|Abdullah bin Abdulaziz|
King Abdullah in 2007
|Reign||1 August 2005 – 23 January 2015|
|Bay'ah||2 August 2005|
|Regency||2 January 1996 – 1 August 2005|
|Born|| 1 August 1924 |
Riyadh, Sultanate of Nejd
(now Saudi Arabia)
|Died||23 January 2015 90) (aged|
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
|Burial||23 January 2015|
Al Oud cemetery, Riyadh
|House||House of Saud|
|Father||Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia|
|Mother||Fahda Al Shuraim|
|Religion||Wahhabi Hanbali Sunni Islam|
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic : عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود, ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Sa‘ūd, Najdi Arabic pronunciation: [ʢæbˈdɑɫ.ɫɐ ben ˈʢæbdæl ʢæˈziːz ʔæːl sæˈʢuːd] ; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015. He ascended to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd.
Najdi Arabic is a variety of Arabic originating from the Najd region of Saudi Arabia. As a result of migration, several regions outside of Najd, including Eastern, Al Jawf, Najran, and Northern Borders Regions are now mostly Najdi-speaking. Outside of Saudi Arabia, it is also the main Arabic variety spoken in the Syrian Desert of Iraq, Jordan, and Syria as well as the westernmost part of Kuwait.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government. He is the head of the Saudi royal family, the House of Saud. The King is called the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, a title that signifies Saudi Arabia's jurisdiction over the mosques of Masjid al Haram in Mecca and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, replacing His Majesty in 1986.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, geographically the fifth-largest in Asia, second-largest in the Arab world after Algeria and 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East as of October 2018 and the 18th largest in the world. The total number of population of Saudi Arabia is 33.4 million with 50% of youth population are under 25.
Abdullah, like Fahd, was one of the many sons of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. Abdullah held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office.The following year, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until ascending the throne a decade later.
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud, usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
Mecca is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.
The Saudi Arabian National Guard Forces or SANG also known as the White Army is one of the three major branches of the Military forces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
During his reign he maintained close relations with United States and United Kingdom and bought billions of dollars worth of defense equipment from both states.He also gave women the right to vote for municipal councils and to compete in the Olympics. Furthermore, Abdullah maintained the status quo when there were waves of protest in the kingdom during the Arab Spring. In November 2013, a BBC report claimed that, due to the close relations it had with Pakistan, Saudi Arabia could obtain nuclear weapons at will from that country. The King also had a longstanding relationship with Pakistan, and brokered a compromise between ousted Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and General Pervez Musharraf, whom he had requested to be exiled to Saudi Arabia for a 10-year exile, following his ouster in the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues. In the sociological sense, it generally applies to maintain or change existing social structure and values. With regard to policy debate, the status quo refers to how conditions are at the time and how the affirmative team can solve these conditions for example "The countries are now trying to maintain a status quo with regards to their nuclear arsenal which will help them if the situation gets any worse."
The King outlived two of his crown princes. Conservative Interior Minister Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud was named heir to the throne on the death of Sultan bin Abdulaziz in October 2011, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah then named 76-year-old defense minister, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as crown prince. According to various reports, Abdullah married up to 30 times and had more than 35 children. billion, making him the third wealthiest head of state in the world. He died on 23 January 2015, at the age of 90, three weeks after being hospitalized for pneumonia, and was succeeded as king by his half-brother Salman of Saudi Arabia.The king had a personal fortune estimated at US$18
Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, was the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia as well as first deputy prime minister from 2011 to 2012. He was also minister of interior from 1975 to 2012.
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud has been King of Saudi Arabia, Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia, and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques since 23 January 2015.
Abdullah is said to have been born on 1 August 1924 in Riyadh. – and was the daughter of former tribe chief, Asi Shuraim. She died when Abdullah was six years old. He had younger full-sisters.However, some sources state that this date is incorrect, and that he was approximately eight years older. He was the tenth son of King Abdulaziz. His mother, Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim, was a member of the Al Rashid dynasty, longtime rivals of the Al Saud dynasty. She was descended from the powerful Shammar tribe
Riyadh is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia, approximately 790 km (491 mi) North-east of Mecca. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the centre of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau and home to more than six million people.
Fahda bint Asi bin Shuraim Al Shammari was one of King Abdulaziz's spouses and the mother of the former ruler of Saudi Arabia, King Abdullah.
The Rashidi dynasty, also called Al Rashid or the House of Rashid, was a historic Arabian House or dynasty that existed in the Arabian Peninsula between 1836 and 1921. Its members were rulers of the Emirate of Ha'il and the most formidable enemies of the House of Saud, rulers of the Emirate of Nejd. They were centered in Ha'il, a city in northern Nejd that derived its wealth from being on the route of the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, and was also a commercial center. The rulers of Ha'il were the sons of Abdullah bin Rashid, founder of the dynasty.
