President of Belarus

Last updated
President of the
Republic of Belarus
Прэзідэнт Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian)
Президент Республики Беларусь (Russian)
Flag of the President of Belarus.svg
Presidential Standard
Alexander Lukashenko 2022 (cropped).jpg
Alexander Lukashenko
since 20 July 1994
Disputed since 23 September 2020 [1]
Executive branch of the Government of Belarus
Style Mr President
His Excellency
Type Head of state
Head of government
Residence Independence Palace, Minsk (ceremonial)
Presidential Residence, Minsk (residential)
Appointer Popular vote
Term length 5 years, renewable once
Constituting instrument Constitution of Belarus
Formation20 July 1994;28 years ago (1994-07-20)
First holder Stanislav Shushkevich
Deputy Prime Minister of Belarus
Salary~US$33,600, annual [2]
Website(in Belarusian)
(in Russian)
(in English)

The president of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian : Прэзідэнт Рэспублікі Беларусь; Russian : Президент Республики Беларусь) is the head of state and head of government of Belarus. The office was created in 1994 with the passing of the Constitution of Belarus by the Supreme Soviet. This replaced the office of Chairman of the Supreme Soviet as the head of state. The tasks of the president include executing foreign and domestic policy, defending the rights and general welfare of citizens and residents, and upholding the Constitution. The president is mandated by the Constitution to serve as a leader in the social affairs of the country and to act as its main representative abroad. The duties, responsibilities and other transitional clauses dealing with the presidency are listed in Chapter Three, Articles 79 through 89, of the Constitution.


The term for the president is five years, but due to a 1996 referendum, the election that was supposed to occur in 1999 was pushed back to 2001. Under the 1994 constitution, the president could only serve for two terms as president, but due to a change in the constitution, term limits were eliminated. In the 2022 constitutional referendum, a limit of two terms was reimposed, though only on "newly elected presidents". During the course of the office, elections were held in 1994, 2001, 2006, 2010, 2015 and 2020. Alexander Lukashenko is the only person to serve as president since the 1994 elections. The presidential office is located in the Palace of the Republic in Minsk, while the presidential residence is located in Zaslawye (Заслаўе), Minsk District.

Historical background

Belarus first declared independence in early 1918 as the Belarusian Democratic Republic. Its head of state was the president of a provisional supreme governing body, the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic. In 1919, the Soviet Red Army forced the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic into exile where the Rada still exists, now led by President Ivonka Survilla. Under Soviet rule, the de facto leader of the Byelorussian SSR was the first secretary of the Communist Party of Byelorussia, the only legal party in Soviet Belarus.

The Republic of Belarus was formed in 1991 shortly after declaring itself independent of the Soviet Union. From independence until passage of the Constitution in 1994, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government. When the office of the presidency was created, the role of the prime minister was reduced to assisting the president and resulted in the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet, along with its chairman, in 1996. [3] [4]

In the first set of elections for the office of president, the prime minister of Belarus, Vyacheslav Kebich, was defeated in a runoff vote by Alexander Lukashenko, resulting in Lukashenko becoming the first president. [3] In elections of 2001 and 2006, which were contested by international observers, Western powers and internal opposition parties due for failing to meet democratic and fair standards, [5] the incumbent Lukashenko defeated the other candidates within the first ballot. As of 2023, he is the only person to have served as President of Belarus. [6]

Constitutional status

Article 79 of the Constitution of Belarus gives the status of head of state to the president of the Republic of Belarus. They are also considered the guardian of the Constitution and the rights and freedoms of those who claim Belarusian citizenship or residency. The president is the personification of unification of the Belarusian state when conducting foreign or internal affairs and shall be the main representative when dealing with other nations or international organizations. The president is also entrusted with the safety, prosperity and stability of the country and acts as an intermediary between the bodies of the national government. [7]

During their tenure in office, the president is barred from formal membership in a political party.

