Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the degree used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). It may also be awarded as an honorary degree.
In Algeria, Morocco, Libya and Tunisia, all universities accredited by the state award a "Doctorate" in all fields of science and humanities, equivalent to a PhD in the United Kingdom or United States.
Some universities in these four Arab countries award a "Doctorate of the State" in some fields of study and science. A "Doctorate of the State" is slightly higher in esteem than a regular doctorate, and is awarded after performing additional in-depth post-doctorate research or achievement.[ citation needed ]
Similar to the situation in the US, Japanese universities offer both the Ph.D. and the Sc.D. as initial doctorates in science.
In India only a few prestigious universities offer Sc.D./D.Sc.in science which is obtained in Graduate School after satisfactory evaluation of knowledge, research accomplishment, and a doctoral defence. The oldest institute to award a D.Sc. degree in India is Rajabazar Science College, University of Calcutta.
Higher education institutes in Thailand generally grant Ph.D. for research doctoral degree, except some universities such as Chulalongkorn University award D.Sc. In exception, Mahidol University can grant both Ph.D. and D.Sc. Doctoral students in Faculty of Science are always awarded Ph.D., but some other programs award D.Sc.
The higher education institutes in Uzbekistan also grant D.Sc. degrees. As an example, the National University of Uzbekistan and the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences offer D.Sc. in various fields.
In Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland, the most common doctoral degrees in Natural Sciences are the following:
In these countries there are some related doctoral degrees with very similar names, these are the:
All these doctoral degrees are equivalent to the Ph.D. or Sc.D. of the American system. Until German Reunification, universities in East Germany also awarded the Dr.Sc. However, the East German Dr.Sc. was not equivalent to the Ph.D. since it was adopted to replace the German Habilitation and therefore was equivalent to this higher-level qualification. After reunification the Habilitation was reintroduced at universities in Eastern Germany.
The procedure of habilitation is normally required to receive officially the "venia docendi", which entitles the candidate to lecture at universities ( Privatdozent , for men, or Privatdozentin, for women). The academic degree after the successful habilitation is e.g. Dr. rer.nat. habil., by adding the suffix "habil." to the earlier received Doctors degree.
In Switzerland, the Dr sc. is a doctoral degree awarded only by the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (EPFL and ETHZ),the University of Fribourg and the Department of Informatics of the University of Zurich. The Swiss Dr sc., like the D.Sc. in the US, is equivalent to the PhD. It is earned with the approval of a committee on the basis of original research, publications, and extensive applied professional contributions and is awarded in doctoral level science and technology programs. Since 2004 the Dr sc. is the only doctoral degree awarded by the ETH Zurich. The École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne awards the degree Docteur ès sciences, abbreviated Dr ès sc.and translated into English as PhD.
In Poland "Doctor of Sciences" or "Habilitation" (doktor habilitowany or dr hab. in Polish) is the degree higher than Ph.D. and it is awarded for substantial accomplishments in teaching, research and service after getting the Ph.D. degree (usually up to 8 years after Ph.D.). It is very similar to the equivalent habilitation degree in Germany and Austria. It is also very similar (in terms of requirements) to Associate Professor with tenure.
The highest scientific degree in Poland is "professorship" or "full professor" (tytuł naukowy profesora, profesor tytularny), which is called a scientific title of professor. "Habilitation" has been a mandatory requirement for many years to apply for full professorship in Poland.
In Ireland, the United Kingdom and the countries of the Commonwealth, such as India (in the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay), the degree of Doctor of Science (DSc or ScD) is one of the Higher Doctorates. In some older universities it typically has precedence after Divinity, Laws or Civil Law, Medicine, and Letters, and above Music. The degree is conferred on a member of the university who has a proven record of internationally recognised scholarship. A candidate for the degree will usually be required to submit a selection of their publications to the board of the appropriate faculty, which will decide if the candidate merits this accolade. The award or obtaining of a regular PhD degree is not in any way a pre-requisite for obtaining a DSc, as, for example, it can happen in the sciences that an academic who does a lot of publishing can be awarded a DSc without ever having done a PhD degree.[ citation needed ]
The first University to admit an individual to this degree was the University of London in 1860.In 1893 Maria Gordon (née Ogilvie), was the first woman to receive this degree.