Madawi Al-Rasheed argues that his maternal roots and his earlier experience of a speech impediment led to delay in his rise to higher status among the other sons of King Abdulaziz.
In 1963, Abdullah was made commander of Saudi National Guard (SANG). This post allowed him to secure his position in the House of Saud. SANG, which had been based on the Ikhwan, became a modern armed force under his command. Beginning 1985, SANG also sponsored the Janadiriyah festival that institutionalized traditional folk dances, camel races and tribal heritage.
King Khalid appointed Prince Abdullah as second deputy prime minister in March 1975, a reflection of his status as second in the line of succession to the Saudi throne.In other words, upon this appointment, Prince Abdullah became the number three man in the Saudi administration. However, his appointment caused friction in the House of Saud. Then-crown prince Prince Fahd, together with his full-brothers known as the Sudairi Seven, supported the appointment of their own full brother, Prince Sultan. Prince Abdullah was pressured to cede control of SANG in return for his appointment as Second Deputy Prime Minister. In August 1977, this generated a debate among hundreds of princes in Riyadh. Abdullah did not relinquish authority of SANG because he feared that this would weaken his authority.
On 13 June 1982 – the day King Khalid died – Fahd bin Abdulaziz became King, Prince Abdullah became Crown Prince the same day and also maintained his position as head of the National Guard. During his years as crown prince, Abdullah bin Abdulaziz was described as a supporter of accommodation. [ clarification needed ] a large number of fringe and marginalized princes discontented with the prospect of the succession being passed among the Sudairi brothers one after the other. His control of the National Guard was also a key factor to his success in becoming crown prince. When King Fahd was incapacitated by a major stroke in 1995, Crown Prince Abdullah acted as de facto regent of Saudi Arabia.He managed to group
In May 2001, Crown Prince Abdullah did not accept an invitation to visit Washington due to US support for Israel in the Second Intifada. He also appeared more eager than King Fahd to cut government spending and open Saudi Arabia up economically. He pushed for Saudi membership of the World Trade Organization, surprising some.
In August 2001, he ordered then Saudi Ambassador to the US, Bandar bin Sultan, to return to Washington. This reportedly occurred after Crown Prince Abdullah witnessed brutality inflicted by an Israeli soldier upon a Palestinian woman. [ dead link ]Later, he also condemned Israel for attacking families of suspects.
In 2002, he developed the Arab Peace Initiative, commonly referred to as the "Abdullah plan", to achieve a mutually agreed-on resolution of the Arab–Israeli conflict.The initiative was adopted at the Arab League's Beirut summit in March 2002.
On the second anniversary of the September 11 attacks, Crown Prince Abdullah wrote a letter to US President George W. Bush, which ended with the following words:
"God Almighty, in His wisdom, tests the faithful by allowing such calamities to happen. But He, in His mercy, also provides us with the will and determination, generated by faith, to enable us to transform such tragedies into great achievements, and crises that seem debilitating are transformed into opportunities for the advancement of humanity. I only hope that, with your cooperation and leadership, a new world will emerge out of the rubble of the World Trade Center: a world that is blessed by the virtues of freedom, peace, prosperity and harmony."
By late 2003, after the Saudi Arabian branch of al-Qaeda carried out a series of bombings that threatened to destabilize the country, Crown Prince Abdullah, together with other decision-making elites began to deal with political concerns. One of such moves was his project to promote more tolerance for religious diversity and rein in the forces of politico-religious extremism in the kingdom, leading to the establishment of National Dialogue. In the summer of 2003, Abdullah threw his considerable weight behind the creation of a national dialogue that brought leading religious figures together, including a highly publicized meeting attended by the kingdom's preeminent Shi'i scholar Hasan al-Saffar, as well as a group of Sunni clerics that had previously expressed their loathing for the Shi'i minority.
Abdullah succeeded to the throne upon the death of his half-brother King Fahd. He was formally enthroned on 2 August 2005.
King Abdullah's administration attempted reforms in different fields.
In 2005, King Abdullah implemented a government scholarship program to send young Saudi men and women abroad for undergraduate and postgraduate studies in different universities around the world. The program offered funds for tuition and living expenses up to four years. It is estimated that more than 70,000 young Saudis studied abroad in more than 25 countries, with the United States, England, and Australia as top three destinations aimed for by the students. There are more than 22,000 Saudi students studying in the United States, exceeding pre-9/11 levels. Public health engagement included breast cancer awareness and CDC cooperation to set up an advanced epidemic screening network to protect 2010's three million Hajj pilgrims.
