State visit

Last updated

President Donald Trump with Queen Elizabeth II review the Coldstream Guards at Windsor Castle during the American official visit to the United Kingdom in 2018. Queen Elizabeth and Donald Trump.jpg
President Donald Trump with Queen Elizabeth II review the Coldstream Guards at Windsor Castle during the American official visit to the United Kingdom in 2018.

A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of the head of state of that foreign country, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit. Speaking for the host, it is generally called a state reception. State visits are considered to be the highest expression of friendly bilateral relations between two sovereign states, and are in general characterised by an emphasis on official public ceremonies.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

Hospitality relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable

Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a great soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity.

Bilateralism is the conduct of political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states. It is in contrast to unilateralism or multilateralism, which is activity by a single state or jointly by multiple states, respectively. When states recognize one another as sovereign states and agree to diplomatic relations, they create a bilateral relationship. States with bilateral ties will exchange diplomatic agents such as ambassadors to facilitate dialogues and cooperations.

Contents

Less formal visits than a state visit to another country with a lesser emphasis on ceremonial events, by either a head of state or a head of government, can be classified (in descending order of magnitude) as either an official visit, a working visit, a private visit, or a Guest of Government visit. [1]

A head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

In parliamentary democracies, while heads of state in such systems of government may formally issue and accept invitations, they do so on the advice of their heads of government, who usually decides on when the invitation is to be issued or accepted in advance.

Parliamentary system form of government

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

Queen Elizabeth II is "the most travelled head of state in the world," having made 261 official overseas visits and 96 state visits to 116 countries by the time of her Diamond Jubilee in 2012. [2] Although she is sovereign of each of the Commonwealth realms, in practice, she usually performs full state visits as Queen of the United Kingdom, while the relevant governor-general undertakes state visits for his or her respective country on the sovereign's behalf. However, the Queen has occasionally made some state and official visits representing one of her other Commonwealth realms.

Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II

The Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II was a multinational celebration throughout 2012, that marked the 60th anniversary of the accession of Queen Elizabeth II on 6 February 1952. The only other time in British history that a monarch celebrated a Diamond Jubilee was in 1897, when Queen Victoria celebrated hers.

Commonwealth realm sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II or her successors as its monarch

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms. As of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

Components of a state visit

A state dinner at the White House, held for Helmut Schmidt. State dinners are a typical component of a state visit. Rosalynn Carter and Jimmy Carter host state dinner for German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Mrs. Helmut Schmidt. - NARA - 175460.tif
A state dinner at the White House, held for Helmut Schmidt. State dinners are a typical component of a state visit.

State visits typically involve some or all the following components (each host country has its own traditions):

Official someone who holds an office

An official is someone who holds an office in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority.

Ambassador diplomatic envoy

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is also often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions, activities and fields of endeavor such as sales.

In diplomatic usage, head of mission (HOM) or chief of mission (COM) from the French "chef de mission diplomatique" (CMD) is the head of a diplomatic representation, such as an ambassador, high commissioner, nuncio, chargé d'affaires, permanent representative, and to a consul-general or consul. Depending on the context, it may also refer to the heads of certain international organizations' representative offices. Certain other titles or usages that would qualify as a head of mission or equivalent also exist. While they are primarily referred to by the other titles mentioned above, it is common for the diplomatic corps of several countries to use deputy head of mission or deputy chief of mission (DCM) as the primary title for the second in command of a diplomatic mission.

The German presidential standard displayed at the President's Guest House during a German state visit to the United States. Several countries maintain guest houses used for state visits. PGHGermany123.png
The German presidential standard displayed at the President's Guest House during a German state visit to the United States. Several countries maintain guest houses used for state visits.

The visiting head of state is usually accompanied by a senior government minister, usually by a foreign minister. Behind the diplomatic protocol, delegations made up from trade organizations also accompanies the visiting head of state, offered an opportunity to network and develop economic, cultural, and social links with industry leaders in the nation being visited. At the end of a state visit, the foreign head of state traditionally issues a formal invitation to the head of state of the nation being visited who at another time in the future, would pay a reciprocal state visit.

A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.

In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. It may also refer to an international agreement that supplements or amends a treaty.

Trade Exchange of goods and services.

Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market.

