|President of the|
Federal Republic of Somalia
Madaxaweynaha Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliyeed
Flag of Somalia
|Term length||Four years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||Aden Abdullah Osman Daar|
|Formation||1 July 1960|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of Somalia (Somali : Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. The President represents the Federal Republic of Somalia, and the unity of the Somali nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Somalia and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The office of President of Somalia was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Somalia on 1 July 1960. The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. The current office-holder is the 9th President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed ‘Farmaajo’, since 16 February 2017.
Somali is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora. Somali is an official language of Somalia, a national language in Djibouti, and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. It is used as an adoptive language by a few neighboring ethnic minority groups and individuals. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية, translit. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country with its territory located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti and Somaliland to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. It is separated from Socotra by the Guardafui Channel in the northeast and from the Seychelles by the Somali Sea. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, one of the leaders of the Somali Youth League (SYL), who took office on 1 July 1960, the day on which Somalia was declared a republic. Since then the office has been held by seven further people: Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, Mohamed Siyad Barre, Ali Mahdi, Abdiqasim Salad, Abdullahi Yusuf, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, and Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. In addition, Sheikh Mukhtar acted as President between Sharmarke's assassination and the coup d'état, and Aden Madobe acted as President after Yusuf's resignation in the 2008.
The Somali Youth League (SYL), initially known as the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was the first political party in Somalia. It played a key role in the nation's road to independence during the 1950s and 1960s.
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was a Somali politician and former Colonel in the Somali National Army. He was one of the founders of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, as well as the Puntland State of Somalia, where he served as the autonomous region's first President. In 2004, Ahmed also helped establish the Transitional Federal Government, which he led as President of Somalia from 2004 until 2008.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was the 7th President of Somalia from 31 January 2009 to 20 August 2012 and successfully brought the Federal Government of Somalia through transitional status following the collapse of the previous governing administration in 1991. Under Sheikh Sharif's leadership, the Transitional Federal Government succeeded in driving out Al-Shabaab from the capital city and its surroundings, establishing security, peace and reconciliation through the difficult transitional period. The administration of Sharif, who was Somalia’s 7th President, is also credited with developing the country’s Constitution and setting up key institutions such as the police, military and judiciary.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed took office on 31 January 2009, after being elected by the presidential election held on January 2009. Ahmed's term as President of Somalia officially ended In August 2012, concurrent with the conclusion of the Transitional Federal Government's mandate and the start of the Federal Government of Somalia. He was succeeded in office by General Muse Hassan, who had been serving in an interim capacity.
The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, and the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic. It replaced the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on 20 August 2012 with the adoption of the Constitution of Somalia.
Muse Hassan Sheikh Abdulle, also known as Muse Sayyid Hassan is a senior Somali military figure and politician. He has been the acting president of Somalia and interim speaker of the Federal Parliament. Abdulle is Somalia's ambassador to Italy.
Immediate past President Mohamud took office on 16 September 2012, after being elected by the presidential election held on 10 September 2012.
In order to become the President of Somalia, the candidate must:
(a) Be a Somali citizen and a Muslim; (b) Be not less than forty years of age; (c) Have relevant knowledge or experience for the role; (d) Be sound of mind; and (e) Not have been convicted by a court of a major crime.
The election of the President must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election, Candidates must be declared to the bureau of the parliament within the first 10 days of this period, and elections must be completed within the remaining 20 days.
Formerly, the President was elected by the members of the Somali Parliament, requirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament.
The President is selected for a term of office of four years, with no term limits specified in the constitution. The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office. On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament;
|“||I swear in the name of Allah that I will perform my duties honestly and in the best interest of the Nation, People, and Religion, and that I will abide by the Constitution and the other Laws of the Country.||”|
An outline of the duties are as follow:
The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia. Headed by the President as Commander in Chief, they are constitutionally mandated to ensure the nation's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Before the Somali civil war broke out, Somalia had the largest and strongest army in the African continent until the collapse of the central government during 1991.
As of March 2019, there are four living former Presidents of Somalia, as seen below.
The most recent President to die was Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (served 2004–2008), on 23 March 2012 aged 77.