King Abdullah implemented many reform measures. He re-shuffled the Ministry of Education's leadership in February 2009 by bringing in his pro-reform son-in-law, Faisal bin Abdullah, as the new minister. He also appointed Nora Al Fayez, a U.S.-educated former teacher, as deputy education minister in charge of a new department for female students.
He brought about a top-to-bottom restructuring of the country's courts to introduce, among other things, review of judicial decisions and more professional training for Shari'a judges. He developed a new investment promotion agency to overhaul the once-convoluted process of starting a business in Saudi Arabia and created a regulatory body for capital markets. He also promoted the construction of the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (the country's new flagship and controversially co-ed institution for advanced scientific research). King Abdullah invested in educating the workforce for future jobs. The Saudi government also encouraged the development of non-hydrocarbon sectors in which the Kingdom had a comparative advantage, including mining, solar energy, and religious tourism. The Kingdom's 2010 budget reflected these priorities—about 25 percent was devoted to education alone—and amounts to a significant economic stimulus package.
The response of his administration to homegrown terrorism was a series of crackdowns including raids by security forces, arrests, torture and public beheadings. [ citation needed ]He vowed to fight terrorist ideologies within the country. He also made the protection of Saudi Arabia's critical infrastructure a top security priority. His strategy against terrorism was two-pronged: he attacked the roots of the extremism that fed Al-Qaida through education and judicial reforms to weaken the influence of the most reactionary elements of Saudi Arabia's religious establishment.
In August 2010, King Abdullah decreed that only officially approved religious scholars associated with the Senior Council of Ulema would be allowed to issue fatwas. Similar decrees since 2005 were previously seldom enforced. Individual fatwas relating to personal matters were exempt from the royal decree. The decree also instructed the Grand Mufti to identify eligible scholars.
In light of the Arab Spring, Abdullah laid down a $37-billion (€32,8 billion) programme of new spending including new jobless benefits, education and housing subsidies, debt write-offs, and a new sports channel. There was also a pledge to spend a total of $400 billion by the end of 2014 to improve education, health care and the kingdom's infrastructure.However, Saudi police arrested 100 Shiite protesters who complained of government discrimination. Later during the 2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests, in September 2011, the King announced women's right to vote in the 2015 municipal council elections, a first significant reform step in the country since the protests. He also stated that women would become eligible to take part in the unelected shura .
In January 2012, King Abdullah dismissed the head of Saudi Arabia's powerful religious police, replacing him with a more moderate cleric, state news agency SPA reported, without giving reasons. Abdullatif Abdel Aziz al-Sheikh was named, in place of Sheikh Abdulaziz al-Humain, to head the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice. King Abdullah had appointed Humain in 2009 to head the "mutaween," which ensures the strict application of the country's ultra-conservative version of Islam, as a step towards reforming it. Humain hired consultants to restructure the organisation, met local human rights groups and consulted professional image-builders in a broad public relations campaign. Under his leadership the commission also investigated and punished some "out-of-control" officers for misbehaviour.
In July 2012, Saudi Arabia announced that it would allow its women athletes to compete in the Olympics for the first time and that the country's Olympic Committee would "oversee participation of women athletes who can qualify". The decision ended speculation that the entire Saudi team might have been disqualified on grounds of gender discrimination. The public participation of women in sport was still fiercely opposed by many Saudi religious conservatives. There had been almost no public tradition of women participating in sport in the country. Saudi officials said that, if successful in qualifying, female competitors would be dressed "to preserve their dignity".On 11 January 2013, King Abdullah appointed thirty women to the Consultative Assembly or Shura Council and modified the related law to mandate that no less than 20 percent of 150 members would be women.
In August 2013, the Saudi cabinet, for the first time, approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offence. The law calls for a punishment of up to a year in prison and a fine of up to 50,000 riyals (€11.500/US$13,000). [ citation needed ] The new laws were welcomed by Saudi women's rights activists, although some expressed concerns that the law could not be implemented successfully without new training for the judiciary, and that the tradition of male guardianship would remain an obstacle to prosecutions.The maximum punishments could be doubled for repeat offenders. The law criminalizes psychological, sexual as well as physical abuse. It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer. The move followed a Twitter campaign.
In November 2007, King Abdullah visited Pope Benedict XVI in the Apostolic Palace, being first Saudi monarch to do so.In March 2008, he called for a "brotherly and sincere dialogue between believers from all religions".
In June 2008, he held a conference in Mecca to urge Muslim leaders to speak with one voice with Jewish and Christian leaders.He discussed with, and obtained approval from, Saudi and non-Saudi Islamic scholars to hold the interfaith dialogue. In the same month, Saudi Arabia and Spain agreed to hold the interfaith dialogue in Spain. The historic conference finally took place in Madrid in July 2008, wherein religious leaders of different faiths participated, and which later led to the 2010 proclamation of World Interfaith Harmony Week.
