|Founder and National president of the Bahujan Samaj Party|
14 April 1984 –18 September 2003
|Member of the Indian Parliament |
|Preceded by||Kamal Chaudhry|
|Succeeded by||Kamal Chaudhry|
|Member of the Indian Parliament |
|Preceded by||Ram Singh Shakya|
|Succeeded by||Ram Singh Shakya|
|Born||15 March 1934|
Rupnagar district, Punjab Province, British India
|Died||9 October 2006 (aged 72)|
|Political party||Bahujan Samaj Party|
Kanshi Ram (15 March 1934 – 9 October 2006), also known as Bahujan Nayakor Saheb, was an Indian politician and social reformer who worked for the upliftment and political mobilisation of the Bahujans, the untouchable groups at the bottom of the caste system in India. Towards this end, Kanshi Ram founded Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti (DS-4), the All India Backward and Minority Communities Employees' Federation (BAMCEF) in 1971 and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984. He ceded leadership of the BSP to his protégé Mayawati who has served four terms as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.
Untouchability, in its literal sense, is the practice of ostracising a minority group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate. The term is most commonly associated with treatment of the Dalit communities in the Indian subcontinent who were considered "polluting", but the term has also been loosely used to refer to other groups, such as the Cagots in Europe, and the Al-Akhdam in Yemen. Traditionally, the groups characterized as untouchable were those whose occupations and habits of life involved ritually polluting activities, such as fishermen, manual scavengers, sweepers and washermen.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. It is today the basis of educational and job reservations in India. It consists of two different concepts, varna and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system.
The Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti, abbreviated as DS-4 or DSSSS was founded on 6 December 1981 by Kanshi Ram to organise dalits and other oppressed groups of India. It was related to BAMCEF.
Kanshi Ram was born on 15 March 1934 in Ropar district, Punjab, British India. Some sources say his birthplace was the village of Pirthipur Bungaand others that it was Khawaspur village. Although his family were Ramdasia Sikhs, an untouchable sect, in Punjab at that time there was relatively little stigma attached to being an untouchable.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, and was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. The province comprised five administrative divisions, Delhi, Jullundur, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. In 1947, the partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly created Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan respectively.
The Ramdasia are a Sikh sub-group that has originated from the Hindu caste of weavers known as Julaha. According to Paul Ghuman, Ramdasias are also Chamars who have converted to Sikhism.
After studies at various local schools,Ram graduated in 1956 with a BSc degree from Government College Ropar.
A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.
Kanshi Ram joined the offices of the Explosive Research and Development Laboratory in Puneunder the government's scheme of positive discrimination. It was at this time that he first experienced caste discrimination and in 1964 he became an activist. Those who admire him claim that he was spurred to this after reading B. R. Ambedkar's book Annihilation of Caste and witnessing what he perceived to be discrimination against a Dalit employee who wished to observe a holiday celebrating Ambedkar's birth.
The system of reservation in India consists of a series of measures, such as reserving access to seats in the various legislatures, to government jobs, and to enrollment in higher educational institutions. The reservation nourishes the historically disadvantaged castes and tribes, listed as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes by the Government of India, also those designated as Other Backwards Classes (OBCs) and also the economically backward general. The reservation is undertaken to address the historic oppression, inequality, and discrimination faced by those communities and to give these communities a place. It is intended to realise the promise of equality enshrined in the Constitution.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards the untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was independent India's first law and justice minister, the architect of the Constitution of India, and a founding father of the Republic of India.
Annihilation of Caste is an undelivered speech written in 1936 by B. R. Ambedkar who fought against the country's practice of untouchability. It was later self-published by the author.
Ram initially supported the Republican Party of India (RPI) but became disillusioned with its co-operation with the Indian National Congress. In 1971, he founded the All India SC, ST, OBC and Minority Employees Association and in 1978 this became BAMCEF, an organisation that aimed to persuade educated members of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backwards Classes and Minorities to support Ambedkarite principles. BAMCEF was neither a political nor a religious body and it also had no aims to agitate for its purpose. Suryakant Waghmore says it appealed to "the class among the Dalits that was comparatively well-off, mostly based in urban areas and small towns working as government servants and partially alienated from their untouchable identities".
