Kingdom of Portugal

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Coordinates: 38°42′N9°11′W / 38.700°N 9.183°W / 38.700; -9.183

Contents

Kingdom of Portugal [lower-alpha 1]

Regnum Portugalliae (Latin)
Reino de Portugal (Portuguese)
1139–1910
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Portugal 1640-1910 (3).svg
Coat of arms (1640–1910)
Anthem: "Hymno Patriótico" (1808–1826)
"Patriotic Anthem"

Hino da Carta (1826–1910)
"Anthem of the Charter"
Portuguese empire 1800.png
The Kingdom of Portugal in 1800
Capital Coimbra
(1139–1255)
Lisbon [a]
(1255–1808)
Angra do Heroísmo [b]
(1580–1582)
Rio de Janeiro
(1808–1821)
Lisbon
(1821–1910)
Angra do Heroísmo [c]
(1830–1834)
Common languagesOfficial languages:Unofficial languages:
Religion
Majority:
Roman Catholicism (official)
Minority:
Sephardic Judaism [lower-alpha 7]
Islam [lower-alpha 8]
Government Absolute monarchy
(1139–1822; 1823–1826; 1828–1834)
Constitutional monarchy
(1822–1823; 1826–1828; 1834–1910)
Monarch  
 1139–1185 (first)
Afonso I
 1908–1910 (last)
Manuel II
Prime Minister  
 1834–1835 (first)
Marquis of Palmela
 1910 (last)
Teixeira de Sousa
Legislature Cortes Gerais
 Upper house
Chamber of Peers
 Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
History 
25 July 1139
1 December 1640
1 February 1908
5 October 1910
Area
1300 [1] 90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi)
1910 (metro)92,391 km2 (35,672 sq mi)
Population
 1300 [1]
800,000
 1910 (metro)
5,969,056
Currency Portuguese dinheiro,
(1139–1433)
Portuguese real
(1433–1910)
ISO 3166 code PT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
PortugueseFlag1095.svg County of Portugal
Flag of the Couto Misto.svg Couto Misto
First Portuguese Republic Flag of Portugal.svg
Empire of Brazil Flag of Empire of Brazil (1822-1870).svg
a. ^ The capital was de facto located at Rio de Janeiro from 1808 to 1821.

b. ^ The seat of government of the Portuguese pretender António was de facto located at Angra do Heroísmo from 1580 to 1582.

c. ^ The capital of the constitutional government in exile was de jure located at Angra do Heroísmo during the Portuguese Civil War, from 1830 to 1834.

The Kingdom of Portugal (Latin : Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese : Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of the modern Portuguese Republic. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.

The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista , by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.

During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.

After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.

Portugal was an absolute monarchy before 1822. It rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a constitutional monarchy after 1834.

History

Origins

The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal (1096–1139). The Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages:

  1. The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese [2] internally.
  2. The second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora.
  3. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum , in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III.

Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. Even after the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links.

Medieval history (1139–1415)

Renaissance and early modern history (1415–1777)

Modern history (1777–1910)

Fall of the Monarchy

With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press. However a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. While returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon. With the death of the King and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become monarch as King Manuel II. Manuel's reign, however, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in Great Britain and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic.

On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto. The monarchy would be deposed a month later and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since.

After the republican revolution in October 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal were handed over (most notably Portuguese Africa which included the overseas provinces of Angola and Mozambique in 1975, and finally Macau in 1999).

Rulers

See also

Footnotes

  1. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbiae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves), and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves).
  2. Galician-Portuguese (until 16th century)
    Modern Portuguese (16th century onward)
  3. Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. Medieval Latin replaced by Renaissance Latin by the 15th century.
  4. Until 13th century.
  5. Until 1497, mainly in the Algarve.
  6. Until 1497.
  7. Until 1497.
  8. Until 1497.

Citations

  1. 1 2 Reilly, Bernard F. (1993). The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN   9780521397414 . Retrieved 11 October 2019. The new kingdom of Castile had roughly tripled in size to some 335,000 square kilometers by 1300 [...] Portugal swollen to 90,000 square kilometers and perhaps 800,000 inhabitants [...]
  2. Wilner, Hero, Weiner, p. 190

Related Research Articles

Afonso I of Portugal 12th-century King of Portugal

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Flag of Portugal Flag of a sovereign nation

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House of Braganza Portuguese dynasty

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Kingdom of the Algarve kingdom in Southwestern Europe between 1242 and 1910

The Kingdom of the Algarve, after 1471 Kingdom of the Algarves, was a nominal kingdom within the Kingdom of Portugal, located in the southernmost region of continental Portugal.

Iberian Union Spanish-Portuguese union between 1580-1640

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This is a historical timeline of Portugal.

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Coat of arms of Portugal coat of arms

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United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves 1815-1822 kingdom in Southwestern Europe and South America

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Portuguese heraldry

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Military Order of Saint James of the Sword state order of Portugal

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Portuguese Cortes

In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm – the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie. It was called and dismissed by the King of Portugal at will, at a place of his choosing. Cortes which brought all three estates together are sometimes distinguished as Cortes-Gerais, in contrast to smaller assemblies which brought only one or two estates, to negotiate a specific point relevant only to them.

Monarchy of the North

The Monarchy of the North, officially the Kingdom of Portugal, was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the North of Portugal, in early 1919. The movement, also known as the Kingdom of Traulitânia, based in Porto, lasted from 19 January to 13 February 1919.

Portugal in the Middle Ages Wikimedia disambiguation page

The kingdom of Portugal was established from the county of Portugal in the 1130s, ruled by the Portuguese House of Burgundy. During most of the 12th and 13th centuries, its history is chiefly that of the gradual reconquest of territory from the various Muslim principalities (taifas) of the period.

Constituent Cortes of 1820

The Constituent Cortes of 1820, formal title The General and Extraordinary Cortes of the Portuguese Nation, also frequently known as the Sovereign Congress or the Cortes Constituintes Vintistas, was the first modern Portuguese parliament. Created after the Liberal Revolution of 1820 to prepare a constitution for Portugal and its overseas territories, it used a different system from the traditional General Cortes for choosing representatives, and the three traditional feudal estates no longer sat separately. The Cortes sat between January 24, 1821 and November 4, 1822 at the Palácio das Necessidades in Lisbon. The work of the Constitutional Cortes culminated in the approval of the Portuguese Constitution of 1822.

Portuguese Constitution of 1822

The Portuguese Constitution of 1822 approved on 23 September 1822 was the first Portuguese constitution, marking an attempt to end absolutism and introduce a constitutional monarchy. Although it was actually in force only for two brief periods, 1822-23 and 1836-38, it was fundamental to the history of democracy in Portugal. It was replaced by the Constitutional Charter of 1826.

References