He had never previously made overtures for dialogue with eastern religious leaders, such as Hindus and Buddhists. The Mecca conference discussed a paper on dialogue with monotheists — highlighting the monotheistic religions of southeast Asia, including Sikhism — in the third axis of the fourth meeting, titled "With Whom We Talk," presented by Sheikh Badrul Hasan Al Qasimi. The session was chaired by Ezz Eddin Ibrahim, cultural adviser to the president of the United Arab Emirates. The session also discussed a paper presented on coordination among Islamic institutions on Dialogue by Abdullah bin Omar Nassif, Secretary General of the World Islamic Council for Preaching and Relief and a paper on dialogue with divine messages, presented by Professor Mohammad Sammak – Secretary General of the Islamic Spiritual Summit in Lebanon.
In November 2008, he and his government arranged discussion at the United Nations General Assembly to "promote dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples, as well as activities related to a culture of peace" and calling for "concrete action at the global, regional and subregional levels."It brought together Muslim and non-Muslim nations to eradicate preconceptions as to Islam and terrorism, with world leaders – including former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, Israeli President Shimon Peres, US President George W. Bush and King Abdullah II of Jordan – attending.
In 2011, an agreement for the establishment of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue in Vienna was signed between the governments of Austria, Spain, and Saudi Arabia.The official opening of the centre was in November 2012, with foreign Minister Saud Al Faisal as its first general secretary and Austria's former federal justice minister Claudia Bandion-Ortner as the first deputy general secretary.
King Abdullah called for the establishment of an Arab common market in January 2011. Saudi foreign minister, Saud bin Faisal, stated that the Arab Customs Union would be ready by 2015, and that by 2017 the common market would also be in place. There have been intensive efforts to link Arab countries with a railway system and an electricity power grid. Work on the power grid project has started in some Arab countries.
King Abdullah had long been pro-American and a longtime close ally of the United States. In October 1976, as Prince Abdullah was being trained for greater responsibility in Riyadh, he was sent to the United States to meet with President Gerald Ford. He again traveled to the United States as Crown Prince in October 1987, meeting Vice President George H. W. Bush. In September 1998, Crown Prince Abdullah made a state visit to the United States to meet in Washington with President Bill Clinton. In September 2000, he attended millennium celebrations at the United Nations in New York City. In April 2002, Crown Prince Abdullah made a state visit to the United States with President George W. Bush and he returned again in April 2005 with Bush. In April 2009, at a summit for world leaders President Barack Obama met with King Abdullah, while in June 2009 he hosted President Obama in Saudi Arabia. In turn, Obama hosted the King at the White House in the same month.
King Abdullah showed great support for Obama's presidency. "Thank God for bringing Obama to the presidency", he said, adding that Obama's election created "great hope" in the Muslim world.He stated, "We (the US and Saudi Arabia) spilled blood together" in Kuwait and Iraq, that Saudi Arabia valued this tremendously and that friendship could be a difficult issue that requires work, but that the United States and Saudi Arabia had done it for 70 years over three generations. "Our disagreements don't cut to the bone", he stated. He was the leading gift-giver to the US president and his office in his first two years in office, his gifts totaling more than $300,000. A ruby and diamond jewelry set, given by the king and accepted by Michelle Obama on behalf of the United States, was worth $132,000. However, according to US federal law, gifts of such nature and value are accepted "on behalf of the United States" and are considered property of the US government.
The Bush administration ignored advice from him and Saudi foreign minister Saud Al Faisal against invading Iraq.However, other sources said that many Arab governments were only nominally opposed to the Iraq invasion because of popular hostility. Before becoming king, Prince Abdullah was thought to be completely against the US invasion of Iraq; this, however, was not the case. Riyadh provided essential support to the United States during the war and proved that "necessity does lead to some accommodations from time to time". The King expressed a complete lack of trust in Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Al Maliki and held out little hope for improved Saudi-Iraqi relations as long as al-Maliki remained in office. King Abdullah told an Iraqi official about Al Maliki, "You and Iraq are in my heart, but that man is not."
In September 2014, following the spread of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), he issued a statement, "From the cradle of revelation and the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, I call on leaders and scholars of the Islamic nation to carry out their duty towards God Almighty, and to stand in the face of those trying to hijack Islam and present it to the world as a religion of extremism, hatred, and terrorism, and to speak the word of truth, and not fear anybody. Our nation today is passing through a critical, historic stage, and history will be witness against those who have been the tool exploited by the enemies to disperse and tear the nation and tarnish the pure image of Islam".
