Master of Science

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A graduation ring with the Master of Science designation Ringside.jpg
A graduation ring with the Master of Science designation

A Master of Science (Latin : Magisterii Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. [1] In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is typically granted for studies in sciences, engineering and medicine and is usually for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the humanities and social sciences. While it ultimately depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree typically includes writing a thesis.

Contents

The Master of Science degree was first introduced at the University of Michigan in 1858. [2] One of the first recipients of the degree was De Volson Wood, who was conferred a Master of Science degree at the University of Michigan in 1859. [3] [4]

Algeria

Algeria follows the Bologna Process.

Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela

In Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree lasting two to four years. [5] The admission to a Master's program (Spanish: Maestría ; Portuguese: Mestrado) requires the full completion of a four to five year long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree, engineer's degree or a licentiate of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program.

Australia

Australian universities commonly have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved.

Bangladesh

All Bangladeshi private and public universities have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degree. These include most of the major state-owned colleges. A number of private colleges also do offer MS degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science, any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline.

Canada

In Canada, Master of Science (MSc) degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture. Master's programs typically take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree. Some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program (PhD).

Quebec

In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, however, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four. Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to eventually obtain a master's degree.

While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place.

Chile

Commonly the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than that is similar to the rest of South America.

Cyprus, Republic of

Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master's degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1, 2 and 5 years.

Czech Republic, Slovakia

Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process. The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program. The new system takes only 2 years but requires a previously completed 3-year bachelor program (a Bc. title). It is required to write a thesis (in both master and bachelor program) and also to pass final exams. It is mostly the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years.

Egypt

The Master of Science (M.Sc.) is an academic degree for post-graduate candidates or researchers, it usually takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M.Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree.

Finland

Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree usually follows the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) studies which typically last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits. The completion of a scientific thesis is required.

Germany

Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that typically lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science-related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits. The completion of a scientific thesis is required.

Southeastern Europe

In Slavic countries in European southeast (particularly former Yugoslavian republics), the education system was largely based on the German university system (largely due to the presence and influence of the Austria-Hungary Empire [6] in the region). Prior to the implementation of the Bologna Process, academic university studies comprised a 4-5 year long graduate Diplom program, which could have been followed by a 2-4 year long Magister program and then later with 2-4 year long Doctoral studies .

After the Bologna Process implementation, again based on the German implementation, Diplom titles and programs were replaced by the M.Sc. and M.A. programs (depending on the field of study). The studies are structured such that a Master program lasts long enough for the student to accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, so its duration would depend on a number of credits acquired during the Bachelor studies. Pre-Bologna Magister programs were abandoned - after earning an M.Sc/M.A. degree and satisfying other academic requirements a student could proceed to earn a Doctor of Philosophy degree directly.

Guyana

In Guyana, all universities, including University of Guyana, Texila American University, American International School of Medicine have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. Students who have completed undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree are eligible to study in this discipline.

India

In India, universities offer MS programs usually in sciences discipline. Generally, post-graduate scientific courses lead to MS degree while post-graduate engineering courses lead to ME or MTech degree. For example, a master's in automotive engineering would normally be an ME or MTech, while a master's in physics would be an MS. A few top universities also offer undergraduate programs leading to a master's degree which is known as integrated masters.

A Master of Science in Engineering (MS.Engg.) degree is also offered in India. It is usually structured as an engineering research degree, lesser than PhD and considered to be parallel to M.Phil. degree in humanities and science. Some institutes such as IITs offer an MS degree for postgraduate engineering courses. This degree is considered a research-oriented degree whereas MTech or ME degree is usually not a research degree in India. MS degree is also awarded by various IISERs which are one of the top institutes in India.

Iran

In Iran, similar to Canada, Master of Science (MSc) or in Iranian form Karshenasi-arshad degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or most commonly a mixture. Master's programs typically take two to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required.

Ireland

Like all EU member states, Ireland follows the Bologna Process. In Ireland, Master of Science (MSc) may be course-based with a research component or entirely research based. The program is most commonly a one-year program and a thesis is required for both course-based and research based degrees.

Israel

In Israel, Master of Science (MSc) may be entirely course-based or include research. The program is most commonly a two-year program and a thesis is required only for research based degrees.

Italy

Like all EU member states, Italy follows the Bologna Process. The degree Master of Science is awarded in the Italian form, Laurea Magistrale (formerly Laurea specialistica; before the introduction of the Laurea the corresponding degree was Laurea quinquennale or Vecchio Ordinamento).

Nepal

In Nepal, universities offer the master of science degree usually in science and engineering areas. Tribhuvan University offers MSc degree for all the science and engineering courses. Pokhara University offers ME for engineering and MSc for science. Kathmandu University offers MS by Research and ME degrees for science and engineering.

Netherlands

Like all EU member states, the Netherlands follows the Bologna Process. However, a graduate who is awarded the title Master of Science (abbreviated as MSc) may only use the previously awarded Dutch titles if the degree is awarded by a research university, noticeably excluding the HBO Master. [7]

New Zealand

New Zealand universities commonly have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved.