While the costs of a state visit are usually borne by state funds of the host country, most nations host fewer than ten state visits per year, with some as few as two. Most foreign heads of state will stay in the official residence of the head of state who is hosting the state visit, in a guest house reserved for foreign visitors, or in their own nation's embassy located in the foreign nation being visited.

State visits by well-known global leaders, such as Elizabeth II, the President of the United States or the Pope, often draw much publicity and large crowds. Occasionally, these include protesters.

State visits by country

Armenia

State visits to Armenia are held in the capital of Yerevan, with a welcoming ceremony usually being held at Zvartnots International Airport. Foreign heads of state are welcomed at the President's Residence while heads of government are welcomed at the Residence of the Prime Minister.

Canada

The Governor General's Foot Guards typically mounts the guard of honour during state visits to Canada. Sergio Mattarella al Rideau Hall 09.jpg
The Governor General's Foot Guards typically mounts the guard of honour during state visits to Canada.

The Governor General's Foot Guards, one of two household Foot Guards, take part in state, and official visits to Ottawa. Arrival ceremonies take place at either Parliament Hill or Rideau Hall, where they will be received by the Prime Minister of Canada and the Governor General of Canada respectively. State visits also include a visit to the National War Memorial. The Office of Protocol coordinates the operational aspects of state and official visits to Canada and manages all events that are related to the visit. It also defines the protocol standards for state visits of heads of state and government. [3]

State and official visits by Canada is performed by the Monarch of Canada or a representative—the Governor General, a lieutenant governor, or another member of the Royal Family. The first state visit by Canada was to the United States in 1937, when the United States accorded the Governor General the equivalent status given to a visiting head of state. [4] However, the Governor General was not formally empowered to represent Canada for state visits until 1947, when the Letters Patent came into effect. [4]

Tours of Canada by the Monarch of Canada (and other members of the Royal Family) are not state/official visits, as the monarch conducts their royal tours in their capacity as the Canadian head of state, and not as a foreign head of state. Additionally, because the Canadian sovereign is shared with 15 other Commonwealth realms, state visits to Canada by the other realms are typically performed by their governor-general.

China, People's Republic of

The Beijing Garrison Honor Guard with the Order of Friendship, an award occasionally given during state visits. Vladimir Putin awarded the Chinese Order of Friendship 07.jpg
The Beijing Garrison Honor Guard with the Order of Friendship, an award occasionally given during state visits.

State arrival ceremonies in China take place at the East Court of the Great Hall of the People on Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The Guard of honour for the ceremony is provided by the Beijing Garrison Honor Guard with musical accompaniment provided by the Central Military Band of the People's Liberation Army of China.

As the military band plays the national anthems of the two countries, an honours company fires a 21-Gun Salute. After the band finishes its performance, the two leaders then inspect the guard of honour at the invitation of the guard commander. Following the inspection, both leaders embrace schoolchildren who wave flowers and the flags of both countries. At this time, the band performs a military march or folk song from the guest country.

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) Honor Guard then marches off the square to the tune of the March of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The ceremony ends with the marching band of the PLA performing an exhibition of military drill. [5]

During state visits, national awards are presented to visiting dignitaries, including the Order of Friendship.

Czech Republic

The military welcome accorded to foreign leaders at Prague Castle are provided by troops of the Prague Castle Guard, Honor Guard of the Czech Armed Forces, the Czech Army Central Band, the Band of the Castle Guards and Police and units of the Prague Garrison Command.

France

Donald Trump at Les Invalides during his state visit to France. Arrival ceremonies typically take place at Les Invalides, or the Elysee Palace. Donald J. Trump and President Emmanuel Macron, July 13, 2017 (01).jpg
Donald Trump at Les Invalides during his state visit to France. Arrival ceremonies typically take place at Les Invalides, or the Elysee Palace.

State arrival ceremonies are held at either the Elysee Palace or Les Invalides, with the participation of the Infantry and Fanfare Band of the French Republican Guard Band and the 1st Infantry Regiment of the Republican Guard. The Vestibule d'Honneur (Hall of Honour) in the Elysee is where the President of France meets visiting dignitaries an holds bilateral meetings. Towards the end of the visit, the head of state or governments will give a speech at the Palais Bourbon to the Senate of France, and will hold meetings with members of parliament. Sometime during the state visit, the visiting dignitary will lay a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the Arc de Triomphe.

