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|Abdulaziz 'Ibn Saud'|
King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman, founder of Saudi Arabia
|King of Saudi Arabia|
|Reign||23 September 1932 – 9 November 1953|
|Bay'ah||23 September 1932|
|Predecessor||Himself as King of Nejd and Hejaz|
|King of Nejd and Hejaz|
|Reign||8 January 1926 – 23 September 1932|
|Predecessor|| Ali (as King of Hejaz)|
Himself (as Sultan of Nejd)
|Successor||Himself as King of Saudi Arabia|
|Sultan of Nejd|
|Reign||3 November 1921 – 29 January 1927|
|Predecessor||Himself as Emir of Nejd and Hasa|
|Successor||Himself as King of Nejd|
|Emir of Nejd and Hasa|
|Reign||13 January 1902 – 3 November 1921|
|Predecessor||Muḥammad bin Ṭalāl (as Emir of Jabal Shammar)|
|Successor||Himself as Sultan of Nejd|
|Born||15 January 1875|
Riyadh, Emirate of Nejd
|Died||9 November 1953 78) (aged|
Ta'if, Saudi Arabia
Al Oud cemetery, Riyadh
|House||House of Saud|
|Father||Abdul Rahman bin Faisal|
|Mother||Sarah Al Sudairi|
|Religion||Wahhabi Hanbali Sunni Islam|
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (Arabic : عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن بن فيصل بن تركي بن عبد الله بن محمد آل سعود, Abd al-'Azīz ibn 'Abd ar-Raḥman Āl Sa'ūd; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
He reconquered his family's ancestral home city of Riyadh in 1902, starting three decades of conquests that made him the ruler of nearly all of central and north Arabia. He consolidated his control over the Najd in 1922, then conquered the Hejaz in 1925. He extended his dominions into what later became the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. As King, he presided over the discovery of petroleum in Saudi Arabia in 1938 and the beginning of large-scale oil production after World War II. He fathered many children, including 45 sons,and all of the subsequent kings of Saudi Arabia.
Ibn Saud was born on 15 January 1875 in Riyadh in the region called Najd in central Arabia.He was the son of Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, last ruler of the Emirate of Nejd, the "Second Saudi State", a tribal sheikhdom centered on Riyadh. His family, the House of Saud, had been a power in central Arabia for the previous 130 years. Under the influence and inspiration of Wahhabi Islam, the Saudis had previously attempted to control much of the Arabian peninsula in the form of the Emirate of Diriyah, the "First Saudi State", until its destruction by an Ottoman army in the Ottoman–Wahhabi War in the early nineteenth century. Ibn Saud's mother was a member of the Sudairi family, Sarah Al Sudairi. She died in 1910.
In 1890, the House of Saud's long-term regional rivals, the Rashidis, conquered Riyadh. Ibn Saud was 15 at the time.He and his family initially took refuge with the Al Murrah, a Bedouin tribe in the southern desert of Arabia. Later, the Al Sauds moved to Qatar and stayed there for two months. Their next stop was Bahrain, where they stayed briefly. Their final destination was Kuwait, where they lived for nearly a decade.
In the spring of 1901, Ibn Saud and some relatives, including a half-brother, Mohammad, and several cousins, set out on a raiding expedition into the Najd, targeting mainly tribes associated with the Rashidis. As the raid proved profitable, it attracted more participants. The raiders' numbers peaked at over 200, but numbers dwindled over the ensuing months.[ citation needed ]
In the autumn, the group made camp in the Yabrin oasis. While observing Ramadan, he decided to attack Riyadh and retake it from the Al Rashid. On the night of 15 January 1902, he led 40 men over the walls of the city on tilted palm trees and took the city.The Rashidi governor of the city, Ajlan, was killed in front of his own fortress. The Saudi recapture of the city marked the beginning of the Third Saudi State.
Following the capture of Riyadh, many former supporters of the House of Saud rallied to Ibn Saud's call to arms. He was a charismatic leader and kept his men supplied with arms. Over the next two years, he and his forces recaptured almost half of the Najd from the Rashidis.
In 1904, Abdulaziz of Al Rashid (a.k.a. Ibn Rashid) appealed to the Ottoman Empire for military protection and assistance. The Ottomans responded by sending troops into Arabia. On 15 June 1904, Ibn Saud's forces suffered a major defeat at the hands of the combined Ottoman and Rashidi forces. His forces regrouped and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Ottomans. Over the next two years, he was able to disrupt their supply routes, forcing them to retreat. The victory of Ibn Saud in Rawdat Muhanna, in which Ibn Rashid died, ended the Ottoman presence in Najd and Qassim by the end of October 1906.
