King of Saudi Arabia

Last updated

King of Saudi Arabia
ملك المملكة العربية السعودية
Royal Standard of Saudi Arabia.svg
Incumbent
Rodrigo Duterte meets with Salman of Saudi Arabia (2017-04-11) (cropped).jpg
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

since 23 January 2015
Details
Style Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (formal)
or
His Majesty (diplomatic relations)
Heir apparent Mohammed bin Salman
First monarch Ibn Saud
Formation23 September 1932
ResidenceAl-Yamamah Palace

The King of Saudi Arabia is the monarchial head of state and head of government of Saudi Arabia who holds absolute power. He is the head of the Saudi Arabian royal family, the House of Saud. [1] The king is called the "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" (خادم الحرمين الشريفين), a title that signifies Saudi Arabia's jurisdiction over the mosques of Masjid al Haram in Mecca and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, the title has been used many times through the history of Islam. The first Saudi monarch to use the title was King Faisal, however, King Khaled did not use the title after him. In 1986, King Fahd replaced "His Majesty" with the title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, and it has been ever since used by both King Abdullah and King Salman bin Abdulaziz. [2]

Contents

History

King Abdulaziz (known in the West as Ibn Saud) regained his patrimony, which is known as today's Saudi Arabia in 1902. Restoring his family as emirs of Riyadh, he then established Nejd as his headquarters in 1922. Following the establishment of Riyadh as the capital of his state, King Abdulaziz then captured Hejaz 1925. [3]

Ibn Saud proclaimed his dominions as the Sultanate of Nejd in 1921, shortly before completing the unification of the region. He was proclaimed king/malik of Hejaz in 1926, and raised Nejd to a kingdom as well in 1927. For the next five years, Ibn Saud administered the two parts of his realm, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd as separate units. On 23 September 1932, he formally united his territories into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [4] [5]

Succession

The kings since Ibn Saud's death have all been his sons, and all likely immediate successors to the reigning King Salman will be from among his progeny. Sons of Ibn Saud are considered to have primary claim on the throne of Saudi Arabia. [6] This makes the Saudi monarchy quite distinct from Western monarchies, which usually feature large, clearly defined royal families and orders of succession, and use the absolute primogeniture system of succession. Muhammad bin Nayef was the first grandson of Ibn Saud to be in the line of succession before being deposed from the position of Crown Prince by a royal decree in 2017. [7]

Saudi Arabia is ruled by Islamic law (Sharia) and is an Islamic state. [8]

Other functions

The king of Saudi Arabia is also considered the head of the House of Saud and prime minister. The crown prince is also the "deputy prime minister". The kings after Faisal have named a "second deputy prime minister" as the subsequent heir after the crown prince.

Royal Standard

The Royal Standard consists of a green flag, with an Arabic inscription and a sword featured in white, and with the national emblem embroidered in gold in the lower right canton. [9]

Royal Standard of the King Royal Standard of Saudi Arabia.svg
Royal Standard of the King FIAV sinister.svg

The script on the flag is written in the Thuluth script. It is the shahada or Islamic declaration of faith:

لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله
lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh, muhammadun rasūlu-llāh
There is no other god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God. [10]

List of kings of Saudi Arabia (1932–present)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ibn Saud
  • عبد العزيز
(1875-01-15)15 January 1875 –
9 November 1953(1953-11-09) (aged 78)
22 September 1932 (aged 57)9 November 1953
(death by natural causes)
Reign established by conquest Saud Ibn Saud.png
Saud
  • سعود
(1902-01-12)12 January 1902 –
23 February 1969(1969-02-23) (aged 67)
9 November 1953 (aged 51)2 November 1964
(abdicated)
Son of Ibn Saud and Wadhah bint Muhammad bin 'AqabSaud Saud of Saudi Arabia.jpg
Faisal
  • فيصل
(1906-04-14)14 April 1906 –
25 March 1975(1975-03-25) (aged 68)
2 November 1964 (aged 58)25 March 1975
(assassinated)
Son of Ibn Saud and Tarfa bint Abduallah bin Abdulateef al SheekhSaud King Faisal of Saudi Arabia on on arrival ceremony welcoming 05-27-1971 (cropped).jpg
Khalid
  • خالد
(1913-02-13)13 February 1913 –
13 June 1982(1982-06-13) (aged 69)
25 March 1975 (aged 62)13 June 1982 (death by natural causes)Son of Ibn Saud and Al Jawhara bint Musaed bin Jiluwi Saud King Khalid bin Abdulaziz 1.jpg
Fahd
  • فهد
16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005 (aged 84)13 June 1982 (aged 61)1 August 2005 (death by natural causes)Son of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi Saud Fahd bin Abdul Aziz.jpg
Abdullah
  • عبد الله
(1924-08-01)1 August 1924 –
23 January 2015(2015-01-23) (aged 90)
1 August 2005 (aged 81)23 January 2015 (death by natural causes)Son of Ibn Saud and Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim Saud King Abdullah bin Abdul al-Saud January 2007.jpg
Salman
  • سلمان
(1935-12-31) 31 December 1935 (age 85)23 January 2015 (aged 79)IncumbentSon of Ibn Saud and Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi Saud Salman of Saudi Arabia - 2020 (49563590728) (cropped).jpg

Current heirs-apparent

Timeline

Salman of Saudi ArabiaAbdullah of Saudi ArabiaFahd of Saudi ArabiaKhalid of Saudi ArabiaFaisal of Saudi ArabiaSaud of Saudi ArabiaIbn Saud of Saudi ArabiaKing of Saudi Arabia

See also

Related Research Articles

Ibn Saud Founder of the third Saudi state

Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad Al Saud, known in the West as Ibn Saud, was the founder and first king of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state", reigning from 23 September 1932 to his death. He had ruled parts of the kingdom as early as 1902, having previously been the emir, sultan, and king of Nejd and the king of Hejaz.