Georgia

State visits in Georgia are held outside the Presidential Administration of Georgia in Tbilisi. Ceremonial honours are provided by the Honour Guard and the Band of the National Guard of Georgia. The band plays Georgian Army songs during the inspection of the honour guard. During the Presidency of Mikheil Saakashvili, the band played the March of the Preobrazhensky Regiment during state visits.

State arrival ceremonies to Georgia is held at Avlabari Presidential Palace in Tbilisi. It typically includes a review of a guard of honour. Poroshenko in Georgia 03.jpg
State arrival ceremonies to Georgia is held at Avlabari Presidential Palace in Tbilisi. It typically includes a review of a guard of honour.

During state visits, a dignitaries usually meet with the Prime Minister, Chairperson of Parliament, and the Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia separately from the president. State dinners are also held inside the presidential palace with officials from both countries present.

Germany

During state visits to Germany, honours are provided by the German Wachbataillon (Guard battalion) and the Staff Band of the Bundeswehr. Depending on the status of the guest, state ceremonies are either held at the Bellevue Palace or the Federal Chancellery Complex. In recent years, state visits have been marked with dignitaries paying homage at memorials such as the Berlin Victory Column, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, and the Soviet War Memorial (Tiergarten).

During state visits, foreign dignitaries typically visit German federal states outside the capital. It this regard, a full honors ceremony is also held with the minister-president being the presiding officer. [6] [7]

India

Foreign leaders to India are typically received at the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence for the President of India. Barack and Michelle Obama are greeted by President Pratibha Devisingh Patil.jpg
Foreign leaders to India are typically received at the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence for the President of India.

Foreign leaders are received at the Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi during state visits. The dignitary first receives the salute from the President's Bodyguard (PBG), and the Tri-Services Guard of Honour. Heads of State is also given a 21-gun salute, with a 19-gun salute being to Heads of government. The massed bands and the commander of the guard of honour is chosen by a rotation between the Indian Army, Navy, and Air Force. [8] In 2015, Wing Commander Pooja Thakur became the first female officer to lead the guard of honour for a foreign leader. [9]

State banquets are also held for foreign dignitaries at the Rashtrapati Bhavan which are hosted by the President of India. Over 100 guests are invited to attend state banquets, including the Vice-President of India, the Prime minister of India, as well as government officials and leaders of the ruling party.

Israel

The President of the State of Israel, in his/her position as head of state, leads the welcoming events and is the official host of foreign leaders who visit Israel. A Guard of Honor made up of personnel of all the service branches of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are usually lined up at the main V.I.P terminal of Tel Aviv International Airport.

Italy

John F. Kennedy arrives at the Italian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Visits to the tomb is a typical component of state visits to Italy. G. Andreotti JF Kennedy Rome State visit tribute to the Unknown Soldier.jpg
John F. Kennedy arrives at the Italian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Visits to the tomb is a typical component of state visits to Italy.

When dignitaries arrive in the Italian capital of Rome, they are receieved in a short reception ceremony at the airport by the Head of the Diplomatic Ceremonial Office among other officials, who then briefly entertain the guest in the boardroom to allow the handling of airport formalities. Arrival honors for foreign dignitaries visiting Rome are held either at the Quirinal Palace (official residence of the President of the Italian Republic) or the Palazzo Chigi (official residence of the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic). During the ceremony, the guard of honor is provided by a military unit (most likely the Corazzieri and a selected ceremonial unit such as the Honour Company "Goito" from the 1° Regiment "Granatieri di Sardegna") and a supporting military band that performs 3 Ruffles and flourishes known as "Onori" ("Honors") prior to playing the national anthem of the dignitary's home country and Il Canto degli Italiani. In recent years, the Bersaglieri, the Carabinieri, and the Italian Navy have provided honor guards for the ceremony.