He completed his conquest of the Najd and the eastern coast of Arabia in 1912. He then founded the Ikhwan, a military-religious brotherhood, which was to assist in his later conquests, with the approval of local Salafi ulema. In the same year, he instituted an agrarian policy to settle the nomadic pastoralist Bedouins into colonies and to replace their tribal organizations with allegiance to the Ikhwan.
During World War I, the British government established diplomatic relations with Ibn Saud. The British agent, Captain William Shakespear, was well received by the Bedouin.Similar diplomatic missions were established with any Arabian power who might have been able to unify and stabilize the region. The British entered into the Treaty of Darin in December 1915, which made the lands of the House of Saud a British protectorate and attempted to define the boundaries of the developing Saudi state. In exchange, Ibn Saud pledged to again make war against Ibn Rashid, who was an ally of the Ottomans.
The British Foreign Office had previously begun to support Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of the Hejaz by sending T. E. Lawrence (a.k.a. Lawrence of Arabia) to him in 1915. The Saudi Ikhwan began to conflict with Hussein, Sharif of Mecca also in 1917, just as his sons Abdullah and Faisal entered Damascus. The Treaty of Darin remained in effect until superseded by the Jeddah conference of 1927 and the Dammam conference of 1952, during both of which Ibn Saud extended his boundaries past the Anglo-Ottoman Blue Line. After Darin, he stockpiled the weapons and supplies which the British provided him, including a 'tribute' of £5,000 per month.After World War I, he received further support from the British, including a glut of surplus munitions. He launched his campaign against the Al Rashidi in 1920; by 1922 they had been all but destroyed.
The defeat of the Al Rashidi doubled the size of Saudi territory because, after the war of Ha'il, Ibn Saud sent his army to occupy Al-Jouf and the army led by Eqab bin Mohaya,[ clarification needed ] the head of Talhah tribe. This allowed Ibn Saud the leverage to negotiate a new and more favorable treaty with the British. Their treaty, signed at Uqair in 1922, where he met Percy Cox, British High Commissioner in Iraq, to draw boundaries saw Britain recognize many of his territorial gains. In exchange, Ibn Saud agreed to recognize British territories in the area, particularly along the Persian Gulf coast and in Iraq. The former of these were vital to the British, as merchant traffic between British India and the United Kingdom depended upon coaling stations on the approach to the Suez Canal.
In 1925, Ibn Saud's forces captured the holy city of Mecca from Sharif Hussein, ending 700 years of Hashemite rule. On 8 January 1926, the leading figures in Mecca, Madina and Jeddah proclaimed Ibn Saud the King of Hejaz.He raised Najd to a kingdom as well on 29 January 1927. On 20 May 1927, the British government signed the Treaty of Jeddah, which abolished the Darin protection agreement and recognized the independence of the Hejaz and Najd, with Ibn Saud as their ruler. For the next five years, Ibn Saud administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units.
With international recognition and support, Ibn Saud continued to consolidate his power. By 1927, his forces had overrun most of the central Arabian Peninsula, but the alliance between the Ikhwan and the Al Saud collapsed when Ibn Saud forbade further raiding. The few portions of central Arabia that had not been overrun by the Saudi-Ikhwan forces had treaties with London, and Ibn Saud was sober enough to see the folly of provoking the British by pushing into these areas. This did not sit well with the Ikhwan, who had been taught that all non-Wahhabis were infidels. Tensions finally boiled over when the Ikhwan rebelled. After two years of fighting, they were suppressed by Ibn Saud in the Battle of Sabilla in March 1929.
On 23 September 1932, Ibn Saud formally united his realm into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with himself as its king.He transferred his court to Murabba Palace from the Masmak Fort in 1938 and the palace remained his residence and the seat of government until his death in 1953.
Ibn Saud had to first eliminate the right of his own father in order to rule, and then distance and contain the ambitions of his five brothers, particularly his oldest brother, Muhammad, who had fought with him during the battles and conquests that gave birth to the state.
Petroleum was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1938 by American geologists working for Standard Oil Company of New York (SOCONY) in partnership with Saudi officials.[ citation needed ] Through his advisers St John Philby and Ameen Rihani, Ibn Saud granted substantial authority over Saudi oil fields to American oil companies in 1944, much to the dismay of the British who had invested heavily in the House of Saud's rise to power in hopes of open access to any oil reserves that were to be surveyed. Beginning in 1915, he signed the "friendship and cooperation" pact with Britain to keep his militia in line and cease any further attacks against their protectorates for whom they were responsible.