In former times the doctorate in science was regarded as a greater distinction than a professorial chair and hence a professor who was also a D.Sc. would be known as Doctor. The Doctor of Science may also be awarded as an honorary degree, that is, given to individuals who have made extensive contributions to a particular field and not for specific academic accomplishments. It is usual to signify this by adding D.Sc. h.c. (for honoris causa ).
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia "Doctor of Sciences" (DrSc. behind the name), established in 1953, is equivalent to the degree of Doctor of Science in the sense in which the D.Sc. is used in the Commonwealth. It is the highest academic qualification, different from both Ph.D. and PhDr. titles. In the Czech Republic, DrSc. has not been awarded since 2001; instead, since 2006, a "Doctor of Sciences" degree (DSc. behind the name) has been awarded, not by universities but by the Czech Academy of Sciences mostly for research in the field of natural or formal science. In Slovakia, "Doctor of Sciences" (Dr.Sc.) is awarded by the Slovak Academy of Sciences.
In Hungary, "Doctor of Sciences" (D.Sc.) is awarded by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
In Finland, most doctoral degrees awarded in the fields of natural sciences, technology and economics are termed D.Sc. degrees in English, with a suffix indicating the field of study. However, there is no translation of the term Doctor of Science to Finnish. For example, the proper translation for the doctorate in technology (tekniikan tohtori) would be D.Sc. (Tech.), whereas a doctorate in economics and business administration (kauppatieteiden tohtori) would be translated as D.Sc. (Econ.). When conversing or writing in English, the prefix Dr may be used to address a holder of a doctoral degree awarded in Finland. The degrees are equivalent to filosofian tohtori (FT, English: PhD), but FT is usually awarded only in general sciences, not in specializations like engineering, economics or medicine.
In France, the Doctor of Sciences degree (doctorat ès sciences also called doctorat d'État) was a higher doctorate in the fields of experimental and natural sciences, superseded in 1984 by the habilitation.
In Denmark, Dr Scient. is a higher doctorate.
In Bulgaria, PhD is the highest education level and first science degree. Doctor of Science is the second and the highest science degree.
In the former Yugoslavia, (Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Slovenia, North Macedonia),title doktor nauka or doktor znanosti (literally "doctor of science") is used in a much broader sense than D.Sc., simply referring to a field of academic study – from art history (doktor znanosti/nauka povijesti umjetnosti), philosophy (doktor znanosti/nauka filozofije), and literary studies (doktor znanosti/nauka književnosti) to hard sciences such as molecular biology (doktor znanosti/nauka molekularne biologije). It is therefore formally recognized as a Ph.D. degree.
Starting in 2016, Ukrainian: Доктор філософії) is the highest education level and first science degree. "Doctor of Sciences" (DSc. Ukrainian: Доктор наук) is the second and the highest science degree, awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine.in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy (PhD,
In Belarus "Doctor of Sciences" (D.Sc., Belarusian: Доктар навук) is the highest level of education that follows a PhD. Is awarded by The Higher Attestation Commission under the aegis of the President of the Republic of Belarus.
In the United States, the formally recognized traditional Doctor of Science is an academic research doctoral degree awarded by research universities. The academic research Sc.D. (or D.Sc.) is considered by both the United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation to be equivalent to the more commonly awarded Ph.D.
The first North American Sc.D. was inaugurated by Harvard University in 1872, when graduate studies first began at Harvard, and where the Ph.D. and Sc.D. degrees were introduced in the same year.The Doctor of Science research degree is earned with the formal dissertation defense and approval of a committee on the basis of original research and publications, and it is awarded predominantly in doctoral-level science programs, such as engineering, medical and health sciences, and health economics.
