Bahujan Samaj Party

Last updated

Bahujan Samaj Party
AbbreviationBSP
President Mayawati [1]
Secretary
Lok Sabha leader Kunwar Danish Ali [5]
Rajya Sabha leader Satish Chandra Mishra
Founder Kanshi Ram
Founded14 April 1984(37 years ago) (1984-04-14)
Preceded by DSSSS or DS4
Headquarters12, Gurudwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi, India-110001
NewspaperBahujan Samaj Bulletin
Ideology Social equality [6]
Social justice [7]
Secularism [8]
Human rights [9]
Self-respect [10]
Political position Centre-Left [11]
Colours  Blue
ECI Status National Party
Alliance SAD + BSP
(Punjab)
Seats in  Lok Sabha
10 / 543
Seats in  Rajya Sabha
3 / 245
Seats in  Vidhan Sabha & Vidhan Parishad
Number of states and union territories in government
0 / 31
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Elephant.png
Website
bspindia.org

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is a national level political party in India that was formed to represent Bahujans (literally means "people in majority"), referring to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes (OBC), along with religious minorities. [13] According to Kanshi Ram, when he founded the party in 1984, the Bahujans comprised 85 percent of India's population, but were divided into 6,000 different castes. [14] [15] The party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of Gautama Buddha, B. R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj. [16] Kanshi Ram named his protégée, Mayawati, as his successor in 2001. The BSP has its main base in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh where it was the second-largest party in the 2019 Indian general election with 19.3% of votes [17] and in the 2017 Uttar Pradesh elections with over 22% of votes. [18] Its election symbol is an elephant.

Contents

Etymology

"Bahujan" is a Pali term frequently found in Buddhist texts, and literally refers to "the many", or "the majority". It appears in the dictum "Bahujana Hitaya Bahujana Sukhaya", or "The benefit and prosperity of the many", articulated by Gautama Buddha. [19] [20] [21] In his writing, B. R. Ambedkar used the term to refer to the majority of people in Hindu society that experienced discrimination and oppression on the basis of caste. Jotirao Phule used the term in a similar context, and compared the Bahujans of India to slaves in the United States. Dalit and Bahujan writers have suggested this proportion was 75 percent of the population. [21] [22]

History

The Bahujan Samaj Party was founded on the birth anniversary of B. R. Ambedkar, 14 April 1984, by Kanshi Ram, [23] who named former school teacher, Mayawati, as his successor of BSP in 2001. [24] The party's power grew quickly with seats in the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh and the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. In 1993, following the assembly elections, Mayawati formed a coalition with Samajwadi Party president Mulayam Singh Yadav as Chief Minister. On 2 June 1995, she withdrew support from his government, which led to a major incident where Yadav was accused of sending his zealots to keep her party legislators hostage at a Lucknow guest house and shout casteist abuses at her. [25] Since this incident, they have regarded each other publicly as chief rivals. [26] Mayawati then obtained support from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) to become Chief Minister on 3 June 1995. In October 1995, the BJP withdrew their support and fresh elections were called after a period of President's Rule. In 2003, Mayawati resigned from her own government to prove that she was not "hungry for power" [27] and asked the BJP-run Government of India to remove Union Tourism and Culture Minister, Jagmohan. [28] In 2007, she began leading a BSP-formed government with an absolute majority for a full five-year term. [29]

A Bahujan carrying the BSP flag. Bahujan Samaj Party Ekla chalo re.jpg
A Bahujan carrying the BSP flag.

Silver jubilee

Bahujan Samaj Party on 14 April 2009 celebrated its silver jubilee. [30] Manywar Shri Kanshi Ramji Shahri Garib Awas Yojna, housing scheme for poor was launched by Lucknow Development Authority (LDA). [31] Role of Mayawati was discussed in BSP's success. [32] Mass rally was organised in Lucknow with 10000 police personnel on duty. [33] It was 305th and largest rally of BSP since 1984. [34] As per Observer Research Foundation, within 25 years BSP became third largest political party of India. [35]

Views

BSP believes in "Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation" of the "Bahujan Samaj". The Bahujan Samaj signifies the Shudras & the Ati-Shudras of the Hindu Caste Hierarchy. The Indian Constitution recognizes the Bahujans as the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and the Other Backward Castes (OBC). Bsp, see these groups as victims of the "Manuwadi" system for millennia, a system that benefited upper-caste Hindus only. B. R. Ambedkar, a proponent of Bahujan rights is their important ideological inspiration. Bsp also speaks in favor of religious minorities. The party claims not to be prejudiced against upper-caste Hindus. In 2008, while addressing the audience, Mayawati said: "Our policies and ideology are not against any particular caste or religion. If we were anti-upper caste, we would not have given tickets to candidates from upper castes to contest elections". [36]