In 2006, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei had sent his adviser Ali Akbar Velayati with a letter asking for King Abdullah's agreement to establish a formal back channel of communication between the two leaders. Abdullah said he had agreed, and the channel was established, with Velayati and Saud Al Faisal as the points of contact. In the ensuing years, the King noted, the channel had never been used.
In April 2008, according to a US cable released by WikiLeaks, King Abdullah had told the US Ambassador to Iraq, Ryan Crocker, and General David Petraeus to "cut off the head of the snake". Saudi Arabia's Ambassador to Washington, Adel al-Jubeir, "recalled the King's frequent exhortations to the US to attack Iran" and to put an end to that country's nuclear program.King Abdullah asserted that Iran was trying to set up Hezbollah-like organizations in African countries, observing that the Iranians didn't think they were doing anything wrong and didn't recognize their mistakes. He said that the Iranians "launch missiles with the hope of putting fear in people and the world". The King described his conversation with Iranian foreign minister Mottaki as "a heated exchange, frankly discussing Iran's interference in Arab affairs". When challenged by the King on Iranian meddling in Hamas affairs, Mottaki apparently protested that "these are Muslims". "No, Arabs", countered the King. "You as Persians have no business meddling in Arab matters". King Abdullah said he would favor Rafsanjani in an Iranian election.
He told General Jones that Iranian internal turmoil presented an opportunity to weaken the regime—which he encouraged—but he also urged that this be done covertly, stressing that public statements in support of the reformers were counterproductive. The King assessed that sanctions could help weaken the government, but only if they are strong and sustained.
Saudi Arabia, by the endorsement of the Gulf Cooperation Council, sent 1,200 troops to Bahrain to protect industrial facilities, resulting in strained relations with the United States. The military personnel were part of the Peninsula Shield Force, which is stationed in Saudi Arabia, but not affiliated to one country alone.
In December 2010, leaked diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks revealed that King Abdullah wanted all released detainees from the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be tracked using an implanted microchip, in a way similar to race horses. The King made the private suggestion during a meeting in Riyadh in March 2009 with White House counterterrorism adviser, John O. Brennan. Brennan replied that "horses don't have good lawyers" and that such a proposal would "face legal hurdles" in the United States.
Since King Abdullah's visit to Beijing in January 2006, Saudi-Chinese relations have focused predominantly on energy and trade. The king's visit was the first by a Saudi head of state to China since the two countries established diplomatic ties in 1990.Bilateral trade with China has more than tripled, and China would soon be Saudi Arabia's largest importer. Saudi Arabia also committed significant investments in China, including the $8 billion Fujian refinery. Based on a WikiLeaks cable, the King told the Chinese that it was willing to effectively trade a guaranteed oil supply in return for Chinese pressure on Iran not to develop nuclear weapons.
In late March 2011, King Abdullah sent Bandar, Secretary General of the National Security Council, to China to gain its support regarding Saudi Arabia's attitude towards the Arab Spring. In turn, lucrative arms contracts were secretly offered to China by the Kingdom. Furthermore, King Abdullah believed that China as well as India were the future markets for Saudi energy.
In November 2009, King Abdullah was received by Nicolas Sarkozy, who committed various diplomatic faux pas. The diplomatic relationship Jacques Chirac had with Saudi Arabia was not evident with Sarkozy.In January 2011, the Kingdom granted asylum to the ousted Tunisian leader, Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, under conditions of no further political involvement. According to leaked cables, King Abdullah was more receptive than Crown Prince Sultan to former Yemeni President Saleh.
King Abdullah supported renewed diplomatic relations with the Syrian government and Bashar al-Assad. They met in Damascus on 7 October 2009.In addition, Assad attended the opening of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in October 2009. Relations between Syria and Saudi Arabia deteriorated as a result of the Syrian Civil War. In August 2011, King Abdullah recalled the Saudi Ambassador from Damascus due to the political unrest in Syria and closed its embassy.
In December 2011, King Abdullah called on leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council to strengthen their alliance into a united "single entity" as they confront threats to national security. "I ask you today to move from a stage of cooperation to a stage of union in a single entity", King Abdullah said at the opening session of a GCC meeting in Riyadh in comments aired on Saudi state television. “No doubt, you all know we are targeted in our security and stability.”
On 16 February 2003, Parade magazine's David Wallechinsky rated King Fahd and Crown Prince Abdullah as the second worst dictators in the world.Most of this criticism stems from the fact that most of Saudi citizens live under a strict Wahhabist interpretation of Sharia law, which mandates the amputation of hands as a punishment for theft and floggings for crimes like drunkenness. Execution by public beheading is common for murder, rape, drug trafficking and witchcraft, and Abdullah's policies towards the rights of women have also been criticized. In a slight rebuff to accusations of human rights violations, Saudi inmates of Najran Province sent the King well-wishes from jail and wished him a speedy recovery.