Selection process


In order to be able to run for office, a candidate must be a Belarusian citizen by birth that is over thirty-five years old. The candidate must also reside within the republic for ten years and able to cast a ballot legally. The provisions are set down in Article 80 of the Constitution. [7]

Nomination and election

Elections for president occur every five years by a national vote. To be registered as a candidate for the presidency the prospective candidate is first required to have an initiative group of citizens containing no fewer than 100 persons. [8] The initiative group must be registered with the Central Elections Commission no later than 85 days before the election. [8] If successfully registered, the nominated candidate is tasked with collecting at least 100,000 valid signatures from eligible voters. If the Central Elections Commissions find that this threshold has been reached, the candidate is officially certified to run for the presidency. [8]

In the voting, the secret ballots are collected directly from eligible voters. The election is valid only if more than 50 % of registered voters cast a ballot. During the first round of voting, if a candidate earns fifty percent plus one of the votes, they are declared the President-elect. If no one has achieved that number during the first round, then a run-off election will occur between two candidates who won the most votes. The person who wins the most votes in the run-off is declared the president-elect. [7]

In the event the office is vacant, the election to replace the president must occur between thirty and seventy days after the vacancy occurred. During normal election cycles, the elections must occur before the last two months of the current president. In either situation, the government body that calls for elections is the House of Representatives. [7] The last round of presidential elections occurred in 2020. [9] President Lukashenko, when addressing the press in February 2007, stated his health will determine if he will run in 2011 or step down at that time. [10]

Powers and duties

Articles 84 and 85 states the official political, social and national defense duties that are rested with the president. Other than the enumerated powers, Number 30 allows the president to use other powers granted to them either from national law or from other sections of the Constitution. [7]

Part of the prerogative of the president is the right to call referendums, and to call regular and extraordinary elections to the House of Representatives, the Council of the Republic and local representative bodies. They can also dissolve both chambers of the Parliament, as the Constitution permits. It is their duty to appoint the prime minister of the Republic of Belarus, and to decide the structure of the Government of the Republic of Belarus. The president signs bills, and has the right to veto and return it, fully or in parts, with objections to the House of Representatives. They also appoint – and can dismiss – the deputy Prime ministers, the ministers and the other members of the Government, and they decide in cases of resignation of the Government, or any of its members. [7]

The president appoints the chairperson of the Supreme Court, and can dismiss this chairperson and other judges. The president is supposed to deliver annual messages to the Parliament, and has the right to participate in the sessions of Parliament and its bodies. In instances of strike, the president has the right, in instances specified in the law, to defer or suspend a strike for a period not exceeding three months. In international affairs, it is the president's duty to conduct negotiations and sign international treaties, and to appoint and recall diplomatic representatives of the Republic. [7]

Not only the president is the head of government, they are the social leader of Belarus. The president delivers messages to the citizens several times a year and can issue decrees to establish red letter days and national holidays. The president is the main authority for the granting of Belarusian citizen and can present state decorations to honored individuals. The president also has the ability to determine the status of asylum seekers and grant pardons to convicted citizens. [7]

As the supreme commander-in-chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces, the president has the duty to protect the Belarusian territory from internal and external forces. The president can call for a state of emergency in the following cases: natural disasters, a catastrophe, or unrest involving violence or the threat of violence. Regardless if the declaration affects the entire country or sections of it, the Council of the Republic must be notified by the president and must seek their approval within three days of notification. The same rules applies if the president issues a state of martial law in the event of a possible military action against Belarus. The president has to form and head the Security Council of the Republic of Belarus, and can appoint and dismiss the state secretary of the Security Council and the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces. [7]

Oath of office

Before any person can assume the office officially, an oath must be sworn within two months of the election results being finalized. The text of the oath is as follows:

Assuming the office of President of the Republic of Belarus, I solemnly swear to faithfully serve the people of the Republic of Belarus, to respect and safeguard the rights and liberties of man and citizen, to abide by and protect the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, and to discharge strictly and conscientiously the lofty duties that have been bestowed upon me.

