Kingdom of Montenegro

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Kingdom of Montenegro [1]
Краљевина Црна Горa
Kraljevina Crna Gora
1910–1918
Anthem:  Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori
Убавој нам Црној Гори
"To Our Beautiful Montenegro"
Kingdom of Montenegro (1914).svg
The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1914
Capital Cetinje (1910–1916)
Capital-in-exile Bordeaux
Neuilly-sur-Seine
Common languages Serbian
Religion
Eastern Orthodox (official) [2]
Government Unitary constitutional monarchy
King  
 1910–1918
Nicholas I
Prime Minister  
 1910–1912 (first)
Lazar Tomanović
 1917–1918 (last)
Evgenije Popović
Legislature Parliament
Historical era World War I
 Proclamation
28 August 1910
1912–1913
30 May 1913
1914–1918
20 July 1917
28 November 1918
Currency Montenegrin Perper
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Principality of Montenegro.svg Principality of Montenegro
Kingdom of Serbia State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg
Today part of Montenegro
Serbia
Kosovo [a]
  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states are said to have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian : Краљевина Црна Горa, romanized: Kraljevina Crna Gora) was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present-day Montenegro, during the tumultuous period of time on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Officially it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918, following the end of World War I, with the Montenegrin government still in exile, the Podgorica Assembly proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia, which itself was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes three days later, on 1 December 1918. This unification with Serbia would last, through various successor states, for almost 88 years, until finally coming to an end in 2006.

Contents

History

1899 map of the Balkans; Montenegro is coloured magenta. Balkan states 1899.jpg
1899 map of the Balkans; Montenegro is coloured magenta.

Prince Nicholas of Montenegro proclaimed the Kingdom of Montenegro in Cetinje on 28 August 1910, elevating the country from the rank of Principality. King Nicholas I had ruled the country as Prince since 1860, and had initiated several modernising reforms at the beginning of the 20th century, such as introducing a constitution and a new currency, the Montenegrin perper.

Montenegro joined the First Balkan War in 1912, hoping to win a share in the last Ottoman-controlled areas of Rumelia. Montenegro did make further territorial gains by splitting Sandžak with Serbia on 30 May 1913. But the Montenegrins had to abandon the newly captured city of İşkodra (Skadar in Serbian, modern-day Shkodër) to the new state of Albania in May 1913, at the insistence of the Great Powers. Esad Pasha made a deal to surrender the town to the Montenegrins in exchange for Montenegro supporting his claims in Central Albania. However, as Shkodër and the surroundings had a large ethnic Albanian majority, the area went to the state of Albania instead. When the Second Balkan War broke out in June 1913, Serbia fought against Bulgaria, and King Nicholas sided with Serbia.

During World War I (1914–1918) Montenegro allied itself with the Triple Entente, in line with King Nicholas' pro-Serbian policy. Accordingly, Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro from 15 January 1916 to October 1918.

On 20 July 1917, the signing of the Corfu Declaration foreshadowed the unification of Montenegro with Serbia. On 26 November 1918, Podgorica Assembly, an elected body claiming to represent Montenegrin people, unanimously adopted a resolution deposing king Nicholas I (who was still in exile) and unifying Montenegro with Serbia. Upon this event Nicholas I, who had previously supported unification with Serbia into a greater state with his dynasty playing the pivotal role, switched to promoting Montenegrin nationalism and opposing the union with Serbia, a position he maintained until his death in France in 1921.

On 1 December 1918, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was created, where both Serbia and Montenegro were parted.

During World War II, the occupying forces in Yugoslavia considered turning the Italian governorate of Montenegro into a puppet kingdom, but nothing came of these plans.

Rulers

King of Montenegro (1910–1918)

Prime Ministers (1910–1916)

Prime Ministers in-exile (1916–1922)

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of Montenegro begins in the Early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by the Republic of Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Montenegrins

Montenegrins are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.

Central Serbia Region of Serbia

Central Serbia, also referred to as Serbia proper, is the region of Serbia lying outside the provinces of Vojvodina to the north and the disputed territory of Kosovo to the south. Central Serbia is a term of convenience, not an administrative division of Serbia as such, and does not have any form of separate administration.

Nicholas I of Montenegro King of Montenegro

Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as prince from 1860 to 1910 and as the country's first and only king from 1910 to 1918.

Allies of World War I Group of countries that fought against the Central Powers in World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom in southeast Europe between 1882 and 1918

The Kingdom of Serbia was a country located in the Balkans which was created when the ruler of the Principality of Serbia, Milan I, was proclaimed king in 1882. Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty. The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, and in its composition Nišava, Pirot, Toplica and Vranje districts entered the South part of Serbia.