The rest of the day includes bilateral meetings, one on one conversations, a joint press conference, and a state dinner, where the exchange of gifts and the awarding of honors takes place. The next day sees the laying of wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the Altar of the Homeland. All protocol events in the capital are organized by the State Ceremonial Office. In particular, the Ceremonial Office of the Ministry of Defense handles protocol related to the Italian Armed Forces, and the Diplomatic Ceremonial Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs handles protocol related to the diplomatic corps. [10]

Kyrgyzstan

Bilateral meetings during state visits to Kyrgyzstan typically take place at the Ala Archa State Residence. Putin in Kyrgyzstan 2017 02.jpg
Bilateral meetings during state visits to Kyrgyzstan typically take place at the Ala Archa State Residence.

State visits are planned in accordance with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs one month in advance. Arrival ceremonies for state visits to Kyrgyzstan typically take place at Manas International Airport with the participation of the Honour Guard Battalion of the 701st Military Unit of the National Guard and the Band of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Kyrgyzstan. A wreath laying ceremony is also held at Victory Square. A bilateral meeting, press conference, and state dinner are all held at the Ala Archa State Residence.

The Kyrgyz official welcoming group includes the Chairman of the Supreme Council, the Prime Minister, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The official morning breakfast reception takes place from 11:00 am to 3:00 pm. Arrival ceremonies are also held at the state residences all over the country. [11]

Mexico

State visits (Visita de Estado) to Mexico City are held on a regular basis. Arrival ceremonies are usually held at the National Palace, the president's workplace or at Mexico City International Airport. On certain occasions, a full honors ceremony with the participation of the Mexican Armed Forces joint-service Presidential Guards Corps are held at Campo Marte, where the corps' two military police brigades are stationed.

An inspection of the Mexican guard of honour typically occurs near the end of the state arrival ceremony. Visita del Presidente de Portugal, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (35152046614).jpg
An inspection of the Mexican guard of honour typically occurs near the end of the state arrival ceremony.

The arrival ceremony begins with the PGC Honor Guard presenting arms while the Representative Music Band of the Mexican Armed Forces plays the anthems of the two countries (the Mexican Anthem is always played first). Then the President of Mexico intorduces members of his/he cabinet before the visiting dignitary indroduces members of their delegation accompanying them on this visit. After this is done, the commander of the honour guard then delivers the following report to the dignitary:

“With your permission Mr/Madam President of the United Mexican States, I am the commander of the honour guard of the (states dignitary's position) and I invite you to review the guard of honour present, sir/ma'am."

The president and the dignitary then inspect the guard, paying homage to the Mexican flag and the flag of the guest country along the way. The ceremony then ends and the two go into the palace to begin their bilateral meeting. The Campo Marte ceremony is similar in style to the palace ceremony with the main differences being a 21 gun salute, opening remarks, and the military parade being added to the program.

Netherlands

State visits in the Netherlands (Staatsbezoek) revolve around and are centered on the capital of Amsterdam. Characteristics of a state visit is that it is usually carried out by a foreign head of state, rather than a head of government. Upon arrival to the country, the dignitary will be given a tour through the capital, which includes a wreath laying ceremony at the National Monument. Foreign dignitaries are usually recieved by the monarch at the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, where they recieve a guard of honour formed by the Grenadiers' and Rifles Guard Regiment upon arrival. It is here where all matters of state and bilateral meetings take place over the course of the visit.

During a state visit, the Dutch monarch always hosts a state dinner in honor of the guest, usually at the monarch's residence at the Noordeinde Palace. It is customary to be awarded the Knight Grand Cross Order of the Netherlands Lion during state visits.

Norway

Dmitry Medvedev exchanges gifts with the King of Norway. A formal gift exchange is typically made at the Bird Room of the Royal Palace. Russian President and King of Norway exchange gifts during State Visit big225595.jpg
Dmitry Medvedev exchanges gifts with the King of Norway. A formal gift exchange is typically made at the Bird Room of the Royal Palace.

State visits to the Norwegian capital of Oslo begin with the inspecting of the 3rd Company, Hans Majestet Kongens Garde at the Royal Palace by the visiting dignitary and the Norwegian monarch. Once they are in the palace, the monarch takes the dignitary to the Bird Room to engage in an exchange of gifts. The visit also includes a wreath laying ceremony at Akershus Fortress, which is also an official residence of the Prime Minister of Norway. In the evening, a gala dinner hosted by the Royal Family of Norway is held at the Royal Palace in honour of the visiting head of state.