During the inauguration ceremony, members of both houses of the National Assembly, government ministers, officials and judges from the Constitutional, Supreme and Economic Court must be present. Upon reading of the oath, any powers held by a previous president will be transferred to the president-elect. The text of the oath can be found in Article 83 of the Constitution. [7]


Articles 87 through 89 of the Constitution deal with how the presidency can change hands in-between election cycles. The president has the ability to resign from office at any time under Article 87. The letter of resignation is sent to the House of Representatives and is accepted by them. The president has the ability to be removed from office if their physical or mental health is impaired under Article 88. In order for this to happen, a two-thirds majority must be reached in the House of Representatives and the Council of the Republic on the resolution to remove the president. [7]

An ad hoc committee is formed and must make the determination about the state of health before any motion can begin. If the president has committed a grave crime, such as treason, one-third of the House must bring charges against the president formally. The investigation of the charges will be conducted by the Council of the Republic. In order to evict the president from office, a two-thirds majority is needed to vote in favor of conviction. The criminal case is further sent to the Supreme Court for review. The actions of either option must occur one month after the resolution is passed or the action will be considered void by the Constitution. [7]


The Presidential Palace Minsk Prasidentenpalast 1.JPG
The Presidential Palace
Independence Palace Dvorets nezavisimosti v Minske.jpg
Independence Palace

Under Article 79 of the Constitution, the president is immune from arrest, with exception to the treason/grave crimes clauses listed in Article 88 in the same document. Also under Article 79, the honor and dignity of the president will be protected by national law. [7] Information, either printed in the news or reported on television, that is considered defamation against the president is illegal under Article 5 of the Belarusian Law on Press. [11] [12]

The Presidential Palace (Belarusian : Рэзідэнцыя Прэзідэнта, Russian : Резиденция президента) is a Stalinist Empire style building located on October Square in Minsk surrounded by the streets of Marx, Engels, Kirov and Komsomol. Like the American White House, the streets close to the official residence are closed off to vehicular traffic and are patrolled by police forces. Having been used since 1994, it formerly housed the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Byelorussia. [13] [14] The president also has use of the Independence Palace in Minsk.


Officially, the only symbol denoting the presence of the president is the flag of the president of Belarus (Штандар Прэзідэнта Рэспублікі Беларусь). The standard, which has been in use since March 27, 1997, was adopted by a decree called "Concerning the Standard of the President of Republic of Belarus." signed into law by President Lukashenko.

The standard's design is an exact copy of the national flag, with the addition of the Belarusian national emblem in gold. The standard's ratio of 5:6 differs from that of the national flag, making the standard almost square. The standard is bordered by a golden fringe. There are several copies of the standard; the original is kept in the office of the president while other copies are used on buildings, residences and vehicles to denote their presence. [15] [16]

List of presidents of Belarus (1994–present)

Term of officePartyElection
Took officeLeft office
1 Alexander Lukashenko 2022 (cropped).jpg Alexander Lukashenko
(born 1954)
20 July 1994Incumbent [lower-alpha 1] Independent
(close to Belaya Rus)
28 years, 198 days
  1. Lukashenko's presidency is disputed since 23 September 2020.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belarus</span> Country in Eastern Europe

Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Covering an area of 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) and with a population of 9.2 million, Belarus is the 13th-largest and the 20th-most populous country in Europe. The country has a hemiboreal climate and is administratively divided into seven regions. Minsk is the capital and largest city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Belarus</span> Political system of Belarus

The politics of Belarus takes place in a framework of a presidential republic with a bicameral parliament. The President of Belarus is the head of state. Executive power is nominally exercised by the government, at its top sits a ceremonial prime minister, appointed directly by the President. Legislative power is de jure vested in the bicameral parliament, the National Assembly, however the president may enact decrees that are executed the same way as laws, for undisputed time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Lukashenko</span> President of Belarus since 1994

Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko is a Belarusian politician who has been the first and only president of Belarus since the establishment of the office on 20 July 1994, making him the longest-sitting European president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">My Belarusy</span> National anthem of Belarus