Faisal of Saudi Arabia King of Saudi Arabia (1964-1975)

Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2 November 1964 to 25 March 1975.

Flag of Saudi Arabia National flag

The flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since 15 March 1973. It is a green flag featuring in white an Arabic inscription and a sword. The inscription is the Islamic creed, or shahada: "There is no god but the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of the God".

House of Saud The royal family of Saudi Arabia

The House of Saud is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia. The most influential position of the royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. The family in total is estimated to comprise some 15,000 members, however the majority of power, influence and wealth is possessed by a group of about 2,000 of them.

Sultan bin Abdulaziz Saudi royal and politician

Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, called Sultan the Good in Saudi Arabia, was the Saudi defense minister from 1963 to 2011 and the crown prince of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2011.

Sudairi Seven

The Sudairi Seven, also spelled Sudairy or Sudayri, is the commonly used name for a powerful alliance of seven full brothers within the House of Saud. Their father King Abdulaziz had more sons with their mother Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi than he did with any of his other wives. They are also sometimes referred to as the Sudairi Clan or the Sudairi faction.

Ahmed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is a member of House of Saud who served as deputy minister of interior from 1975 to 2012 and briefly as minister of interior in 2012. He was detained in March 2020 on the orders of his brother and nephew, King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammed, respectively, and charged with treason.

Salman of Saudi Arabia Current King of Saudi Arabia from 2015

Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.

Princes' School is a school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Muhammad bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Saudi royal

Muhammad bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was one of the wealthiest and most powerful members of the House of Saud and briefly crown prince of Saudi Arabia between 1964 and 1965. His advice was sought and deferred to in all matters by his brothers. Until his death in 1988, he was a close and powerful confidant and senior adviser to his brothers, King Khalid and King Fahd.

Abdulaziz bin Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Saudi royal and businessman

Abdulaziz bin Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is former deputy minister of foreign affairs, and a member of the royal family.

Bandar bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was the tenth son of Ibn Saud, King of Saudi Arabia. At the time of his death, he was the eldest surviving member of the ruling branch of the House of Saud.

Unification of Saudi Arabia

The Unification of Saudi Arabia was a military and political campaign in which the various tribes, sheikhdoms, city-states, emirates, and kingdoms of most of the Arabian Peninsula were conquered by the House of Saud, or Al Saud. Unification started in 1902 and continued until 1932, when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed under the leadership of Ibn Saud, creating what is sometimes referred to as the Third Saudi State, to differentiate it from the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State and the Emirate of Nejd, the Second Saudi State, also House of Saud states.

Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi (1900–1969) was one of the many spouses and cousins of King Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia and the mother of seven sons by him, including King Fahd, King Salman, Crown Prince Sultan, and Crown Prince Nayef. Her sons with Abdulaziz are commonly known as the Sudairi Seven.

Allegiance Council

The Allegiance Council, also known as the Allegiance Commission or Allegiance Institution, is the body responsible for determining future succession to the throne of Saudi Arabia. It was formed on 7 December 2007 by King Abdullah. At the time of its formation, the Council's intended function was to appoint a Crown Prince once a new King succeeds to the throne.

The Saudi conquest of Hejaz or the Second Saudi-Hashemite War, also known as the Hejaz-Nejd War, was a campaign engaged by Saudi Sultan Abdulaziz Ibn Saud to take over the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz in 1924–25, ending with conquest and incorporation of Hejaz into the Saudi domain.

Nasser bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was one of the former Riyadh governors and a member of the House of Saud.

Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia

The Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia is the second most important position in Saudi Arabia, second to the King, and is his designated successor. Currently, the Crown Prince assumes power with the approval of the Allegiance Council after he is appointed by the King. This system was introduced to the country in the Abdullah Era. In the absence of the King, an order is issued to have the prince manage the affairs of the state until the king's return.

Ministry of Education (Saudi Arabia)

The Ministry of Education is a ministry in Saudi Arabia. As of 27 December 2018, Dr.Hamad bin Mohammed Al Al-Sheikh was the minister. Headquartered in Riyadh, it oversees primary, secondary, and higher education.

Descendants of Ibn Saud

Ibn Saud (1875–1953), the founder and first king of Saudi Arabia, was very young when he first married. However his wife died shortly after their marriage. Ibn Saud remarried at eighteen and his firstborn child was Turki. He had 45 sons of whom 36 survived to adulthood and had children of their own. He also had many daughters. He is thought to have had 22 wives.

References

  1. "Saudi Arabia - Government and society". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  2. "Story behind the king's title". Arab News. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  3. "History | The Embassy of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia". www.saudiembassy.net. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  4. "About Saudi Arabia". UNDP in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  5. "History of Saudi Arabia. ( The Saudi National Day 23, Sep )". www.pmu.edu.sa. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  6. "Governance and Politics of Saudi Arabia". Fanack.com. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  7. "Mohammed bin Salman becomes Saudi Crown Prince with 31 out of 34 votes". Al Arabiya English. 21 June 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  8. Rabasa, Angel (2004). The Muslim world after 9/11. Rand Corporation. p. 164. ISBN   978-0-8330-3712-1. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  9. "Royal Standard (Saudi Arabia)". www.crwflags.com. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  10. "About Saudi Arabia: Facts and figures". The Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington D.C. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  11. "Who is Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed?". BBC News. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2020.