His newfound oil wealth brought with it a great deal of power and influence that Ibn Saud would use to advantage in the Hijaz. He forced many nomadic tribes to settle down and abandon "petty wars" and vendettas. He also began widespread enforcement of the new kingdom's ideology, based on the teachings of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. This included an end to traditionally sanctioned rites of pilgrimage, recognized by the orthodox schools of jurisprudence, but at odds with those sanctioned by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. In 1926, after a caravan of Egyptians on the way to Mecca were beaten by his forces for playing bugles, he was impelled to issue a conciliatory statement to the Egyptian government. In fact, several such statements were issued to Muslim governments around the world as a result of beatings suffered by the pilgrims visiting the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.[ citation needed ] With the uprising and subsequent decimation thereafter of the Ikhwan in 1929 via British air power, the 1930s marked a turning point. With his rivals eliminated, Ibn Saud's ideology was in full force, ending nearly 1400 years of accepted religious practices surrounding the Hajj, the majority of which were sanctioned by a millennium of scholarship.
Ibn Saud established a Shura Council of the Hijaz as early as 1927. This Council was later expanded to 20 members, and was chaired by the king's son, Faisal.
Ibn Saud was able to gain loyalty from tribes near Saudi Arabia, tribes such as those in Jordan. For example, he built very strong ties with Prince Rashed Al-Khuzai from the Al Fraihat tribe, one of the most influential and royally established families during the Ottoman Empire. The Prince and his tribe had dominated eastern Jordan before the arrival of Sharif Hussein. Ibn Saud supported Prince Rashed and his followers in rebellion against Hussein.
Prince Rashed supported Izz ad-Din al-Qassam's defiance in 1935 which led him and his followers in rebellion against Abdullah I of Jordan. In 1937, when they were forced to leave Jordan, Prince Rashed Al Khuzai, his family, and a group of his followers chose to move to Saudi Arabia, where Prince Rashedi lived for several years in Ibn Saud's hospitality.
Ibn Saud positioned Saudi Arabia as neutral in World War II, but was generally considered to favor the Allies.However, in 1938, when an attack on a main British pipeline in the Kingdom of Iraq was found to be connected to the German Ambassador, Fritz Grobba, Ibn Saud provided Grobba with refuge. It was reported that he had been disfavoring the British as of 1937.
In the last stage of the war, Ibn Saud met significant political figures. One of these meetings, which lasted for three days, was with U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on 14 February 1945. Quincy in the Great Bitter Lake segment of the Suez Canal. The meeting laid down the basis of the future relations between the two countries.The meeting took place on board USS
The other meeting was with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the Grand Hotel du Lac on the shores of the Fayyoun Oasis, fifty miles south of Cairo, in February 1945.However, Saudis report that the meeting heavily focused on the Palestine problem and was unproductive in terms of its outcomes, in contrast to that with Roosevelt.
In 1948, Ibn Saud participated in the Arab-Israeli War, but Saudi Arabia's contribution was generally considered token.
While most of the royal family desired luxuries such as gardens, splendid cars, and palaces, Ibn Saud wanted a royal railway from the Persian Gulf to Riyadh and then an extension to Jeddah. This was regarded by all of his advisers living in the country as an old man's folly. Eventually, ARAMCO built the railway, at a cost of $70 million, drawn from the King's oil royalties. It was completed in 1951 and was used commercially after the king's death. It enabled Riyadh to grow into a relatively modern city. But when a paved road was built in 1962, the railway lost its traffic.
In accordance with the customs of his people, Abdul Aziz headed a polygamous household comprising several wives and concubines. According to some sources, he had twenty-two consorts. Many of his marriages were contracted in order to cement alliances with other clans, during the period when the Saudi state was founded and stabilized. Abdul Aziz was the father of almost a hundred children, including forty-five sons.
He was a tall man standing between 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) and 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in).
Ibn Saud was said to be very close to his paternal aunt, Jawhara bint Faisal. From a young age, she ingrained in him a strong sense of family destiny and motivated him to regain the lost glory of the House of Saud. During the years when the Saud family were living almost as refugees in Kuwait, Jawhara bint Faisal frequently recounted the deeds of his ancestors to Abdulaziz and exhorted him not to be content with the existing situation. She was instrumental in making him decide to return to Najd from Kuwait and regain the territories of his family. She was well educated in Islam, in Arab custom and in tribal and clan relationships. She remained among the king's most trusted and influential advisors all her life. Ibn Saud asked her about the experiences of past rulers and the historical allegiance and the roles of tribes and individuals. Jawhara was also deeply respected by the king's children. Ibn Saud visited her daily until she died around 1930.