List of Chief Ministers

Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh

Former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from Bahujan Samaj Party, Mayawati Mayawati in 2016.jpg
Former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from Bahujan Samaj Party, Mayawati
No.NameConstituencyTerm of officeTenure lengthAssembly
1 Mayawati 3 June 199518 October 1995137 daystwelfth Assembly (1993–95)
(1993 election)
Mayawati Harora 21 March 199721 September 1997184 daysThirteenth Assembly (1996–2002)
(1996 election)
Mayawati Harora 3 May 200229 August 20031 year, 118 daysFourteenth Assembly (2002–07)
(2002 election)
Mayawati MLC 13 May 200715 March 20124 years, 307 daysFifteenth Assembly (2007–12)
(2007 election)

Electoral Performances

Success in 2007

The results of the May 2007 Uttar Pradesh state assembly election saw the BSP emerge as a sole majority party, the first to do so since 1991. Mayawati began her fourth term as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and took her oath of office along with 50 ministers of cabinet and state rank on 13 May 2007, at Rajbhawan in the state capital of Lucknow. [37] Most importantly, the majority achieved in large part was due to the party's ability to take away majority of upper castes votes from their traditional party, the BJP. [38]

Flags of "Bahujan Samaj Party" at Shivaji Park, Mumbai. Flags of "Bahujan Samaj Party" at Shivaji Park.png
Flags of "Bahujan Samaj Party" at Shivaji Park, Mumbai.

The party could manage only 80 seats in 2012 as against 206 in 2007 assembly elections. BSP government was the first in the history of Uttar Pradesh to complete its full five-year term. [39] On 26 May 2018, Ram Achal Rajbhar was replaced by R S Kushwaha as the president of UP unit. [40]

2014 Lok Sabha Elections

The 2014 national Lok Sabha elections saw the BSP become the third-largest national party of India in terms of vote percentage, having 4.2% of the vote across the country but gaining no seats. [41]

2019 Lok Sabha Elections Mahagathbandhan

Prior to the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, BSP formed a Mahagathbandhan. The Mahagathbandhan (or Grand Alliance), or simply the Gathbandhan (Alliance), [42] [43] is an anti-Congress, [44] anti-BJP [45] Indian political alliance formed in the run-up to the 2019 general election under the leadership of two former Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh, Akhilesh Yadav of the Samajwadi Party and Mayawati of the Bahujan Samaj Party, along with Ajit Singh's Rashtriya Lok Dal and several other political parties, contesting in different states of India. [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51]

The Mahagathbandhan won 15 seats out of 80 in Uttar Pradesh in 2019 Indian General Election. [52]

Election results

Lok Sabha (Lower House)

Lok Sabha TermIndian
General Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
State (seats)
9th Lok Sabha 1989 24542.074.53Punjab (1)
Uttar Pradesh (3) [53]
10th Lok Sabha 1991 23131.613.64Madhya Pradesh (1)
Punjab (1)
Uttar Pradesh (1) [54]
11th Lok Sabha 1996 210114.0211.21Madhya Pradesh (2)
Punjab (3)
Uttar Pradesh (6)
12th Lok Sabha 1998 25154.679.84Haryana (1)
Uttar Pradesh (4)
13th Lok Sabha 1999 225144.169.97Uttar Pradesh (14)
14th Lok Sabha 2004 435195.336.66Uttar Pradesh (19)
15th Lok Sabha 2009 500216.176.56Madhya Pradesh (1)
Uttar Pradesh (20)
16th Lok Sabha 2014 50304.194.5 [55] NA
17th Lok Sabha 2019 383103.675.1 [56] Uttar Pradesh (10)

Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Lower House)

Vidhan Sabha TermUP
elections
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
12th Vidhan Sabha19931646711.1228.52
13th Vidhan Sabha19962966719.6427.73
14th Vidhan Sabha 2002 4019823.0623.19
15th Vidhan Sabha 2007 40320630.4330.43
16th Vidhan Sabha 2012 4038025.9525.95
17th Vidhan Sabha 2017 4031922.2422.24

Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermMadhya Pradesh
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
9th Vidhan Sabha199018323.545.89
10th Vidhan Sabha199328627.057.86
11th Vidhan Sabha1998170116.1511.39
12th Vidhan Sabha200315727.2610.62
13th Vidhan Sabha200823078.979.29
14th Vidhan Sabha201322746.296.42
15th Vidhan Sabha 2018 23025.00

