Bachelor of Science

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A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc. or BSc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) [1] is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for programs that generally last three to five years. [2] The first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. [3]

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Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts (BA) by one university but as a BS by another, and some universities offer the choice of either. [4] Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences, [5] while some universities offer only the BS, even in non-science fields. [6]

At universities that offer both BA and BS degrees in the same discipline, the BS degree is usually more extensive in that particular discipline and is targeted toward students who are pursuing graduate school or a profession in that field. [7] [8]

International differences

Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service awards Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degrees to all of its undergraduates, although many students major in humanities-oriented fields such as international history or culture and politics. The London School of Economics offers BSc degrees in practically all subject areas, even those normally associated with arts degrees, while the Oxbridge universities almost exclusively award arts qualifications. In both instances, there are historical and traditional reasons. Northwestern University's School of Communication grants BSc degrees in all of its programs of study, including theater, dance, and radio/television/film. University of California, Berkeley grants a BS degree in Environmental Economics and Policy at the College of Natural Resources (CNR), a BS degree in Business Administration at Haas School of Business, and a BA degree in Environmental Economics and Policy at the College of Letters and Science (L&S). Cornell University offers a BS degree in Computer Science from its College of Engineering and a BA degree in Computer Science from its College of Arts and Sciences.

Argentina

In Argentina most university degrees are given as a license in a discipline. They are specific to a field and awarded to students upon completion of a course of study which usually lasts 5 years. In most cases, at the end of a course and as a mandatory condition for its completion (and ultimately, to obtain a degree), students are compelled to work on an original research project related to the field. This project is called a thesis and it is usually presented in front of a group of people, including university professors who will evaluate it and let the student know whether they passed or not on the same day, shortly after the presentation.

Australia, New Zealand and South Africa

In Australia, the BSc is generally a three-four-year degree. An honours year or a Master of Science (MSc) is required to progress on to the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).

In New Zealand, in some cases, the honours degree comprises an additional postgraduate qualification. In other cases, students with strong performance in their second or third year, are invited to extend their degree to an additional year, with a focus on research, granting access to doctoral programs.

In South Africa, the BSc is taken over three years, while the postgraduate BSc (Hons) entails an additional year of study. Admission to the honours degree is on the basis of a sufficiently high average in the BSc major; an honours degree is required for MSc level study, and admission to a doctorate is via the MSc.

Brazil

In Brazil, a Bachelor of Science degree is an undergraduate academic degree and is equivalent to a BSc (Hons). It could take from 4 to 6 years (8 to 12 periods) to complete, is also more specific and could be applied for Scientific Arts courses (like Engineering, Maths, Physics, etc.), somewhat is called Human Art courses in Brazil (like History, Portuguese and Literature and Lawyer studies for example) as well as for Health Arts (like Medicine, Nursery, Zootechnique, Veterinary and Biology for example). To be able to start the bachelor's degree in Brazil the candidate must prove to be proficient in different disciplines and have at least the accumulated Preliminary, Medium and High School degrees accomplished with the minimum merit of 60% to 70% of the degrees and a correspondent study period that can vary from 10 to 12 years minimum. The Bachelor of Science courses in Brazilian Universities normally have the first 1 to 2 years (first 2 to 4 periods) of basic fundamental disciplines (like for example Calculus I, II, III and IV for some engineering courses, Geometry basics and advanced, Analytical Laboratories experiments in Mechanics, Optics, Magnetism, etc.) and the last 2 to 3 years disciplines more related to the professional fields of that Bachelor of Science (for example Units Operations, Thermodynamics, Chemical Reactors, Industrial Processes, Kinetics for Chemical Engineering for example). Some disciplines are prerequisite to others and in some universities, the student is not allowed to course any discipline for the entire next period if he was unsuccessful in just one prerequisite discipline of the present period. Usually, the Bachelor of Science courses demand a one-year mandatory probation period by the end of the course (internship in the specific professional area, like a training period), followed by relatively elaborate written and oral evaluations. To get the certification as BSc, most universities require that the students achieve the accomplishment of 60% to 70% in all the "obligatory disciplines", plus the supervisioned and approved training period (like a supervisioned internship period), the final thesis of the course, and in some BSc programs, the final exam test. The final exam also is required so far. To be a professor, a Bachelor of Sciences is required to get a Licenciature degree, which lasts on top of the periods already studied until getting the BSc (Hons), plus 2 to 3 periods (1 to 1.5 years). With a master's degree (MSc) is also possible, which takes 3 to 5 periods more (1.5 to 2.5 years more).