Norway

Norway follows the Bologna Process. For engineering, the Master of Science academic degree has been recently introduced and has replaced the previous award forms "Sivilingeniør" (engineer, a.k.a. engineering master) and "Hovedfag" (academic master). Both were awarded after 5 years of university-level studies and required the completion of a scientific thesis.

"Siv.ing", is a protected title exclusively awarded to engineering students who completed a five-year education at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norwegian : Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, NTNU) or other universities. Historically there was no bachelor's degree involved and today's program is a five years master's degree education. The "Siv.ing" title is in the process of being phased out, replaced by (for now, complemented by) the "M.Sc." title. By and large, "Siv.ing" is a title tightly being held on to for the sake of tradition. In academia, the new program offers separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All master's degrees are designed to certify a level of education and qualify for a doctorate program.

Master of Science in Business is the English title for those taking a higher business degree, "Siviløkonom" in Norwegian. In addition, there is, for example, the 'Master of Business Administration' (MBA), a practically oriented master's degree in business, but with less mathematics and econometrics, due to its less specific entry requirements and smaller focus on research.

Pakistan

Pakistan inherited its conventions pertaining to higher education from United Kingdom after independence in 1947. Master of Science degree is typically abbreviated as M.Sc. (as in the United Kingdom) and which is awarded after 16 years of education (equivalent with a bachelor's degree in the US and many other countries). Recently, in pursuance to some of the reforms by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (the regulatory body of higher education in Pakistan), the traditional 2-year Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree has been replaced by the 4-year Bachelor of Science degree, which is abbreviated as B.S. to enable the Pakistani degrees with the rest of the world.[ clarification needed ] Subsequently, students who pass a 4-year B.S. degree that is awarded after 16 years of education are then eligible to apply for M.S. degree, which is considered at par with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) degree.[ clarification needed ]

Poland

Like all EU member states, Poland follows the Bologna Process. The Polish equivalent of Master of Science is "magister" (abbreviated "mgr", written pre-nominally much like "Dr"). Starting in 2001, the MSc programs typically lasting 5 years began to be replaced as below:

The degree is awarded predominantly in the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, economics, as well as in the arts and other disciplines. Those who graduate from an engineering program prior to being awarded a master's degree are allowed to use the "mgr inż." pre-nominal ("master engineer"). This is most common in engineering and agricultural fields of study. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program.

Russia

The title of "master" was introduced by Alexander I at 24 January 1803. The Master had an intermediate position between the candidate and doctor according to the decree "About colleges structure". The master's degree was abolished from 1917 to 1934. Russia follows the Bologna Process for higher education in Europe since 2011.

Spain

Like all EU member states, Spain follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science (MSc) degree is a program officially recognized by the Spanish Ministry of Education. It usually involves 1 or 2 years of full-time study. It is targeted at pre-experience candidates who have recently finished their undergraduate studies. An MSc degree can be awarded in every field of study. An MSc degree is required in order to progress to a PhD. MSci, MPhil and DEA are equivalent in Spain.

Sweden

Like all EU member states, Sweden follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science academic degree has, like in Germany, recently been introduced in Sweden. Students studying Master of Science in Engineering programs are rewarded both the English Master of Science Degree, but also the Swedish equivalent "Teknologisk masterexamen". Whilst "Civilingenjör" is an at least five year long education. [8]

Syria

The Master of Science is a degree that can be studied only in public universities. The program is usually 2 years, but it can be extended to 3 or 4 years. The student is required to pass a specific bachelor's degree to attend a specific master of science degree program. The master of science is mostly a research degree, except for some types of programs held with cooperation of foreign universities. The student typically attends courses in the first year of the program and should then prepare a research thesis. Publishing two research papers is recommended and will increase the final evaluation grade.[ according to whom? ]

United Kingdom

The Master of Science (MSc) is typically a taught postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examinations and a project dissertation (normally taking up a third of the program). Master's programs usually involve a minimum of 1 year of full-time study (180 UK credits, of which 150 must be at master's level) and sometimes up to 2 years of full-time study (or the equivalent period part-time). [9] Taught master's degrees are normally classified into Pass, Merit and Distinction (although some universities do not give Merit). [10] Some universities also offer MSc by research programs, where a longer project or set of projects is undertaken full-time; master's degrees by research are normally pass/fail, although some universities may offer a distinction. [6] [11]

The more recent Master in Science (MSci or M.Sci.) degree (Master of Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge [12] ), is an undergraduate (UG) level integrated master's degree offered by UK institutions since the 1990s. It is offered as a first degree with the first three (four in Scotland) years similar to a BSc course and a final year (120 UK credits) at master's level, including a dissertation. [9] [13] The final MSci qualification is thus at the same level as a traditional MSc. [14]

United States

The Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degree is normally a full-time two-year degree often abbreviated "MS" or "M.S." It is the primary type in most subjects and may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a combination of the two. The combination often involves writing and defending a thesis or completing a research project which represents the culmination of the material learned.

Admission to a master's program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor's degree and progressing to a doctoral program may require a master's degree. In some fields or graduate programs, work on a doctorate can begin immediately after the bachelor's degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor's and master's degree after about five years. Some universities use the Latin degree names and due to the flexibility of word order in Latin, Artium Magister (A.M.) or Scientiæ Magister (S.M. or Sc.M.) may be used in some institutions.