The Republican Party of India (RPI) is a political party in India. It has its roots in the Scheduled Castes Federation led by B. R. Ambedkar. The 'Training School for Entrance to Politics' was established by Ambedkar in 1956 which was to serve as an entry point to the Republican Party of India (RPI). The first batch of the school consisted of 15 students. Its first batch turned out to be last batch as the school was closed after Ambedkar's death in 1956.
The Indian National Congress(
Later, in 1981, Ram formed another social organisation known as Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti (DSSSS, or DS4). He started his attempt of consolidating the Dalit vote and in 1984 he founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). He fought his first election in 1984 from Janjgir-Champa seat in Chhattisgarh.The BSP found success in Uttar Pradesh, initially struggled to bridge the divide between Dalits and Other Backward Classes but later under leadership of Mayawati bridged this gap.
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is a national political party in India. In terms of vote-share in the 2014 general election, it is the country's third-largest national party, even though it did not win any seats in the Lok Sabha. It was formed mainly to represent Bahujans, referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes (OBC), as well as religious minorities that together, according to Kanshi Ram at the time he founded the party in 1984, comprised 85 percent of India's population but was divided into 6,000 different castes.
Janjgir-Champa Vidhan Sabha constituency is one of the 90 Vidhan Sabha constituencies of Chhattisgarh state in central India.
Chhattisgarh is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country. It is the tenth-largest state in India, with an area of 135,191 km2 (52,198 sq mi). With a 2011 population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th-most populated state in the country. A resource-rich state, it is a source of electricity and steel for the country, accounting for 15% of the total steel produced. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.
In 1982 he wrote his book The Chamcha Age, in which he used the term chamcha (stooge) to describe Dalit leaders such as Jagjivan Ram and Ram Vilas Paswan.He argued that Dalits should work politically for their own ends rather than compromise by working with other parties.
After forming BSP Ram said the party would fight first election to lose, next to get noticed and the third election to win.In 1988 he contested Allahabad seat up against a future Prime Minister V. P. Singh and performed impressively but lost polling close to 70,000 votes.
He unsuccessfully contested from East Delhi (Lok Sabha constituency) in 1989 and came at fourth position. Then he represented the 11th Lok Sabha from Hoshiarpur,Kanshiram was also elected as member of Lok Sabha from Etawah in Uttar Pradesh. In 2001 he publicly announced Mayawati as his successor.
In the late 1990s, Ram described the BJP as the most corrupt (mahabrasht) party in India and the INC, Samajwadi Party and Janata Dal as equally corrupt.
In 2002, Kanshiram announced his intention to convert to Buddhism on 14 October 2006, the 50th anniversary of Ambedkar's conversion. He intended for 20,000,000 of his supporters to convert at the same time. Part of the significance of this plan was that Ram's followers include not only untouchables, but persons from a variety of castes, who could significantly broaden Buddhism's support. However, he died on 9 October 2006.
Mayawati his successor said "Saheb Kanshi Ram and I had decided that we will convert and adopt Buddhism when we will get "absolute majority" at the Centre. We wanted to do this because we can make a difference to the religion by taking along with us millions of people. If we convert without power then only we too will be converting. But when you have power you can really create a stir".
Ram was a diabetic. He suffered a heart attack in 1994, an arterial clot in his brain in 1995, and a paralytic stroke in 2003.He died in New Delhi on 9 October 2006 of a severe heart attack at the age of 72. He had been virtually bed-ridden for more than two years. According to his wishes, his funeral rites were performed according to Buddhist tradition, with Mayawati lighting the pyre. His ashes were placed in an urn and kept at Prerna Sthal, where many people paid their respects.
In his condolence message, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described Ram as "one of the greatest social reformers of our time .. his political ideas and movements had a significant impact on our political evolution ... He had a larger understanding of social change and was able to unite various underprivileged sections of our society and provide a political platform where their voices would be heard." Under Ram's leadership, the BSP won 14 parliamentary seats in the 1999 federal elections.