King Abdullah has also been criticized for his policies on religious freedom and the Saudi government allegedly has arrested Shiite pilgrims on the Hajj.On 24 January 2007, Human Rights Watch sent an open letter to King Abdullah asking him to cease religious persecution of the Ahmadi faith in Saudi Arabia. Two letters were sent in November 2006 and February 2007 asking him to remove the travel ban on critics of the Saudi government. Human Rights Watch has not yet indicated whether they have received any response to these letters.
On 30 October 2007, during a state visit to the UK, King Abdullah was accused by protestors of being a "murderer" and a "torturer". Concerns were raised about the treatment of women and homosexuals by the Saudi kingdom and over alleged bribes involving arms deals between Saudi Arabia and the UK.
King Abdullah's heir apparent was his half-brother Crown Prince Sultan until the latter's death on 22 October 2011. The title of Crown Prince then passed to Prince Sultan's full-brother, Nayef, until his death in Geneva, Switzerland, on 16 June 2012, while undergoing medical tests for an undisclosed ailment. His third heir apparent was his half-brother Salman, who was named as Crown Prince on 18 June 2012,and would succeed him in 2015.
In 2006, Abdullah set up the Allegiance Council, a body that is composed of the sons and grandsons of Saudi Arabia's founder, King Abdulaziz, to vote by a secret ballot to choose future kings and crown princes. The council's mandate was not to have started until after the reigns of both King Abdullah and late Prince Sultan were over. It was not clear what was to happen when Prince Sultan died before the end of Abdullah's reign, leaving a question as to whether the council would vote for a new crown prince, or whether Prince Nayef would automatically fill that position. Despite such concerns, Prince Nayef was appointed Crown Prince on 27 October 2011 after consultation with the Allegiance Council by Abdullah.
In November 2010, Prince Nayef chaired a cabinet meeting because of the deterioration of the King's health.During the same month, King Abdullah transferred his duties as Commander of the Saudi National Guard to his son Prince Mutaib. King Abdullah is credited with building up the once largely ceremonial unit into a modern 260,000-strong force that is a counterweight to the army. The Guard, which was Abdullah's original power base, protects the royal family. This was suggested as an apparent sign that the elderly monarch was beginning to lessen some of his duties.
King Abdullah was Commander of the Saudi National Guard from 1963 to 2010. He was Chairman of the Saudi Supreme Economic Council until 2009.He also continued to be the President of the High Council for Petroleum and Minerals, President of the King Abdulaziz Center For National Dialogue, Chairman of the Council of Civil Service, and head of the Military Service Council until his death in 2015.
King Abdullah followed his father's (King Abdulaziz's) path in terms of marriage in that he married the daughters of the al Shalan of Anizah, al Fayz of Bani Sakhr, and al Jarbah of the Iraqi branch of the Shammar tribe.King Abdullah had about 30 wives, and fathered about 35 children. One of his wives is the sister of Rifaat al-Assad's wife. He also married Jawahir bint Ali Hussein from Al Jiluwi clan, with whom he had a daughter, Princess Anoud and a son, Prince Saud. Aida Fustuq was another wife of Abdullah, they had two children, Adila and Abdulaziz. They divorced later. Munira bint Abdullah Al Al Shaykh was the wife of King Abdullah and gave birth to his eldest living son, Prince Khaled. Tathi bint Mishan al Faisal Al Jarba gave birth to Prince Mishaal.
King Abdullah's eldest son, Prince Khaled, was deputy commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard West until 1992. His second son, Prince Mutaib, is former commander and current minister of the National Guard. His mother is Munira Al Otaishan. Prince Mishaal was governor of the Makkah Province (2013–2015).Prince Abdulaziz was the king's former Syria adviser and has been deputy foreign affairs minister since 2011. Prince Faisal is head of the Saudi Arabian Red Crescent Society. King Abdullah's seventh son, Prince Turki, who was a pilot in the Royal Saudi Air Force, was governor of the Riyadh Province (2014–2015). The youngest son, Prince Badr, was born in 2003, when Abdullah was about 79 years old. In October 2015, his son, Prince Majed bin Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, was arrested in Los Angeles for using cocaine, being drunk, threatening female employees, and forcing them to watch him having gay sex with a male employee.
King Abdullah's daughter Princess Adila is married to Faisal bin Abdullah bin Mohammed.She is one of the few Saudi princesses with a semi-public role, and a known advocate of women's right to drive. She is also known as "her father's public face". One of Abdullah's younger daughters, Princess Sahab, was born in 1993. Sahab bint Abdullah married Khalid bin Hamad Al Khalifa, son of Bahraini King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, on 6 June 2011. Princess Sahab is the daughter of the king from his wife of the Al-Jarbah tribe.