Ibn Saud was also very close to his sister Noura, who was one year older than him. On several occasions, he identified himself in public with the words: "I am the brother of Noura."Noura died a few years before Ibn Saud.
On 15 March 1935, armed men attacked and tried to assassinate Ibn Saud during his performance of Hajj.He survived the attack unhurt.
He appointed his second son Prince Saud heir to the Saudi throne in 1933. He had many quarrels with his elder brother Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman as to who should be appointed heir. Muhammad wanted his son Khalid to be designated the heir. His eldest son was Turki Al Awwal, who was the Crown Prince of the Kingdoms of Nejd and Hejaz, but Turki died at age 18, predeceasing his father, and his younger full-brother was appointed Crown Prince. Had Turki not died, he would have been the Crown Prince. Ibn Saud had 45 sons, of whom 36 survived to adulthood. Ten of his sons were capable enough to be candidates for the succession. They were Saud, Faisal, Muhammad, Khalid, Fahd, Abdullah, Sultan, Nayef, Salman and Muqrin. Of these ten, six became king. Muhammad, Sultan, Nayef and Muqrin were crown prince but never succeeded to the throne. Muhammad resigned from the post, Sultan and Nayef predeceased King Abdullah, and Muqrin was removed from the post.
In regard to essential values for the state and people, he said, "Two things are essential to our state and our people ... religion and the rights inherited from our fathers."
Amani Hamdan argues that the attitude of Ibn Saud towards women's education was encouraging since he expressed his support in a conversation with St John Philby in which he stated, "It is permissible for women to read."
His last words to his two sons, the future King Saud and the next in line Prince Faisal, who were already battling each other, were "You are brothers, unite!"Shortly before his death, Ibn Saud stated, "Verily, my children and my possessions are my enemies."
In October 1953, Ibn Saud was seriously ill due to heart disease.He died in his sleep of a heart attack at the palace of Prince Faisal in Ta'if on 9 November 1953 (2 Rabīʿ al-Awwal 1373 AH) at the age of 78. Prince Faisal was at his side. Funeral prayer was performed at Al Hawiya in Ta'if. His body was brought to Riyadh where he was buried in Al Oud cemetery.
The US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles stated after Ibn Saud's death that he would be remembered for his achievements as a statesman.
Ibn Saud was appointed an honorary Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) on 1 January 1920.He was awarded the British Order of the Bath (GCB) in 1935, in 1947 the U.S. Legion of Merit and in 1952 the Spanish Order of Military Merit (with White Decoration).
The history of Saudi Arabia in its current form as a state began with its foundation in 1744, although the human history of the region extends as far as 20,000 years ago. The region has had a global impact twice in world history. In the 7th century it became the cradle of Islam and the capital of the Islamic Rashidun Caliphate. From the mid-20th century the discovery of vast oil deposits propelled it into a key economic and geo-political role.
Riyadh is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. With a population of 6.9 million people, Riyadh is the third-largest city in the Arab world and the 39th-largest in Asia. Riyadh is located on the eastern part of the Najd plateau at about 600 metres (2,000 ft) above sea level.
Najd or Nejd is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia that accounts for about a third of the population of the country. Najd consists of the modern administrative regions of Riyadh, Al-Qassim, and Ha'il.
Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975.
Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964. After a period of internal tension in Saudi Arabia, he was forced from the throne and replaced by his brother Faisal.
The House of Saud is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia. The most influential position of the royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. King Salman, who reigns currently, chose first his nephew and then his son as the crown prince after he was approved by the Allegiance Council with 31 out of 34 votes. The family is estimated to comprise 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of about 2,000 of them.
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud (1845–1928) was the last ruler of the Emirate of Nejd, Second Saudi State. He was the youngest son of Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud and the father of Ibn Saud, who founded the modern Saudi Arabia.
The Rasheed dynasty, also called Al Rasheed or the House of Rasheed, was a historic Arabian House or dynasty that existed in the Arabian Peninsula between 1836 and 1921. Its members were rulers of the Emirate of Ha'il and the most formidable enemies of the House of Saud, rulers of the Emirate of Nejd. They were centered in Ha'il, a city in northern Nejd that derived its wealth from being on the route of the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, and was also a commercial center. The rulers of Ha'il were the sons of Abdullah bin Rashid, founder of the dynasty.