See also

Related Research Articles

Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is typically referred to as graduate school.

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master's and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees and higher level.

A master's degree is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to six years. The two most common bachelor's degrees are the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the Bachelor of Science. In some institutions and educational systems, certain bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate educations after a first degree has been completed, although more commonly the successful completion of a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for further courses such as a master's or a doctorate.

Doctorate Academic or professional degree

A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, a research degree qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field or work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.

Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the UK it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops, although this is done at some universities.

Bologna Process System for compatibility of higher education qualifications in the European region

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area under the Lisbon Recognition Convention. It is named after the University of Bologna, where the Bologna declaration was signed by education ministers from 29 European countries in 1999. The process was opened to other countries in the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe, and governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), Leuven (2009), Budapest-Vienna (2010), Bucharest (2012), Yerevan (2015), Paris (2018), and Rome (2020).

Doctor of Medicine Postgraduate medical degree

Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a professional graduate degree. This generally arose because many in 18th-century medical professions trained in Scotland, which used the M.D. degree nomenclature. In England, however, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery was used and eventually in the 19th century became the standard in Scotland too. Thus, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the M.D. is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree(Bachelor's/Master's /Doctoral) in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional to the North American and some others use of M.D. is still typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.).

A Bachelor of Engineering is a first professional undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university. In the UK, a B.Eng. degree will be accredited by one of the Engineering Council's professional engineering institutions as suitable for registration as an incorporated engineer or chartered engineer with further study to masters level. In Canada, the degree from a Canadian university can be accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB). Alternatively, it might be accredited directly by another professional engineering institution, such as the US-based Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The B.Eng. contributes to the route to chartered engineer (UK), registered engineer or licensed professional engineer and has been approved by representatives of the profession.

A licentiate is a degree similar to master's degree given by universities in some countries of the European Union and Latin America. The term is also used for a person who holds this degree. The term derives from Latin licentia, "freedom", which is applied in the phrases licentia docendi meaning permission to teach and licentia ad practicandum signifying someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title, but they may represent different educational levels.

A Master of Engineering is either an academic or professional master's degree in the field of engineering.

An engineer's degree is an advanced academic degree in engineering which is conferred in Europe, some countries of Latin America, North Africa and a few institutions in the United States. The degree may require a thesis but always require a non-abstract project.

The Master of Philosophy is a postgraduate degree. An MPhil typically includes a taught portion and a significant research portion, during which a thesis project is conducted under supervision. An MPhil may be awarded to postgraduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrollment for a PhD programme.

The Master of Letters degree is a postgraduate degree.

A double degree program, sometimes called a dual degree, combined degree, conjoint degree, joint degree or double graduation program, involves a student's working for two university degrees in parallel—either at the same institution or at different institutions —and completing them in less time than it would have taken to earn them separately. The two degrees might be in the same subject area, or in two different subjects.

A Master of Arts is the holder of a master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually contrasted with that of Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree have typically studied subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences, such as history, literature, languages, linguistics, public administration, political science, communication studies, law or diplomacy; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.

Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education, and any advanced education and specializations that follow. Engineering education is typically accompanied by additional postgraduate examinations and supervised training as the requirements for a professional engineering license. The length of education, and training to qualify as a basic professional engineer, is typically 8–12 years, with 15–20 years for an engineer who takes responsibility for major projects.

A magister degree is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.

The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years. Because of these indicated schedules, the reform is sometimes (erroneously) referred to as "3-5-8". The system applies to the European Higher Education Area.

A Bachelor of Science is a bachelor's degree awarded for programs that generally last three to five years.

References

  1. "Master of Science". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press.
  2. The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor. University of Michigan Digital Content and Collections. University of Michigan. 2000.
  3. Matz, F. P. (1895). "Biography: De Volson Wood". Mathematical Association of America. The American Mathematical Monthly. 2 (9/10): 253–256. JSTOR   2969269.
  4. The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor. University of Michigan Digital Content and Collections. University of Michigan. 2000.
  5. "CONEAU: Graduate Courses". Ministerio de Education Republica Argentina. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
  6. 1 2 "Masters Degree Grades". Postgrad.com. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  7. "Welke titel mag ik voeren als ik ben afgestudeerd? - Rijksoverheid.nl". 19 April 2011.
  8. "Datateknik, civilingenjör 300 hp" (in Swedish). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
  9. 1 2 "Master's Degree Characteristics Statement". Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  10. "MSc Classification". Postgrad.com. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  11. "MSc by Research in Mathematics". University of Oxford . Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  12. "Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge". www.admin.cam.ac.uk. Chapter VII: Degrees, Diplomas, and Other Qualifications - Master of Natural Sciences (M.Sci.). Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  13. "The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies". Quality Assurance Agency. November 2014. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  14. "University of London Statutes, Ordinances and Regulations" (PDF). www.london.ac.uk. Regulations, Regulation 1 University of London Awards, Section A: List of Degrees and Other Awards which may be Granted: THE DEGREES. Retrieved 25 September 2021.CS1 maint: location (link)