From his marriage to Princess Alanoud Al Fayez (arranged when she was 15 without her having ever met him), whom he has now divorced, he had four daughters – Princesses Sahar, Maha, Hala and Jawahir.The four princesses have been under house arrest for the last 16 years, and are not allowed to leave the country. After media releases in March 2014, Sahar and Jawaher received no food or clean water for 25 days, lost 10 kilos each and their mother carried out weekly protests in front of the Saudi Arabian embassy in London, and about which Sahar and Jawaher released a video while under house arrest pleading for help from the international community. King Abdullah also had a daughter called Princess Nora who died in 1990 in a car accident. Princess Fayza is yet another daughter. She is the mother of Prince Saud bin Abdulaziz bin Nasser Al Saud who was accused of murdering his servant Bandar Abdulaziz in London in 2010.
King Abdullah was the half brother of both his predecessors, including King Fahd, and his successor, King Salman.
|Ancestors of Abdullah of Saudi Arabia|
The King had curtailed his activities from June 2010 with no clear explanation. Diplomats said there had been uncertainty about the extent of his health problems since Abdullah canceled a visit to France.[ when? ] In a television appearance in which he was seen to use a cane, King Abdullah said he was in good health but had something "bothering" him. In a visit by US diplomats to Saudi Arabia in April 2014 the Saudi King was seen connected to breathing tubes during talks, indicating increasing health problems.
From 2010 to 2012 King Abdullah had four back surgeries.The first two of the surgeries were in New York, one in 2010 for a slipped disk and a blood clot pressing on nerves in his back and a second to stabilize vertebrae in 2011. The third one was in Riyadh in 2011. And the last one was also in Riyadh on 17 November 2012.
In November 2010, his back problems came to light in the media. He had an "accumulation of blood" around the spinal cord. He suffered from a herniated disc and was told to rest by doctors. To maintain the Kingdom's stability, Crown Prince Sultan returned from Morocco during the King's absence.The King was admitted to New York-Presbyterian Hospital after a blood clot complicated a slipped disc and underwent successful back surgery. The lead surgeon was Muhammad Zaka, who probably removed the herniated disk and performed a lumbar fusion. He subsequently had another successful surgery in which surgeons "stabilized a number of vertebras". He left the hospital on 22 December 2010 and convalesced at The Plaza in New York City. On 22 January 2011, he left the United States and for Morocco, and returned to the Kingdom on 23 February 2011.
King Abdullah left Saudi Arabia on "special leave" on 27 August 2012.Al-Quds reported that he had an operation at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, on or before 4 September 2012, following a heart attack. However, there was no official report on this alleged operation – instead, it was announced that the King went on a private trip to Morocco, where he is known to frequent. The King returned to Saudi Arabia from Morocco on 24 September. Nearly two months later, in November 2012, King Abdullah underwent another back surgery in Riyadh and left hospital on 13 December 2012. A report in April 2014 stated that the King had around six months left to live, citing a diagnosis of terminal lung cancer. On 2 January 2015, Abdullah was hospitalized in Riyadh for pneumonia and died on 23 January at the age of 90. Per Islamic tradition, his funeral was held the same day, a public ceremony at the Grand Mosque of Riyadh before burial in an unmarked grave at the Al Oud cemetery. Three days of national mourning were declared, in which flags would fly at half mast. Flags were also flown half-mast at Buckingham Palace and Westminster Abbey in London.
King Abdullah was, in 2012, named as the most influential Muslim among 500 Muslims for the previous 4 years.In December 2012, Forbes named him as the seventh most powerful figure in its list of the "World's Most Powerful People" for 2012, being the sole Arab in the top ten.
King Abdullah received a number of international high orders. Most notably, he was an honoured knight of the strictly Roman Catholic Order of the Golden Fleece (the Spanish branch), which caused some controversy.
In April 2012, he was awarded by the United Nations a gold medal for his contributions to intercultural understanding and peace initiatives.
In 2011, the financial magazine Forbes estimated his and his immediate family's documentable wealth at US$21 billion, making him one of the world's richest monarchs.
Abdullah was an expert equestrian in his youth. His stables were considered the largest in Saudi Arabia, with over 1,000 horses spread throughout five divisions led by his son Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah.The King also owned Janadria Farm, a large complex located in the suburbs of Riyadh.
For holidays, the King maintained a large palace complex with several residential compounds in Casablanca, Morocco. acres of vegetation.It is equipped with two heliport s and is surrounded by large mansions on 133
Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005. He was one of 45 sons of Saudi founder Ibn Saud and the fourth of his six sons who were kings.
Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1975 to 1982. His reign saw both huge developments in the country due to increase in oil revenues and significant events in the Middle East.
The House of Saud is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia. The most influential position of the royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. King Salman, who reigns currently, chose first his nephew and then his son as the crown prince without consulting the Allegiance Council. The family is estimated to comprise 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of about 2,000 of them.
Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, called Sultan al-Khair in Saudi Arabia, was a Saudi nobleman and government official. A son of King Abdulaziz, he was Saudi Defense minister from 1963 to his death in 2011 and the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2011.
Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, also known as Saud Al Faisal, was a Saudi diplomat and statesman who served as Saudi Arabia's foreign minister from 1975 to 2015. A member of the Saudi royal family, he was the longest-serving foreign minister in world history since Klemens von Metternich.
The Sudairi Seven, also spelled Sudairy or Sudayri, is the commonly used name for a powerful alliance of seven full brothers within the House of Saud. Their father King Abdulaziz 'Ibn Saud' had more sons with their mother Hussa Sudairi than he did with any of his other wives. They are also sometimes referred to as the Sudairi Clan or the Sudairi faction.
Princes' School is a school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al Oud Cemetery is a public cemetery in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The word Oud, in Arabic, means "elder ", referring to King Abdulaziz, who was buried in the cemetery.
Muqrin bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is a member of House of Saud who served as Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia from January to April 2015. He was Director General of Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah from 2005 to 2012. In July 2012, Muqrin was appointed King Abdullah's Advisor and Special Envoy with the rank of minister. On 1 February 2013, King Abdullah named him as Second Deputy Prime Minister, being the fifth Saudi royal to hold this position. This post was previously held by King Fahd, King Abdullah, Crown Prince Sultan, and Crown Prince Nayef. On 27 March 2014, he was named Deputy Crown Prince making him second in the line of succession behind his brother Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. On 23 January 2015, upon King Abdullah's death and the accession of King Salman, Muqrin became Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister. Only three months later, on 29 April 2015, King Salman replaced Prince Muqrin with Prince Muhammad bin Nayef as Crown Prince.
Mishaal bin Abdulaziz al Saud was chairman of the Allegiance Council and a senior member of the House of Saud. He held different cabinet posts in the 1950s.
Bandar bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is a Saudi royal and the tenth son of Ibn Saud, the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. He is the eldest surviving member of the ruling branch of the House of Saud.
Fahd bin Salman was a member of the House of Saud.
Hussa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi (1900–1969) was one of the many spouses and cousins of King Abdulaziz and the mother of King Fahd and King Salman, monarchs of Saudi Arabia. Her sons Sultan, Nayef, and Salman served successively as Crown Prince during their half-brother Abdullah's reign, as their brother Fahd had done during the reign of Khalid, another half-brother. Her adult sons are informally known as the "Sudairi Seven".
The Allegiance Council, also known as the Allegiance Commission or Allegiance Institution, is the body responsible for determining future succession to the throne of Saudi Arabia. It was formed on 7 December 2007 by King Abdullah. At the time of its formation, the Council's intended function was to appoint a Crown Prince once a new King succeeds to the throne.
Abdul Elah bin Abdulaziz, also spelled Abdulillah, born 1939) is a member of the House of Saud and was an adviser to the late King Abdullah.
Saud bin Nayef is the former head of the Crown Prince Court and special advisor to the Saudi Crown Prince. He is governor of Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia as well as a member of House of Saud. Prince Saud was once regarded as one of the candidates for king or crown prince when succession passed to the new generation.
Fahd bin Sultan Al Saud has been the governor of Tabuk Province since 1987 and a member of House of Saud.
Turki bin Abdullah Al Saud is the seventh son of the late King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, who ruled Saudi Arabia from 2005 until his death in 2015 and a member of the House of Saud. He served as deputy governor of Riyadh Province from 2013 to 2014 and as governor of Riyadh Province from 14 May 2014 to 29 January 2015. He was one of the 11 princes detained by Mohammad bin Salman as a part of his anti-corruption drive, on accusations of corruption in the Riyadh Metro project and taking advantage of his influence to award contracts to his own companies.
Ibn Saud (1875–1953), the founder and first king of Saudi Arabia, was very young when he first married. However his wife died shortly after their marriage. Ibn Saud remarried at eighteen and his firstborn child was Turki. He had 45 sons of whom 36 survived to adulthood and had children of their own. He also had many daughters. His number of wives is put at 22.
King Abdullah’s advanced age—a leaked U.S. cable placed him at ninety-six, much older than the previously estimated eighty-eight or eighty-nine
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AbdullahBorn: 1 August 1924 Died: 23 January 2015
| King of Saudi Arabia |
|Saudi Arabian royalty|
| Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia |