parties in the country. The CPI was founded in modern-day Kanpur on 26 December 1925.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">All India Forward Bloc</span> Political party in India

The All India Forward Bloc is a left-wing nationalist political party in India. It emerged as a faction within the Indian National Congress in 1939, led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The party re-established as an independent political party after the independence of India. It has its main stronghold in West Bengal. The party's current Secretary-General is Debabrata Biswas. Veteran Indian politicians Sarat Chandra Bose and Chitta Basu had been the stalwarts of the party in independent India.

Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik) is formed as a splinter group from RSP in Kerala in 2001. The party leader at the time of its formation was Baby John, formerly an important RSP leader in Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Congress Socialist Party</span> 1934–1948 socialist caucus within the Indian National Congress

The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was a socialist caucus within the Indian National Congress. It was founded in 1934 by Congress members who rejected what they saw as the anti-rational mysticism of Gandhi as well as the sectarian attitude of the Communist Party of India towards the Congress. Influenced by Fabianism as well as Marxism-Leninism, the CSP included advocates of armed struggle or sabotage (such as Yusuf Meherally, Jai Prakash Narayan, and Basawon Singh as well as those who insisted upon Ahimsa or Nonviolent resistance. The CSP advocated decentralized socialism in which co-operatives, trade unions, independent farmers, and local authorities would hold a substantial share of the economic power.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anushilan Samiti</span> Fitness club and anti-British underground revolutionary organization

Anushilan Samiti was an Indian fitness club, which was actually used as an underground society for anti-British revolutionaries. In the first quarter of the 20th century it supported revolutionary violence as the means for ending British rule in India. The organisation arose from a conglomeration of local youth groups and gyms (akhara) in Bengal in 1902. It had two prominent, somewhat independent, arms in East and West Bengal, Dhaka Anushilan Samiti, and the Jugantar group.

Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee was an Indian freedom fighter, revolutionary and member of Rajya Sabha.

Communist Consolidation was an Indian revolutionary and communist organization, founded by Hare Krishna Konar among with other prisoners of the Cellular Jail with the ideology of Marx and Lenin's theory Marxism–Leninism. It was the largest resistance group against British rule in the Jail, this organization also led the historical 36-days hunger strike in 1937 where the British government had to bow before the demands of the political prisoners.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sachindra Nath Sanyal</span> Indian revolutionary (1890—1942)

Sachindra Nath Sanyalpronunciation  was an Indian revolutionary and co-founder of the Hindustan Republican Army that was created to carry out armed resistance against the British Empire in India. He was a mentor for revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad, Jatindra Nath Das, and Bhagat Singh.

Socialism in India is a political movement founded early in the 20th century, as a part of the broader movement to gain Indian independence from colonial rule. The movement grew quickly in popularity as it espoused the causes of India's farmers and labourers against the zamindars, princely class and landed gentry. Socialism shaped the principal economic and social policies of the Indian government but mostly followed Dirigisme after independence until the early 1990s, when India moved towards a more market-based economy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United Trade Union Congress (Bolshevik)</span>

United Trade Union Congress (Bolshevik) is a federation of trade unions in Kerala, India. UTUC(B) emerged from a split in the United Trade Union Congress. UTUC(B) is politically tied to Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik). Initially, K.C. Vamadevan was president of UTUC(B) and T.M. Prabha was the general secretary of UTUC(B).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bolshevik Party of India</span> Political party in India

The Bolshevik Party of India is an Indian political party in India. The party was founded in 1939. The party had a certain role in the trade union movement in West Bengal and was briefly represented in the state government in 1969. In later years the party has played a negligible role in Indian politics.

The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) was a Trotskyist political party in India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hare Krishna Konar</span> Indian revolutionary and politician (1915–1974)

Hare Krishna Konar was an Indian Marxist revolutionary, radical activist and Communist politician. Konar was a founding member of Communist Party of India (Marxist), and the leader to start the first land reforms and agrarian reforms in India as well as the chief architect of the West Bengal land and property distribution. In the 1930s for making arms and bombs for the Jugantar group, he was deported to the Cellular Jail for 6 years at the age of 18 and there he took part in the first hunger strike and in 1935 he founded the Communist Consolidation and led the historical second hunger strike. Konar was the mentor of freedom fighters like Batukeshwar Dutt, Shiv Verma, Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Ganesh Ghosh, etc.

A. V. Thamarakshan is a politician from the South Indian state of Kerala. He has been member of Kerala Legislative Assembly multiple times. he started his political career with RSP which later on split to form RSP (Bolshevik). RSP(B) went on to merge with Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy in 2009. Thamarakshan has also been independent candidate. In September 2021, he elected as the president of the JSS.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2014 Indian general election in Kerala</span> Indian general election 2014

The 2014 Indian general election polls in Kerala were held for the twenty Lok Sabha seats in the state on 10 April 2014. The total voter strength of Kerala for the election was 2,42,51,937 and 73.89% of voters exercised their right to do so. The results of the elections were declared on 16 May 2014.

The history of the Anushilan Samiti stretches from its beginning early in the first decade of 1900 to 1930. The Samiti began in the first decade of the 20th century in Calcutta as conglomeration of local youth groups and gyms. However, its focus was both physical education and proposed moral development of its members. From its inception it sought to promote what it perceived as Indian values and to focus on Indian sports e.g. Lathi and Sword play. It also encouraged its members to study Indian history as well as those of European liberalism including the French Revolution, Russian Nihilism and Italian unification. Soon after its inception it became a radical organisation that sought to end British Raj in India through revolutionary violence. After World War I, it declined steadily as its members identified closely with leftist ideologies and with the Indian National Congress. It briefly rose to prominence in the late second and third decade, being involved in some notable incidences in Calcutta, Chittagong and in the United Provinces. The samiti dissolved before the Second World War into the Revolutionary Socialist Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revolutionary Socialist Party (Leninist)</span> Indian political party

The RSP(L) was formed as a splinter group of the Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) in Kerala in 2016. The party leader at the time of its formation was Kovoor Kunjumon, formerly an important RSP leader in Kerala. RSP(L) is the part of CPI(M) led Left Democratic Front (LDF). The party won one seat in the 2016 and 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly election.

Revolutionary Socialist Party (Left) is a splinter faction of Revolutionary Socialist Party of India in Kerala. The party is an ally of Left Democratic Front.

Communists were actively involved in Indian independence movement through multiple series of protests, strikes and other activities. It was a part of revolutionary movement for Indian independence. Their main thrust was on organising peasants and working classes across India against the British and Indian capitalists and landlords.


  1. "Indian citizenship act against humanity: Manoj Bhattacharya".
  2. Bidyut Chakrabarty (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN   978-0-19-997489-4.
  3. "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  4. "Origins of the RSP".
  5. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 20-21
  6. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 21-25
  7. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 28
  8. In Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 34
  9. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 29
  10. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 35-37
  11. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 37, 52
  12. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 38-42
  13. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 43-45
  14. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 44-46
  15. Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 46-47
  16. IANS (10 June 2014). "RSP factions merge in Kerala, UDF numbers rise to 75". Business Standard India. Retrieved 1 March 2021.