As it refers to state visits by the Monarch of Norway, they are always accompanied by the Norwegian foreign minister and representatives of the Government. Between 2-4 state visits to Oslo and Royal visits to other countries are made per year, usually by the reigning monarch. [12]

Poland

State visits (Polish : Wizyta Państwowa) take place on a regular basis in Poland. Ceremonial honours a provided by the Representative Honor Guard Regiment of the Polish Armed Forces (Polish : Pulk Reprezentacyjny Wojska Polskiego) at the Presidential Palace. Musical accompaniment is provided by the Representative Central Band of the Polish Armed Forces.

The White Hall in the Presidential Palace is used to host foreign heads of state. The hall is located at the main entrance from the courtyard, where the welcoming ceremony takes place. [13]

Russia

The Russian Foreign Ministry organizes the itinerary for official visits to the country, scheduling events such as a wreath-laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Defense.gov News Photo 110322-D-XH843-005 - Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates lays a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Moscow, Russia, on March 22, 2011.jpg
The Russian Foreign Ministry organizes the itinerary for official visits to the country, scheduling events such as a wreath-laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

The Department of State Protocol of the Russian Foreign Ministry is responsible for organizing the itinerary for state visits to the country. It was founded on December 18, 1991, by Decree No. 291 of President Boris Yeltsin on the basis of the Foreign Policy Service of the RSFSR. The decree, in effect, provided a new unified protocol practice in the Russian Federation. [14] It's duties ranges from organizing invitations to the country to developing an event schedule for the dignitary's visit. Common practices organized by the department include protocol events meetings, wreath-laying, breakfast, and lunch, among others. The Presidential Protocol Office in the Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation also serves a similar purpose. [15]

A foreign head of state or government receives arrival honours from the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment and the Special Exemplary Military Band upon their arrival at the VIP terminal at Vnukovo International Airport in Moscow, where they are usually greeted by the Russian Deputy Foreign Minister. Heads of State also take part in a welcoming ceremony with the President of Russia in the Hall of the Order of St. George of the Grand Kremlin Palace.

The following is Estonian diplomat Tiit Matsulevitš's opinion on Russian protocol for state visits:

"Russian diplomacy has a centuries-old tradition, I consider the Russian protocol to be one of the best in the world. The protocol service of Russia is very correct." [16]

Tiit Matsulevitš, Estonian Ambassador to Russia from 1999-2001

Spain

The President of Israel, Reuven Rivlin, addresses the Cortes Generales during his state visit Spain. The state visit of Reuven Rivlin to Spain, November 2017 (9872).jpg
The President of Israel, Reuven Rivlin, addresses the Cortes Generales during his state visit Spain.

State visits to the Kingdom of Spain are held with the participation of the King and Queen of Spain. The day's events begin as the visiting dignitary arrives in a special vehicle at the Palacio Real in the Spanish capital of Madrid. As the dignitary arrives, units of the Spanish Royal Guard (including the Mounted Band of Timpani and Bugles and the Lancers Troop) prepares for the start of the arrival ceremony. The ceremony starts with all units presenting arms at the sound of a bugle call and performing a royal salute, with the playing of the guest anthem and the Marcha Real taking place. Once the regiment is orders arms, 3 senior officers from the guard (a senior commander, a bugler and a guidon bearer) approach the central grandstand to report to the guest and His Majesty the king on the readiness of the regiment for inspection. They then begin their inspection, reviewing the infatry as well as the mounted units. Once the review is complete, a large military parade in the forecourt of the palace is held with the massed bands playing military music as the units march past.

The other notable state ceremony that takes place in the palace is the state dinner, which is hosted by the King, and is attended by the visiting dignitary, his/her delegation, the Spanish Royal Family, the Spanish Prime Minister, and other government officials. During the course of the visit, the visiting leader may deliver an address to a joint session of the bicameral Cortes Generales (composed of the Senate and the Congress of Deputies).

United Kingdom

Tony Tan with Prince Philip. State visits to the United Kingdom are typically events that involves members of the Royal Family. Singapore President Tony Tan, State Visit to the United Kingdom 2014.jpg
Tony Tan with Prince Philip. State visits to the United Kingdom are typically events that involves members of the Royal Family.