Rajasthan Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermRajasthan
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
9th Vidhan Sabha19905700.792.54
10th Vidhan Sabha19935000.562.01
11th Vidhan Sabha199810822.173.81
12th Vidhan Sabha200312423.976.40
13th Vidhan Sabha200819967.607.66
14th Vidhan Sabha201319933.373.48
15th Vidhan Sabha201819964.00

Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermChhattisgarh

Assembly Election

Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
2nd Vidhan Sabha20035424.456.94
3rd Vidhan Sabha20089026.116.11
4th Vidhan Sabha20139014.274.27
5th Vidhan Sabha20183323.93.9

Bihar Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha Term Bihar
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
10th Vidhan Sabha199016400.731.41
11th Vidhan Sabha199516121.342.66
12th Vidhan Sabha200024951.892.47
13th Vidhan SabhaFeb. 200523824.414.50
14th Vidhan SabhaOct. 200521244.174.75
15th Vidhan Sabha201024303.213.27
16th Vidhan Sabha201522802.12.2
17th Vidhan Sabha20208011.56.1

Delhi Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermDelhi
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
1st Vidhan Sabha19925513.902.42
2nd Vidhan Sabha19985803.153.63
3rd Vidhan Sabha20034005.768.96
4th Vidhan Sabha200870214.0514.05
5th Vidhan Sabha20136905.335.44
6th Vidhan Sabha20157001.311.31
7th Vidhan Sabha20206802.12.1

Haryana Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermHaryana

Assembly Election

Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
10th Vidhan Sabha20008315.746.22
11th Vidhan Sabha20058413.223.44
12th Vidhan Sabha20098616.737.05
13th Vidhan Sabha2014871 [57] 4.37 [58] 4.52
14th Vidhan Sabha20198704.144.31

Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermHimachal Pradesh
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
7th Vidhan Sabha19903500.941.76
8th Vidhan Sabha19934902.253.0
9th Vidhan Sabha19982801.413.28
10th Vidhan Sabha20032300.72.02
11th Vidhan Sabha20076717.407.37
12th Vidhan Sabha20126701.72.02
13th Vidhan Sabha20174200.490.79

Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermJammu and Kashmir
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
9th Vidhan Sabha19962946.4315.07 [59]
10th Vidhan Sabha20023314.507.86 [60]
11th Vidhan Sabha20088303.733.73 [61]
12th Vidhan Sabha20145001.412.07 [62]

Jharkhand Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermJharkhand
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
3rd Vidhan Sabha20097802.442.55 [63]
4th Vidhan Sabha201461 [64] 1 [65] 1.82.4
5th Vidhan Sabha20196702.52.6

Karnataka Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermKarnataka

Assembly Election

Seats
contested
Seats
won
Total of
votes
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
15th Vidhan Sabha20181811085920.30%3.72%

Kerala Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermKerala
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
13th Vidhan Sabha201112200.600.70
14th Vidhan Sabha20167400.240.45

Maharashtra Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermMaharashtra

Assembly Election

Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
8th Vidhan Sabha199012200.420.98
9th Vidhan Sabha199514501.492.82
10th Vidhan Sabha19998300.391.24
11th Vidhan Sabha200427204.04.18
12th Vidhan Sabha200928702.352.42
13th Vidhan Sabha2014280 [66] 02.25 [67] 2.33
14th Vidhan Sabha201926200.921.00

Punjab Legislative Assembly

Vidhan Sabha TermPunjab
Assembly Election
Seats
contested
Seats
won
 % of
votes
 % of votes in
seats contested
10th Vidhan Sabha1992105916.3217.59
11th Vidhan Sabha19976717.4813.28
12th Vidhan Sabha200210005.696.61
13th Vidhan Sabha200711504.134.17
14th Vidhan Sabha201211704.294.30
15th Vidhan Sabha201711101.521.59

Telangana Legislative Assembly

Electoral performance in the Telangana Legislative Assembly
ElectionLeaderVotesSeatsPositionResulting government
# %#±
2014 Mayawati 4,58,7621.00
2 / 117
 7th TRS majority
2018 Mayawati 4,28,4302.10
0 / 117
Decrease2.svg2none TRS majority

Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly

Electoral performance in the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly
ElectionLeaderVotesSeatsPositionResulting government
# %#±
2002 Mayawati 3,12,84210.93
7 / 70
 3rd INC majority
2007 Mayawati 4,43,70311.76
8 / 70
Increase2.svg13rd BJP coalition
2012 Mayawati 5,18,22712.19
3 / 70
Decrease2.svg53rd INC coalition
2017 Mayawati 3,47,5336.98
0 / 70
Decrease2.svg3none BJP majority

See also

Further reading

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