Britain and Ireland

Commonly in British Commonwealth countries and Ireland graduands are admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Science after having completed a programme in one or more of the sciences. These programmes may take different lengths of time to complete.

A Bachelor of Science receives the designation BSc for an ordinary degree and BSc (Hons) for an honours degree. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland an honours degree is typically completed over a three-year period, though there are a few intensified two-year courses (with less vacation time). Bachelor's degrees (without honours) were typically completed in two years for most of the twentieth century. In Scotland, where access to university is possible after one less year of secondary education, degree courses have a foundation year making the total course length four years.

In Ireland, the former BS was changed to BSc (Hons), which is awarded after four years. The BSc (Ord) is awarded after three years. [9] Formerly at the University of Oxford, the degree of BSc was a postgraduate degree; this former degree, still actively granted, has since been renamed MSc.

Chile

In Chile, the completion of a university program leads to an academic degree as well as a professional title. The academic degree equivalent to Bachelor of Science is "Licenciado en Ciencias", which can be obtained as a result of completing a 4–6 year program. [10] However, in most cases, 4-year programs will grant a Bachelor of Applied Science (Spanish: "Licenciatura en Ciencias Aplicadas") degree, while other 4-year programs will not grant to an academic degree.

Continental Europe

Many universities in Europe are changing their systems into the BA/MA system and in doing so also offering the full equivalent of a BSc or MSc (see Bologna Process).

Czech Republic

Universities in the Czech Republic are changing their systems into the Bachelor of Science/Master of Science system and in doing so also offering the full equivalent of a BSc (Bc.) or MSc (Mgr./Ing.).

Germany

In Germany, there are two kinds of universities: Universitäten and Fachhochschulen (which are also called University of Applied Sciences). Universitäten and Fachhochschulen – both also called Hochschulen - are legally equal, but Fachhochschulen have the reputation of being more related to practice and have no legal right to offer PhD programmes.

The BSc in Germany is equivalent to the BSc(Hons) in the United Kingdom. Many universities in German-speaking countries are changing their systems to the BA/MA system and in doing so also offering the full equivalent of a BSc.

In Germany the BA normally lasts between three and four years (six to eight semesters) and between 180 and 240 ECTS must be earned.

India

The Indian interpretation is similar to the British system. In India, B.Sc is generally a three-year course, however at some places, it is integrated with another short term course, certification or 'honours', making it a four-year course. [11] After passing the 12th standard (of 10+2 system in India, junior college in US) , also known as 'intermediate' in Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and/or Biology) from a recognized board (central board or state board) school, a student can apply to a college for a B.Sc degree. It is an undergraduate course, which could either be offered in annual examination system (3 years) or semester system (6 semesters, odd semester typically lasts from July/August to December, and even semester typically lasts from January to May). All the major colleges and universities offer this course. [12] After getting a B.Sc. Degree, the students can choose to either continue their education and pursue post-graduation (M.Sc.), or leave the college and take up a relevant job.

North America

In Canada, Mexico, and the United States, it is generally a four-year [13] undergraduate degree typically used in engineering, computer science, mathematics, economics, finance, business, and the natural sciences.