A state visit to the United Kingdom is a royal event which involves the Queen and other members of the Royal family. An arrival ceremony usually takes place on Horse Guards Parade (There are also some instances where it takes place at Buckingham Palace or Windsor Castle) with a Guard of Honour being provided by members of the Queen's Guard. The guard of honour will always report to the dignitary in the language of the visitor, with the report being along the lines of the following:

'"Your Excellency, the guard of honour, provided by the (states name of unit), is formed up, and ready for inspection."

Depending on the area where the ceremony takes place, a march past will immediately take place following the inspection. The foreign guest and the Queen then travel to Buckingham Palace in a carriage procession escorted by a large number of mounted soldiers from the Household Cavalry. The welcome ceremony is accompanied by 21-gun salutes fired from Green Park and the Tower of London. Around 150 guests are invited to Buckingham Palace for the state banquet in the evening in the ballroom. [17] [18]

State visits are never undertaken the leaders of the 16 overseas commonwealth realms due to the political links that they have with the British monarch. The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is also the sovereign of all 16 realms, serving effectively as the head of state of these countries.

United States

State visits to Washington, D.C. only occur on the invitation of the President of the United States in their position as head of state and head of the Federal government of the United States. Official visits refer to a visit by a head of government to Washington. During state visits, there are usually many events taking place in the capital, with the participation of hundreds of individuals.

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Aide-de-camp</i> personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank

An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.

State Opening of Parliament event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It includes a speech from the throne known as the Queen's Speech. The State Opening is an elaborate ceremony showcasing British history, culture and contemporary politics to large crowds and television viewers.

Household Division

Household Division is a term used principally in the Commonwealth of Nations to describe a country’s most elite or historically senior military units, or those military units that provide ceremonial or protective functions associated directly with the head of state.

21-gun salute 21 shot gun salute

A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor.

Ruffles and flourishes are preceding fanfare for honors music; ceremonial music for distinguished people.

Beating Retreat

Beating Retreat is a military ceremony dating to 16th century England and was first used to recall nearby patrolling units to their castle.

Official residence residence at which a nations head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides

An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure officially resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives.

Istana Negara, Jalan Istana national palace in Kuala Lumpur

The Royal Museum along Jalan Istana was the former residence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. It stands on a 13 acre (50,000 m²) site, located on a commanding position on the slope of a hill of Bukit Petaling overlooking the Klang River, along Jalan Syed Putra.

Public duties

Public duties are performed by military personnel, and usually have a ceremonial or historic significance rather than an overtly operational role.

Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment military unit

The Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment (HCMR) is a cavalry regiment of the British Army tasked primarily with ceremonial duties. Part of the Household Division, it is classed as a regiment of guards, and carries out mounted ceremonial duties on State and Royal occasions. The HCMR is one of two operational units that form the Household Cavalry (HCav), the other being the Household Cavalry Regiment (HCR). That unit is a formation reconnaissance regiment, with front-line combat duties.

Protective security units typically provide policing, security, intelligence and bodyguard services for sovereigns and politicians. They can be contrasted with security services which provide protective security intelligence such as the British Security Service; and Guards Regiments for the defence of the Sovereign and the metropolis. Examples of these include the Household Division.

Guard of honour guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals.

A guard of honour (en-GB), guard of honor (en-US), also honour guard (en-GB), honor guard (en-US), also ceremonial guard, is a guard, usually military in nature, appointed to receive or guard a head of state or other dignitary, the fallen in war, or to attend at state ceremonials, especially funerals. In military weddings, especially those of commissioned officers, a guard, composed usually of service members of the same branch, form the Saber arch. In principle any military unit could act as a guard of honour. However, in some countries certain units are specially designated for guard of honour duty.

Chief of Protocol

The Chief of Protocol is an officer of the United States Department of State responsible for advising the President of the United States, the Vice President, and the Secretary of State on matters of national and international diplomatic protocol. The Chief of Protocol holds the rank of Ambassador and Assistant Secretary of State.

State dinner

A state dinner or state lunch is a dinner or banquet paid for by a government and hosted by a head of state in his or her official residence in order to renew and celebrate diplomatic ties between the host country and the country of a foreign head of state or head of government who was issued an invitation. It may form part of a state visit or diplomatic conference. In many countries around the world, there are many different rules governed by protocol. State dinners often consist of, but are not limited to, black tie or white tie dress, military honor guards, a four or five course meal, musical entertainment, dancing, and speeches made on behalf of the head of state hosting the state dinner as well as the foreign head of state.