The "State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus", better known as "My Belarusy", is the national anthem of Belarus. It was originally written in the 1940s and adopted in 1955 for use in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. The music of the Byelorussian SSR's regional anthem was composed by Niescier Sakałoŭski and the lyrics were written by Michas Klimkovič. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the music composed by Sakalowski was kept and the lyrics were discarded. New lyrics, which were written by Klimkovič and Uladzimir Karyzna, were adopted by a presidential decree issued on 2 July 2002.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flag of Belarus</span> National flag

The national flag of Belarus is a red-and-green flag with a white-and-red ornament pattern placed at the hoist (staff) end. The current design was introduced in 2012 by the State Committee for Standardisation of the Republic of Belarus, and is adapted from a design approved in a May 1995 referendum. It is a modification of the 1951 flag used while the country was a republic of the Soviet Union. Changes made to the Soviet-era flag were the removal of communist symbols – the hammer and sickle and the red star – as well as the reversal of the colours in the ornament pattern. Since the 1995 referendum, several flags used by Belarusian government officials and agencies have been modelled on this national flag.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elections in Belarus</span> Political elections for public offices in Belarus

Belarus elects on national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly has two chambers. The House of Representatives has 110 members elected in single-seat constituencies elected for a four-year term. The Council of the Republic has 64 members, 56 members indirectly elected and eight members appointed by the president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hero of Belarus</span> Highest title that can be bestowed on a citizen of Belarus

Hero of Belarus is the highest title that can be bestowed on a citizen of Belarus. The title is awarded to those "who perform great deeds in the name of freedom, independence and prosperity of the Republic of Belarus". The deed can be for military performance, economic performance or great service to the State and society. The design of the medal is similar to that of its predecessor, Hero of the Soviet Union. Similar titles to the Hero of Belarus include the Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Ukraine, and Hero of Uzbekistan. Since its creation, the title has been awarded to eleven people.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Constitution of Belarus</span> Supreme law of Belarus

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus is the ultimate law of Belarus. The Constitution is composed of a preamble and nine sections divided into 146 articles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belarus–United States relations</span> Bilateral relations

Interstate relations between the United States and Belarus began in 1991 upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, of which Belarus had been a part. However, the relations have turned sour due to accusations by the United States that Belarus has been violating human rights. Belarus, in turn, has accused the United States of interfering in its internal affairs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006 Belarusian presidential election</span> Presidential election in Belarus

Presidential elections were held in Belarus on 19 March 2006. The result was a victory for incumbent, President Alexander Lukashenko, who received 84.4% of the vote. However, Western observers deemed the elections rigged. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) declared that the election "failed to meet OSCE commitments for democratic elections". In contrast, election observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) described the vote as open and transparent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Representatives (Belarus)</span> Lower house of the National Assembly of Belarus

The House of Representatives of the National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus is the lower house of the parliament of Belarus, while the upper house is the Council of the Republic. It was established after the Constitution of Belarus was amended in 1996, replacing the Supreme Council of Belarus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1996 Belarusian referendum</span> 1996 referendum by the Belarusian government on political, constitutional, and financial changes

A seven-question referendum was held in Belarus on 24 November 1996. Four questions were put forward by President Alexander Lukashenko on changing the date of the country's independence day, amending the constitution, changing laws on the sale of land and the abolition of the death penalty. The Supreme Council put forward three questions on constitutional amendments by the Communist and Agrarian factions, local elections and the national finances.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 Belarusian presidential election</span> Presidential election in Belarus

Presidential elections were held in Belarus on 19 December 2010. The elections were had originally been planned for the beginning of 2011. However, the final date was set during an extraordinary session of the National Assembly on 14 September 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belarusian opposition</span> Democratic political movement in the Republic of Belarus