The Emirate of Nejd was the second Saudi state, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia. Saudi rule was restored to central and eastern Arabia after the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State, having previously been brought down by the Ottoman Empire's Egypt Eyalet in the Ottoman–Wahhabi War (1811–1818).
Princes' School is a school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Muhammad bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was a member of the House of Saud.
Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud 1893 – 4 December 1976) was a senior member of House of Saud. He was a prominent advisor and member of the inner council of his elder brother, King Abdulaziz, who ruled until 1953. He continued to be involved in state affairs until his death.
Turki I bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (1900–1919) was the eldest son of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia. His full siblings were King Saud, Prince Khalid (1903-1909), Prince Fahd (d.1919), and Princess Munira. He accompanied his father during the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula at a young age, and witnessed battles in Kuwait and Al-Hasa. He was married to Nuwair. In 1918 he had a son named Faisal. He died in 1919 in the 1918-1920 flu pandemic, which also killed many others in the region, including his half-brother Saad (I), who was the younger full-brother of King Faisal and his younger full-brother Prince Fahd (I).
Al-Ajman or al-'Ijman العجمي is an Arabian tribal confederation in Mid-Eastern Arabian Peninsula, with Bandar spread across Saudi Arabia, Qatar, U.A.E. and the Kuwait.
The Unification of the Saudi-ruled Arabia was a military and political campaign in which the various tribes, sheikhdoms, city-states, emirates, and kingdoms of most of the Arabian Peninsula were conquered by the House of Saud, or Al Saud. Unification started in 1902 and continued till 1932, when the modern-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed under the leadership of Ibn Saud, creating what is sometimes referred to as the Third Saudi State, to differentiate it from the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State and the Emirate of Nejd, the Second Saudi State, also House of Saud states.
Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi (1900–1969) was one of the many spouses and cousins of King Abdulaziz and the mother of King Fahd and King Salman, monarchs of Saudi Arabia. Her sons Sultan, Nayef, and Salman served successively as Crown Prince during their half-brother Abdullah's reign, as their brother Fahd had done during the reign of Khalid, another half-brother. Her adult sons are informally known as the "Sudairi Seven".
The Ikhwan Revolt began in 1927, when the tribesmen of the Otaibah and Mutayr and Ajman rebelled against the authority of Ibn Saud and engaged in cross-border raids into parts of Trans-Jordan, Mandatory Iraq and the Emirate of Kuwait. The relationship between the House of Saud and the Ikhwan deteriorated into an open bloody feud in December 1928. The main instigators of the rebellion were defeated in the Battle of Sabilla, on 29 March 1929. Ikhwan tribesmen and troops loyal to Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud clashed again in the Jabal Shammar region in August 1929, and Ikhwan tribesmen attacked the Awazim tribe on 5 October 1929. Faisal al-Dawish, the main leader of the rebellion and the Mutair tribe, fled to Kuwait in October 1929 before being detained by the British and handed over to Ibn Saud. Faisal Al-Dawish would die in Riyadh on 3 October 1931 from what appears to have been a heart condition. Government troops had finally suppressed the rebellion on 10 January 1930, when other Ikhwan rebel leaders surrendered to the British. In the aftermath, the Ikhwan leadership was slain, and the remains were eventually incorporated into regular Saudi units. Sultan bin Bajad, one of the three main Ikhwan leaders, was killed in 1931, while al-Dawish died in prison in Riyadh on 3 October 1931.
The Emirate of Jabal Shammar, also known as the Emirate of Haʾil or the Rashidi Emirate, was a state in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, including at Najd, existing from the mid-nineteenth century to 1921. Jabal Shammar in English is translated as the "Mountain of the Shammar". Jabal Shammar's capital was Ha'il. It was led by a monarchy of the Rashidi dynasty. It included parts of modern-day Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Jordan.
Musa'id bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was a member of the House of Saud. He was the twelfth son of Ibn Saud, the founder of Saudi Arabia. He was the father of Faisal bin Musaid, the assassin of his brother King Faisal.
Ibn Saud (1875–1953), the founder and first king of Saudi Arabia, was very young when he first married. However his wife died shortly after their marriage. Ibn Saud remarried at eighteen and his firstborn child was Turki. He had 45 sons of whom 36 survived to adulthood and had children of their own. He also had many daughters. He is thought to have had 22 wives.
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House of SaudBorn: 1876 Died: 1953
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