The Dalit Buddhist movement is a socio-political movement by Dalits in India started by B. R. Ambedkar. It radically re-interpreted Buddhism and created a new school of Buddhism called Navayana. The movement has sought to be a socially and politically engaged form of Buddhism.
Ambedkar Samaj Party is a political party in India, that fights for the rights of Dalits. The party is opposed to Hindu nationalism, which it sees as representing an upper caste minority. ASP claims that Bahujan Samaj Party has betrayed dalits through its alliance with Bharatiya Janata Party. The leader of ASP is Tej Singh.
Apna Dal is an Indian political party active in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The party finds its support base mainly among the OBC communities of the Varanasi region.
The Rashtriya Swabhiman Party (RSP) is a political party in India, previously known as Lok Parivartan Party (LPP). Some of the members from the group are related to the Bahujan Samaj Swabhiman Sangharsh Samiti (BS-4).
Raja Ram Pal is an Indian politician with the Indian National Congress, and was a member of the 15th Lok Sabha from Akbarpur. Earlier, as a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), he had been a member of the 14th Lok Sabha from Bilhaur, before being expelled on 23 December 2005, along with ten others, after the sting Operation Duryodhana. The expulsion was sub judice when the 14th Lok Sabha finished its term.
The Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election, 2007 was held in April–May 2007. It was held in order to elect a government for the state of Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) in India.
The Rajyadhikara Party is a political party, comprising BC, SC, ST and Minorities established in 2007, India by V. G. R. Naragoni as its national president. And it's National Vice President is Shaik Ismail. The Party was formed mainly to represent and empower the Bahujans, referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes (OBC), as well as religious Minorities that together consist of 85% of India's population
BAMCEF is an Indian charitable organization. It was founded in 1978 to enlist the aid of the comparatively well-educated among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribess and other communities of India who suffer discrimination. It has no political or religious agenda, nor does it promote agitation to achieve its goals. BAMCEF is an acronym for "The Minority Communities Employees Federation". The term got its significance from the Constitution of India, which divides the oppressed and exploited Indians into categories on the basis of their namely: Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Minority Communities.
D. K. Khaparde was a co-founder of the precursor to BAMCEF in 1971 and later the president of BAMCEF.
The Rashtriya Dalit Prerna Sthal and Green Garden is a memorial in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was commissioned by Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Mayawati and inaugurated on 14 October 2011.
The Loktantrik Janata Dal (LJD) is a political party in India launched by Sharad Yadav in May 2018 after he parted ways from Janata Dal (United) due to its alliance with Bharatiya Janata Party in Bihar.
Suresh Mane is an Indian Politician and social activist who worked for improvement and mobilization of the Bahujan Samaj. He joined Bahujan movement founded by Kanshi Ram. He actively participated in BAMCEF, Dalit Soshit Samaj Sangharsh Samithi (DS4) and was a founding member of Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984.
Dinanath Bhaskar is an Indian politician active in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Once a close associate of Kanshi Ram, he was a founding member of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) and was Minister for Health during the state's coalition government of the Samajwadi Party (SP) and BSP in 1993. He quit the BSP to join the SP in 1996, rejoined the BSP around 2009 and in 2015 joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
The Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji Green Eco Garden are ecological gardens in Lucknow city named after Bahujan Samaj Party founder Kanshi Ram.
A Legislative Assembly election was held in the Indian state of Punjab on 4 February 2017 to elect the 117 members of the Punjab Legislative Assembly. The counting of votes was done on 11 March 2017. The ruling pre-election coalition was the alliance comprising the political parties Shiromani Akali Dal and Bharatiya Janata Party and led by Chief Minister Parkash Singh Badal. The voter turnout for the Punjab Assembly election was 76.83%. The Indian National Congress led by former Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh defeated the ruling alliance and the newcomer Aam Aadmi Party.
The Great Leader Kanshiram is a 2017 Indian Hindi-language Biopic film directed and produced by Arjun Singh, a 24 year old youth from Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. Raghvendra Singh and Somya Goyal in lead roles, it is based on true story of DS4, BAMCEF and Bahujan Samaj Party founder, Kanshi Ram from his childhood to year 1984. It was released on 10 February 2017 in selected cinemas but was not able to perform well at Box Office.