Typical completion period

Three years
Four years
Five years
Six years BS time.png
  Three years
  Four years
  Five years
  Six years

Three years

Australia, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Canada (especially Quebec), Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia (mostly three years, sometimes four), Czech Republic (mostly three years, sometimes four), Denmark, England (three or four years with a one-year placement in industry), Estonia, Finland, France, Germany (mostly three years, but can be up to four years), Hungary, Iceland, India (three-year BSc in arts and pure sciences excluding engineering and medicine, four years for engineering program "Bachelor of Engineering" and five years for medicine program "Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery"), Ireland (Ordinary), Israel (for most subjects), Italy, Jamaica (three or four years), Latvia (three or four years), Lebanon (three or four years, five years for Bachelor of Engineering), Malaysia, New Zealand, the Netherlands (three years for research universities, four years for universities of applied sciences), Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland (Ordinary), Singapore (honours degree takes 4 years), Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa (honours degree takes 4 years), Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda (mostly three years, sometimes four), United Arab Emirates, Wales, and Zimbabwe.

Four years

Afghanistan, Albania (four or five years), Armenia (four or five years), Australia (honours degree), Azerbaijan (four or five years), Bahrain, Bangladesh (four or five years), Belarus, Belize, Bosnia, Brazil (four to five years), Brunei (three or four years), Bulgaria, Canada (except Quebec), China, Cyprus, the Dominican Republic, Egypt (four or five years), Ethiopia (engineering, five years), Finland (engineering, practice in industry not included), Georgia, Ghana (three or four years), Greece (four or five years), Guatemala, Haiti (three or four years), Hong Kong (starting from 2012, three years originally), India (four-year BS, Bsc (hons.) Agriculture, Engineering), Indonesia, Iran (four or five years), Iraq, Ireland (Honours Degree), Israel (engineering degree), Japan, Jordan (four to five years), Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Libya, Lithuania, North Macedonia (three, four or five years), Malawi (four or five years), Malta, Mexico, Montenegro (three or four years), Myanmar, Nepal (previously three, now four years), the Netherlands (three years for research universities, four years for universities of applied sciences), New Zealand (honours degree), Nigeria, Pakistan (four or five years), the Philippines (four or five years), Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Scotland (Honours Degree), Serbia (three or four years), Spain, South Africa (fourth year is elective — to obtain an Honours degree, which is normally a requirement for selection into a master's degree program), South Korea, Sri Lanka (three, four, or five (specialized) years), Taiwan, Tajikistan (four or five years), Thailand, Tunisia (only a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration is available, solely awarded by Tunis Business School), Turkey, Ukraine, the United States, Uruguay (four, five, six, or seven years), [14] Yemen, and Zambia (four or five years).

Five years

Romania (four or five years), Bangladesh (four or five years), Cuba (five years), Greece (four or five years), Peru, Argentina, Colombia (starting to change to 4 years), Brazil (five years), Mexico (4.5 years), Chile, Venezuela (five years), Egypt (four or five years), Haiti (four or five years).

Nigeria (four to five years), 6 months dedicated to SIWES (Students Industrial Work Exchange Scheme) but for most sciences and all engineering courses only. A semester for project work/thesis not excluding course work during the bachelor thesis. Excluding 1 year for the compulsory National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), para-military and civil service.

North Macedonia, Sierra Leone (four years dedicated to coursework), Slovenia (four or five years), Sudan (five years for BSc honours degree and four years for BSc ordinary degree), and Syria.

In Algeria, the student presents a thesis in front of a Jury at the end of the fifth year.

Six years

In Chile, some undergraduate majors such as engineering and geology are designed as 6-year programs. [15] [16] [17] [18] However, in practice it is not uncommon for students to complete such programs over the course of 10 years, while studying full-time without leaves of absence. [19] This is in part due to a strict grading system where the highest grade of a typical class can be as low as 60% (C-) and the high frequency of protests and strikes organized by student federations and teacher unions, such as the 2011–13 Chilean student protests.

There are studies that suggest a direct correlation between reduced social mobility and differences unique to the Chilean higher education system. [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate program in the arts and sciences. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three or four years depending on the country and institution. They are contrasted with Bachelor of Science.

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. In countries with qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the major levels in the framework, although some qualifications titled bachelor's degrees may be at other levels and some qualifications with non-bachelor's titles may be classified as bachelor's degrees.

Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level university student is known as an undergraduate, while students of higher degrees are known as graduate students. In some other educational systems, undergraduate education is postsecondary education up to the level of a master's degree; this is the case for some science courses in Britain and some medicine courses in Europe.

Master of Science Masters degree awarded for post-graduate study in the sciences, or occasionally social sciences

A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is typically granted for studies in sciences, engineering and medicine and is usually for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the humanities and social sciences. While it ultimately depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree typically includes writing a thesis.

Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the UK it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops, although this is done at some universities.

A Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after the completion of a three-year, a four-year or a five-year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution. The degree is conferred in several countries, including the Commonwealth of Nations, Canada, the United States and elsewhere.

A Bachelor of Engineering is a first professional undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university. In the UK, a B.Eng. degree will be accredited by one of the Engineering Council's professional engineering institutions as suitable for registration as an incorporated engineer or chartered engineer with further study to masters level. In Canada, the degree from a Canadian university can be accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB). Alternatively, it might be accredited directly by another professional engineering institution, such as the US-based Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The B.Eng. contributes to the route to chartered engineer (UK), registered engineer or licensed professional engineer and has been approved by representatives of the profession.

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University of Moratuwa university in Sri Lanka

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Khulna University University in Bangladesh

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Purbanchal University

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A double degree program, sometimes called a dual degree, combined degree, conjoint degree, joint degree or double graduation program, involves a student's working for two university degrees in parallel—either at the same institution or at different institutions —and completing them in less time than it would have taken to earn them separately. The two degrees might be in the same subject area, or in two different subjects.

The degree of Master of Arts (MA) in Scotland typically refers to an undergraduate degree in humanities or social sciences awarded by one of the ancient universities of Scotland plus the University of Dundee and Heriot-Watt University. The first two years of the Scottish Master of Arts consist of ordinary Bachelor level courses; however, after these, students who are accepted to pursue the Honours route will complete more advanced subjects and write a dissertation in their fourth year. Students who choose to do a "general" degree will complete their third year at a lower level of specialisation, and receive a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or MA without Honours. For the postgraduate degree referred to in other places as "Master of Arts", Scottish universities usually award the degree of Master of Letters (MLitt) or Master of Science (MSc). Generally, non-ancient universities in Scotland, award arts degrees as Bachelor of Arts.

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University of Agriculture, Faisalabad university in Pakistan

The University of Agriculture (UAF) is a public research university in Faisalabad, Pakistan. It is ranked 4th in Pakistan and 1st in the field of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences by Higher Education Commission (Pakistan) (HEC) Ranking in 2019. It was also ranked at No.127 in life Science and Agricultur Science. The employability ranking by Pakistan made this institution highly reputable. The university came among top 5 institutions of Pakistan in research power. Muhammad Ashraf is serving as Vice Chancellor of the University.

Bachelor of Science in Agriculture academic degree

The Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, usually abbreviated as either B.Sc.(Agr.) or B.S.A. or B.Sc.(Ag.) or B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag. is the first undergraduate degree awarded by university faculty of agriculture and agricultural colleges. The program is 4 years of study above Grade 12 High School graduation.

The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years. Because of these indicated schedules, the reform is sometimes (erroneously) referred to as "3-5-8". The system applies to the European Higher Education Area.

A Bachelor of Science in Information Technology,, is a Bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in the Information technology field. The degree is normally required in order to work in the Information technology industry.

References

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  4. E.g., West Virginia University BS in Economics http://www.be.wvu.edu/econ/index.htm Archived 2016-10-24 at the Wayback Machine ; WVU BA in economics http://majors.wvu.edu/home/details/26
  5. E.g., Wesleyan University http://www.wesleyan.edu/registrar/academic_regulations/degree_requirements.html Archived 2015-07-04 at the Wayback Machine
  6. E.g., Georgia Institute of Technology's BS degrees in International Affairs and Modern Language and in Applied Languages and Intercultural studies http://www.gatech.edu/academics/bachelors-degree-programs
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