The politics of Somalia takes place in a framework of federal parliamentary representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of Somalia, the President of Somalia is head of state, and Prime Minister as head of government who is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval.
Abdiqasim Salad Hassan or Abdiqasim Salad is a Somali politician. He was President of Somalia from 2000 to 2004, and previously served as Interior Minister and Finance Minister in the government of Mohamed Siad Barre.
The Transitional National Government (TNG) was the internationally recognized central government of Somalia from 2000 to 2004.
Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan is a Somali politician. He is a former Finance Minister of Somalia, and the last Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). He hails from the Adan Mirifle (Siyeed) Ashraaf sub-clan of the Rahaweyn major clan.
The transitional federal government (TFG) was the government of Somalia between 2004 and 2012. Established 2004 in Djabuti through various international conferences, it was an attempt to restore national institutions to the country after the 1991 collapse of the Siad Barre government and the ensuing Somali Civil War.
Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe, popularly known as Aden Madobe, is a Somali politician. He previously served as the First Deputy Chairman of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, before later joining the newly formed Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia as Justice Minister and Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament. From 29 December 2008 to 31 January 2009, Madobe briefly served as acting president of Somalia. In January 2014, he was appointed Minister of Industry and Commerce.
An indirect presidential election was held in Somalia on 30 January 2009. Due to the security situation in Baidoa, it was held in Djibouti. President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed won in a run-off election.
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, popularly known as Omar Sharmarke, is a Somali diplomat and politician. From 2009 to 2010, he was the Prime Minister of Somalia. He subsequently briefly served as Somalia's Ambassador to the United States in 2014. In December 2014, Sharmarke was reappointed Prime Minister of Somalia. His term ended on 1 March 2017 and was replaced by Hassan Ali Khayre.
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, also known as Farmajo, is a Somali politician and diplomat who is the 9th and current President of Somalia. He was previously a Prime Minister of Somalia from November 2010 until June 2011 and is the founder and Chairman of the Tayo Political Party. He became the President of Somalia after winning in the 2017 Somali presidential election with 194 votes out of a total of 328 by members of the Somali Parliament after defeating former president Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.
General Abdisamad Ali Shire is a Somali politician. From 8 January 2009 to 8 January 2014, he served as Vice President of Puntland.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Somalia on 10 September 2012. The newly appointed Federal Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the first President of Somalia since the dissolution of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG). The election had previously been scheduled for 20 August, the same day that the mandate of the TFG expired, but was rescheduled for a later date.
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is a Somali politician. He is currently the chairman of largest political aggregation party which have majority of parliament in both chambers Union for Peace and Development Party, He was the 8th President of Somalia from 16 September 2012 until 16 February 2017. A civil and political activist, Mohamud was previously a university professor and dean. He is also the founder and Chairman of the Peace and Development Party (PDP). In April 2013, Mohamud was named to the Time 100, TIME magazine's annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world. His efforts at advancing national reconciliation, anti-corruption measures, and socio-economic and security sector reforms in Somalia were cited as reasons for the selection.
Himan and Heeb was an autonomous region in the Federal Republic of Somalia. Formed in 2008, its capital was the central town of Adado (Cadaado). In 2015 Himan and Heeb merged with Galmudug to form a much larger Galmudug which consists of Mudug and Galguduud regions.
The 2014 Puntland presidential election was held on 8 January 2014 in Garowe, the administrative capital of the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. The third such vote to be held in the state since its formation in 1998, it followed the election of a new Parliament Speaker and Deputy Speakers on 4 January 2014 by the 66-seat regional legislature. Candidates included officials from the incumbent Puntland administration, former government ministers and prominent local entrepreneurs. The ballot saw the election of former Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Mohamed Ali as the 5th President of Puntland, narrowly defeating the incumbent Abdirahman Mohamud Farole. Parliament concurrently elected Abdihakim Abdullahi Haji Omar as Puntland's new Vice President in place of Abdisamad Ali Shire.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Somalia is the Somali government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Somalia. The current minister is Ahmed Isse Awad.
The 2017 Somali presidential election was held in Somalia on 8 February. Members of parliament elected in the autumn-2016 parliamentary election elected former Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed to the post of President of Somalia for a four-year term.