The Belarusian opposition consists of groups and individuals in Belarus seeking to challenge, from 1988 to 1991, the authorities of Soviet Belarus, and since 1995, the leader of the country Alexander Lukashenko, whom supporters of the movement often consider to be a dictator. Supporters of the movement tend to call for a parliamentary democracy based on a Western model, with freedom of speech and political and religious pluralism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2015 Belarusian presidential election</span> Presidential election in Belarus

Presidential elections were held in Belarus on 11 October 2015. Long-term president Alexander Lukashenko ran for his fifth term in office, having won every presidential election since independence in 1991. He was re-elected with 84% of the vote, according to official figures. The 'against all' option received more votes than any opposition candidate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Security Council of Belarus</span>

The Security Council of Belarus is an interdepartmental body with a mandate to ensure the security of the Republic of Belarus. It considers internal and external affairs of the state with regard to the interest of maintaining security and defense. The Council was established upon the adoption of Resolution +1249 on 15 November 1991. The current Secretary of the Council is Alexander Volfovich.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2020 Belarusian presidential election</span>

Presidential elections were held in Belarus on Sunday, 9 August 2020. Early voting began on 4 August and ran until 8 August.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">International reactions to the 2020 Belarusian presidential election and protests</span>

The following is a list of the official reactions to the 2020 Belarusian presidential election and the surrounding 2020 Belarusian protests.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2022 Belarusian constitutional referendum</span> Constitutional referendum in Belarus

The 2022 Belarusian constitutional referendum was held in Belarus on 27 February 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1999 Belarusian presidential election</span> Non-binding presidential election held by the Belarusian opposition

The 1999 Belarusian presidential election was a political protest action by members of Belarusian opposition who did not recognise the 1996 constitutional reform which extended Alexander Lukashenko's presidential term.


  1. "Exiled leader calls weekend of protests in Belarus". BBC News. 14 August 2020.
    "Golos platform presents the final report on the presidential election". 20 August 2020 via
    "EU rejects Lukashenko inauguration as illegitimate". 24 September 2020 via
    "Britain and Canada impose sanctions on Belarus leader Lukashenko". Reuters. 29 September 2020 via
    "OSCE Report on the Presidential Elections 2020 in Belarus" (PDF). 29 October 2020 via
    "Belarus protesters battered, bruised but defiant after 100 days". BBC News. 17 November 2020.
  2. Journal, World Economic. "How Much Presidents and Prime Ministers Make - Articles - World Economic Journal".
  3. 1 2 Country Studies Belarus - Prelude to Independence. Library of Congress. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  4. CNN "Belarus president convenes new parliament". Archived from the original on January 24, 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). Published November 26, 1996. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  5. "Presidential Election, Republic of Belarus". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 2006-03-20.
  6. British Broadcasting Corporation News Timeline of Belarus. Published March 27, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Webportal of the President of the Republic of Belarus Section 4 of the Constitution Archived 2007-12-17 at the Wayback Machine . Published 1994, amended in 1996. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  8. 1 2 3 "Electoral Code of the Republic of Belarus, Article 61. Order of nominating candidates for the President of the Republic of Belarus, Chapter 15, Article 61". National Center of Legal Information of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  9. "Belarus sets date of presidential election for 19 December 2010". Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
  10. MosNews. Rightist Group Promote Belarus Dictator Lukashenko as Russian Presidential Candidate. Published February 28, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
  11. Global Campaign of Free Expression Comment on the Decision of the Supreme Economic Court of the Republic of Belarus: Case 1-9/2002 of 13 June 2002 Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine . Published August 2002. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  12. Law of the Republic of Belarus Legal Acts - On Press and Other Mass Media Archived 2010-06-06 at the Wayback Machine . Passed 1995, amended in 2006. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  13. Two Steps Back. Published by Lior Kodner on February 10, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
  14. "Stalinist architecture of Minsk". Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  15. Decree dated March 27, 1997, creating the presidential standard (in Russian). English summary of decree [ permanent dead link ]
  16. "Указ Президента Республики Беларусь О штандарте (флаге) Президента Республики Беларусь | Геральдика.ру".