|Sovereign Prince of Monaco|
| Albert II |
since 6 April 2005
|Style||His Serene Highness|
|First monarch||Honoré II (as prince; previous rulers were called lords until 1612)|
|Formation||29 November 1604|
|Website||Monarchy of Monaco|
The sovereign prince (French : prince de Monaco) is the monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. All reigning princes have taken the name of the House of Grimaldi, although some have belonged to other families (Goyon de Matignon or Polignac) in the male line. When Prince Rainier III died in 2005, he was Europe's longest reigning monarch. The Grimaldi family, which has ruled Monaco for eight centuries, is Europe's longest-ruling royal family.
The presently reigning prince is Albert II, who ascended in April 2005.
Monaco, along with Liechtenstein and Vatican City, is one of only three states in Western Europe where the monarch still plays an active role in day-to-day politics.
The Prince of Monaco exercises their authority in accordance with the Constitution and laws. They represent the principality in foreign relations and any revision, either total or partial, of the Constitution must be jointly agreed to by the monarch and the National Council.
Legislative power is divided between the Prince who initiates the laws, and the National Council which votes on them. Executive power is retained by the monarch, who has veto power over all legislation proposed by the National Council.
The minister of state and the Government Council are directly responsible to the Prince for the administration of the principality.
Judiciary powers also belong to the monarch. The present Constitution states that the prince has full authority in the courts and tribunals which render justice in his or her name.
Pursuant to Article 16 of the 1962 Constitution, the Prince confers orders, titles and other distinctions (see Awards and decorations of Monaco) as the fons honorum of the Principality of Monaco.
In 2005, The New York Times reported that loyalty to the princely family is fierce; few residents of Monaco want to be quoted saying anything negative about the monarchy.
The princely family receives annual allocation from the budget of Monaco, €43.5 million in 2015.
The Prince is styled His Serene Highness. chateaux in France. Most were granted or recognised by the Kingdom of France or the Papal States and could only pass through the male line; they therefore became extinct as French dignities on the death of Albert's great-grandfather Prince Louis II in 1949. Thereafter, some of these titles were implicitly re-created as distinctly Monegasque titles.Although used only formally, the Prince also bears several other hereditary titles, some of which are occasionally bestowed on his relatives or their spouses. Some of these titles have merged with the Crown of Monaco as a result of the Grimaldi family's acquisition of various fiefs; they no longer imply ownership or territorial authority, although the princes of Monaco have long been substantial owners of land and
The current prince's complete titles and styles are, in precedent order of rank:
All palace correspondence features capitalized pronouns when referring to the prince.
The tradition of the monarchy of Monaco was that the flag flying from the staff on the tower above his office be hoisted when the prince was present in Monaco.The current prince flies the flag whether he is present or not, preferring to keep his location private.
Monaco is officially protected by France, according to terms set forth in the Treaty of Versailles in 1918.
The politics of Monaco take place within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, with the Prince of Monaco as head of state, with some powers devolved to several advisory and legislative bodies.
A prince is a male ruler or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a title of nobility, often hereditary, in some European states. The female equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun prīnceps, from primus (first) and caput (head), meaning "the first, foremost, the chief, most distinguished, noble ruler, prince".
Alice Heine was an American-born Princess consort of Monaco, by marriage to Prince Albert I of Monaco. Marcel Proust used her as a model for the Princesse de Luxembourg in his novel, In Search of Lost Time. Her first husband was the Duke of Richelieu, and one of the titles of her second husband was Duke of Mazarin; she was thus unique in bearing the titles of both Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin.
Louis II was Prince of Monaco from 26 June 1922 to 9 May 1949.
Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois, was the daughter of Louis II, Prince of Monaco, and the mother of Prince Rainier III. From 1922 until 1944, she was the Hereditary Princess of Monaco, heiress presumptive to the throne.
Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy was a member of the princely family of Monaco. She was the elder sister of Prince Rainier III. Her parents were Count Pierre de Polignac and Charlotte, Hereditary Princess of Monaco and Duchess of Valentinois.
Albert II is Prince of Monaco since 2005.
Prince Pierre of Monaco, Duke of Valentinois was the father of Rainier III of Monaco. He was a promoter of art, music, and literature in Monaco and served as the head of the country's delegation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and to the International Olympic Committee.
The succession to the throne of the Principality of Monaco is currently governed by Princely Law 1.249 of 2 April 2002.
The House of Grimaldi is the current reigning house of the Principality of Monaco. The house was founded in 1160 by Grimaldo Canella in Genoa and became the ruling house of Monaco when Francesco Grimaldi captured Monaco in 1297. The House of Grimaldi has produced every Prince of Monaco. During much of the Ancien Régime, the family resided in the French court, where from 1642 to 1715 they used the title of Duke of Valentinois.
Duke of Valentinois is a title of nobility, originally in the French peerage. It is currently one of the many hereditary titles claimed by the Prince of Monaco despite its extinction in French law in 1949. Though it originally indicated administrative control of the Duchy of Valentinois, based around the city of Valence, the duchy has since become part of France, making the title simply one of courtesy.
The Franco-Monégasque Treaties of 1861, 1918, and 2002 are the basis of the relationship between the French Republic and the Principality of Monaco. The treaties define Monaco's independent status and sovereignty, as well as the rights of succession of the princely House of Grimaldi.
The Monaco succession crisis of 1918 arose because France objected to the prospect of a German national inheriting the throne of the Principality of Monaco. Prince Albert I had only one legitimate child, the Hereditary Prince Louis, then heir apparent to the principality. As World War I drew to a close, Prince Louis, at the age of forty-eight, remained (legally) childless, unmarried, and unbetrothed.
Louise d'Aumont, duchesse d'Aumont, duchesse Mazarin et de La Meilleraye, was a French Duchess and a Princess of Monaco by marriage to Honoré IV, Prince of Monaco.
The Prince's Palace of Monaco is the official residence of the Sovereign Prince of Monaco. Built in 1191 as a Genoese fortress, during its long and often dramatic history it has been bombarded and besieged by many foreign powers. Since the end of the 13th century, it has been the stronghold and home of the Grimaldi family who first captured it in 1297. The Grimaldi ruled the area first as feudal lords, and from the 17th century as sovereign princes, but their power was often derived from fragile agreements with their larger and stronger neighbours.
Princess Florestine Gabrielle Antoinette of Monaco was the youngest child and only daughter of Florestan I, Prince of Monaco, and his wife, Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz. Florestine was a member of the House of Grimaldi and a Princess of Monaco by birth and a member of the House of Württemberg and Duchess consort of Urach and Countess of Württemberg through her marriage to Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach.
Duke of Estouteville was a title in the French nobility that is claimed today by the Prince of Monaco.
Ercole Grimaldi, Marquis of Baux was a member of the House of Grimaldi. He was the first Monegasque prince and heir apparent to the first Monegasque sovereign prince, Honoré II. Dying at the age of 27, Baux was replaced as heir apparent by his son Louis who succeeded Honoré II.
Jacques, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Baux, is the heir apparent to the Monegasque throne. He is the son of Prince Albert II and Princess Charlene, and twin brother of Princess Gabriella. He also holds the title of Marquis of Baux, which all the heirs apparent to the crown of Monaco have held since 1643.