Although rarer than the Doctor of Philosophy, the Doctor of Science research degree has been awarded by institutions such as Columbia University,Bowie State University, The George Washington University (although as of 2011 the University decided to offer only the more widely recognized Ph.D. degree), Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Robert Morris University, Towson University, Tulane University., University of Baltimore, and Marymount University.
A few university doctoral research programs offer both the Sc.D. and Ph.D. degrees in the same academic field, such as Johns Hopkins University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology,with identical requirements for obtaining either. Currently, research programs that offer the formal research Sc.D. but not the Ph.D. degree for a given field include several doctoral programs at Harvard University, Boston University, Capitol Technology University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and Dakota State University. The University of Baltimore, School of Information Arts and Technologies offers an Sc.D. degree in Information and Interaction Design, a program focused on usable design/user experience (UX) and Human Computer Interaction (HCI).
There are programs where the Sc.D. and Ph.D. have different degree requirements, though the two degrees are officially considered equivalent. The Engineering school at Washington University in St. Louis, for example, requires four more graduate courses, which can be completed in one year in conjunction with research duties, in the D.Sc. program than the Ph.D. degree, while the Ph.D requires teaching assistance services. The Johns Hopkins University also offers both Ph.D. and Sc.D. in certain programs,with only minor differences in university administration of the degrees. In some institutions, the Sc.D. has been converted to the Ph.D. For instance, the doctoral degree in biostatistics at Harvard recently converted from Sc.D. to Ph.D., even though the doctoral degree structure and requirements have remained identical.
In addition, some institutions offer Doctor of Science degrees through distance learning. They include Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions in health science,Westbrook University in health sciences, holistic health science, holistic nursing and clinical nutrition, Aspen University in computer science, Jacksonville State University in emergency management and Spertus Institute for Jewish Learning and Leadership in Jewish studies.
In Mexico the PhD level is considered a doctoral degree (level 8) similar to the doctorate degrees in Canada and the United States. The Doctor of Sciences degree is instead recognized as a Higher Degree (Grado Proprio).
In Russia and various other post-Soviet states, as well as in some of the former Communist Bloc countries, the status of Russian Doktor nauk (literally 'Doctor of Sciences') is a post-doctoral degree. The degree has no American equivalent but rather is similar to German Habilitation.
In Argentina the formal title Doctor of Science would be attributed to different fields of the hard or soft sciences. To get into an Argentine Ph.D. program the applicant must have experience in research and at least an Engineering, Licentiate or master's degree:
In Brazil only the Doctor in Sciences (D.Sc.) category is recognized as a higher doctorate,generally followed by the concentration area (program field).
This kind of doctorate is obtained in Graduate School after satisfactory evaluation of knowledge, research accomplishment, and thesis defense. This doctorate is comparable to a Ph.D. program found in other countries. In the state of São Paulo, the doctorate title is the second highest academic title given by the state's universities (University of São Paulo (USP), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and São Paulo State University (UNESP)) and most Federal Universities, such as the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). The highest academic title is the Livre-Docência, which is not equivalent to the German Habilitation, since "Livre-Docência" is not a requisite to be a professor in Brazilian universities, and German Habilitation is a requisite to be a professor in German universities.
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre[dɔˈkeːrɛ] 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europe since the 13th century, when the first doctorates were awarded at the University of Bologna and the University of Paris.
Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is typically referred to as graduate school.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master's and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees and higher level.
A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, a research degree qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field or work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
Habilitation is a qualification required in order to conduct self-contained university teaching, and to obtain a professorship in many European countries. Despite changes implemented in European higher-education systems consequent to the Bologna Process, habilitation is the highest qualification issued through the process of a university examination, and remains a core concept of scholarly careers in these countries.
Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, and some other countries, the M.D. denotes a professional graduate degree. This generally arose because many in 18th-century medical professions trained in Scotland, which used the M.D. degree nomenclature. In England, however, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery was used and eventually in the 19th century became the standard in Scotland too. Thus, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the M.D. is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree(Bachelor's/Master's /Doctoral) in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional to the North American and some others use of M.D. is still typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.).
The Doctor of Technology is a degree normally conferred upon candidates after having completed a course of study in technology and a project of lengthy duration in a technologically related field. Like other doctorates, it is usually an academic degree at the highest level; the degree may rank below, alongside, or above the Ph.D. depending on the specifics of the national system within which it is awarded.
The Doctor of Business Administration is a professional doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study, examinations, project work and research in business administration. The D.B.A. is a terminal degree in business administration. Although, some universities also combine the business administration field with technology-related disciplines.Along with the Ph.D. or D.Phil., it represents the highest academic qualification in business administration, and is typically required to gain employment as a full-time, tenure-track university professor or postdoctoral researcher in the field. As with other earned doctorates, individuals with the degree are awarded the academic title doctor, which is often represented via the English honorific "Dr." or the post-nominal letters "DBA" or "PhD."
Legum Doctor (LL.D.) or, in English, Doctor of Laws, is a doctorate-level academic degree in law or an honorary degree, depending on the jurisdiction. The double "L" in the abbreviation refers to the early practice in the University of Cambridge to teach both canon law and civil law, with the double "L" itself indicating the plural. This contrasts with the practice of the University of Oxford, where the degree that survived from the Middle Ages is the DCL or Doctor of Civil Law (only).
Kandidat nauk is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in Soviet Union and many post-Soviet countries. It is formally classified as UNESCO ISCED level 8, "doctoral or equivalent". It may be recognized as Doctor of Philosophy, usually in natural sciences, by scientific institutions in other countries. Former Soviet countries also have a more advanced degree, Doctor of Sciences.
A terminal degree is a university degree that can signify one of two outcomes. In some cases, it is the highest degree that can be awarded in a specific academic or professional track. In other cases, it is a degree that is awarded when a candidate completes a certain amount of coursework but does not go on to doctoral work. Some students enroll in a terminal Master's program with the goal of preparing to enter a PhD program. For certain professions and research grants it means the lowest degree to be considered qualified.
Doctor of Letters is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as the Doctor of Science. It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of superior accomplishment in the humanities, original contributions to the creative or cultural arts, or scholarship and other merits. It may be conferred as an earned degree upon the completion of a regular doctoral course of study, usually including the development and defense of an original dissertation, or may be conferred as an earned higher doctorate after the submission and academic evaluation of a portfolio of sustained scholarship, publications, research, or other scientific work of the highest caliber.
The Doctor of Engineering, or Engineering Doctorate, is a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in engineering and applied sciences. In most countries, it is a terminal research doctorate. An EngD degree is essentially an engineering PhD with a solid industrial base and an additional taught element.
The degree of Doctor of Computer Science is an applied research doctorate in computer science awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in the field of computer science. While it is considered a terminal degree and requires coursework and research beyond the masters' level, the DCS is not considered equivalent to a Ph.D. or a Doctor of Science in computer science.
Doctor of Sciences is a higher doctoral degree in Russian Empire, Soviet Union and many post-Soviet countries, which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences.
A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.
Doctor Medicinae, also spelled Doctor Medicinæ and abbreviated Dr. Med., is a higher doctoral degree in medicine awarded by universities in Denmark and formerly in Norway. It is officially translated as Doctor of Medical Science (D.M.Sc.), corresponding to similarly named higher doctorates found in some Commonwealth countries. It is regarded as a higher doctorate and officially ranks above the Danish PhD degree.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science, Juris Doctor (J.D.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), and Legum Doctor (LL.D.).
Academic ranks in Hungary are the titles, relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel held in academia.