Loyal toast

A loyal toast is a salute given to the head of state of the country in which a formal gathering is being given, or by expatriates of that country, whether or not the particular head of state is present. It is usually a matter of protocol at state and military occasions, and a display of patriotic sentiment at civilian events. The toast is usually initiated and recited by the host before being repeated by the assembled guests in unison; the composition varying between regions and types of gathering. There is sometimes a tradition of smashing a glass used for a loyal toast, so that no lesser toast can be made with it.

The Installation of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a ceremony that formally marks the beginning of the reign of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Malaysian head of state.

Prime Ministers Residence, Yerevan

The Residence of the Prime Minister of Armenia is located on Baghramyan Avenue 26, Yerevan. It was designed by Mark Grigoryan as the premises for the Council of Ministers of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic and completed in 1951. The building has served as the residence of the president of Armenia from 11 November 1991 until 9 April 2018, when Armenia was officially turned into parliamentary republic, and the building became the official residence of the prime minister. The President's Residence was moved to Mashtots Avenue. On 8 November 2018, the Armenian government approved an initiative to relocate the Prime Minister's Residence to Government House 1 and move the President's Resident back to Baghramyan Avenue 26. Since 2018, the Honour Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defense of Armenia has performed guard duty at the residence.

State visits to the United States

State and official visits to the United States are formal visits by the head of state or chief of government from one country to the United States, during which the president of the United States acts as official host of the visitor. State visits are considered to be the highest expression of friendly bilateral relations between the United States and a foreign state and are, in general, characterized by an emphasis on official public ceremonies.

Michael the Brave 30th Guards Brigade Romanian infantry unit

The Michael the Brave 30th Guards Brigade is a primarily ceremonial, as well as combat unit of the Romanian Land Forces.

Paspampres Presidential Band Indonesian military band

The Presidential Band of the Presidential Security Forces of the Republic of Indonesia, also known commonly in public as the Paspampres Presidential Band, is the foremost military band of the Indonesian National Armed Forces which serves as the military band service of the President of Indonesia, the Vice President of Indonesia, and their families. As part of the Presidential Security Forces of the Republic of Indonesia, it is affiliated to and leads all military bands within the INAF as the country's seniormost military band.

References

  1. "State and Guest of Government visits - April to October 2016 - Publications - GOV.UK".
  2. Campbell, Sophie (11 May 2012). "Queen's Diamond Jubilee: sixty years of royal tours". The Telegraph (Online edition). Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  3. "Office of Protocol of Canada". Global Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  4. 1 2 "Governors General representing Canada at home and abroad". Governor General of Canada. Office of the Governor General of Canada. 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  5. "Opinion: New welcome ceremony, China's new image". CGTN. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  6. https://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/Lexikon/Staatsbesuche_(nach_1945)
  7. http://www.bundespraesident.de/DE/Amt-und-Aufgaben/Wirken-im-Ausland/Staatsbesuche/staatsbesuche-node.html
  8. "Why was the Guard of Honor given to the president Obama by an Air Force personnel? Why not by Indian Army or Navy personnel? Is that a sort of ritual?". Quora. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  9. "Pooja Thakur makes history - NATIONAL". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  10. http://www.difesa.it/Il_Ministro/Uffici_diretta_collaborazione/Ufficio_Cerimoniale/Pagine/default.aspx
  11. "Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик протоколу жөнүндө". ud.gov.kg. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  12. https://www.royalcourt.no/seksjon.html?tid=102526&sek=102525
  13. http://www.president.pl/en/presidential-residences/presidential-palace/
  14. "Соглашение о создании Содружества Независимых Государства". Исполнительный комитет СНГ. Archived from the original on 2006-07-21. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  15. http://en.kremlin.ru/structure/administration/departments#department-1016
  16. http://www.moles.ee/06/Feb/22/4-1.php
  17. "State Visits | The Royal Family". royal.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  18. "Changing the Guard | Ceremonial Events / State Visits". changing-guard.com. Retrieved 25 September 2018.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to State visits at Wikimedia Commons