The Great National Assembly of the Serb People in Montenegro, commonly known as the Podgorica Assembly, was an ad hoc assembly convened in November 1918, after the end of World War I in the Kingdom of Montenegro. The assembly was held by the Montenegrin authorities with the goal of dethroning the Montenegrin Petrović-Njegoš dynasty in favour of the Serbian House of Karađorđević, in order to formalise the unification between the Serbian and Montenegrin kingdoms. It was organized by a committee appointed by the Serbian government. The two opposing sides at the assembly were the Whites who were in favour of a annexation based unification, and the Greens who were in favour of a confederation based unification. The assembly concluded the decision to merge Montenegro with Serbia, which subsequently led to the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia soon after.

Prime Minister of Montenegro

The Prime Minister of Montenegro officially the President of the Government of Montenegro, is the head of the Government of Montenegro. The role of the Prime Minister is to direct the work of the government, and to submit to the Parliament the government's program, which includes a list of proposed ministers. The resignation of the prime minister would cause the dissolution of his government.

True Peoples Party Political party in Montenegro

The True People's Party, also known as the Pravaši (Rightists), was a conservative and royalist political party in the Principality of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Montenegro, founded in 1907. The party represented the government, the rule of the Prince and later on the rule of King Nikola I. The True People's Party party was led by Lazar Mijušković and notable party members included Jovan S. Plamenac, Marko Đukanović, Ivo Đurović, Sekula Drljević, Filip Jergović, Krsto Popović, Mitar Martinović and Milutin Vučinić. Montenegrin politics during the time of the party existence was deeply divided on the issue of supporting Nikola I's absolutist rule in order to retain the independence of Montenegro, and for advocating the unification of Montenegro and Serbia under the Karađorđević dynasty, as advocated by the opposition People's Party (NS).

Postage stamps and postal history of Montenegro

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Montenegro.

Andrija Radović

Andrija Radović was a Montenegrin and Yugoslav politician and statesmen, former Prime Minister and leader of the People's and then Democratic Party, fighter for parliamentary democracy and chief proponent of Montenegro's unification with Serbia.

Evgenije Popović

Evgenije "Đena" Popović GBE was a Montenegrin statesman, journalist, diplomat, writer and editor.

Jovan Plamenac

Jovan Simonov Plamenac was a Montenegrin and Yugoslav politician.

Siege of Scutari (1912–1913) Battle during the First Balkan War

The siege of Scutari, also referred to as the siege of Shkodër, known in Turkish as İşkodra Müdafaası(in Turkish) or İşkodra Savunması, took place from 28 October 1912 to 23 April 1913 when the army of Kingdom of Montenegro defeated the forces of the Ottoman Empire and invaded Shkodër.

1914 Montenegrin parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Montenegro on 11 January 1914. These were the last parliamentary elections in the Kingdom of Montenegro, which was abolished and annexed to Serbia in November 1918.

The Montenegrin nobility (1852–1918) are notable people of the Principality of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Montenegro who hold titles such as knez (prince), vojvoda (voivode), veliki vojvoda, serdar, and guvernadur (governor). The titles are hereditary or for life. Focusing on the Montenegrin nobility of the late 19th century surrounding the then recent secularisation of the principality under Danilo II and his court, excluding the older traditional clan nobility.

Peoples Party (Montenegro, 1906) Political party in Montenegro

The People's Party, also known as the Klubaši or the Narodnjaci, was a political party in the Principality of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Montenegro. The party represented the opposition to King Nikola I. The People's Party main political goal was the dethroning of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty and the unification of Montenegro and Serbia. The founder of the party was Šako Petrović-Njegoš, Nikola I's cousin, other notable founding members of the party included Andrija Radović, Marko Radulović and Mihailo Ivanović. As a response to the formation of the People's Party in 1907, Petrović-Njegoš dynasty loyalists organised themselves into the True People's Party, also known as the Rightists.

Lazar Mijušković Montenegrin politician

Lazar Mijušković was a Montenegrin politician and diplomat.

Glas Crnogorca was an weekly newspaper published in the then Montenegrin capital Cetinje between 1873 and 1916. After the abolition of the Montenegrin state in 1918, the newspaper continued to be published in exile until 1922. It was the official gazette of government of Principality and later Kingdom of Montenegro.

Mujo Sočica

Risto Sočica, better known as Mujo L. Sočica was a Montenegrin and Serbian politician and lawyer, from the Old Herzegovina region. He is the son of the Lazar Sočica, notable Montenegrin vojvoda and the chieftain of the Piva clan.

References

  1. 1916–1922: Government-in-exile
  2. Constitution of the Principality of Montenegro, 1905, Article 40, "Paragraph 1: State religion in Montenegro is Eastern-Orthodox. Paragraph 2: Montenegrin Church is Autocephalous. It is independent from any other Church, but maintains dogmatic unity with Eastern-Orthodox Ecumenical Church. Paragraph 3: All other recognized religions are free in Montenegro.

Further reading

Coordinates: 42°38′00″N19°32′00″E / 42.6333°N 19.5333°E / 42.6333; 19.5333