President of Nigeria

Last updated
President of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria
Seal of the President of Nigeria.svg
Presidential Standard of Nigeria.svg
Muhammadu Buhari, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Muhammadu Buhari

since May 29, 2015
Executive Branch of the Federal Government
Style Mr. President
His Excellency
Member ofFederal Executive Council
National Security Council
Residence Aso Villa
Seat Abuja, F.C.T.
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Four years, renewable once
Constituting instrument Constitution of Nigeria
FormationOctober 1, 1963
(55 years ago)
 (1963-10-01)
First holder Nnamdi Azikiwe
Deputy Vice President of Nigeria
Salary 30,000,000 ($100,000) annually [1]
Website www.statehouse.gov.ng
Former standard of the President Presidential Standard of Nigeria (1963).svg
Former standard of the President
Flag of the President as Commander in Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces Presidential Standard of Nigeria (Armed Forces).svg
Flag of the President as Commander in Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces
Coat of arms of Nigeria.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Nigeria
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeriaportal

The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is also the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The President is elected in national elections which take place every four years. The first President of Nigeria was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who took office on October 1, 1963. However, Shehu Shagari is the First Executive President of Nigeria elected Democratically in 1979. The current President, Muhammadu Buhari took office on May 29, 2015 as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.

Commander-in-chief supreme commanding authority of a military

A commander-in-chief, also called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government.

Nnamdi Azikiwe First President of Nigeria

Nnamdi Azikiwe, PC, usually referred to as "Zik", was a Nigerian statesman who was Governor General of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963 and the first President of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966. Considered a driving force behind the nation's independence, he came to be known as the "father of Nigerian Nationalism".

Contents

History

On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. An all-Nigerian Executive Council was headed by a Prime Minister, Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. On November 16, 1960, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, became the first Governor-General of a Federation of three Regions of the North, East and West, with Lagos as the Federal Capital. Each of the Regions was headed by a Premier with a Governor as Ceremonial Head. On October 1, 1963, Nigeria became a Federal Republic and severed whatever ties were left with the British monarchy, but remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. An amendment to the 1960 Independence Constitution replaced the office of the Governor-General with that of the President. Nnamdi Azikwe was sworn into that office on October 1, 1963 [2] . The office at that time was primarily ceremonial, and mainly the duties of a head of state, such as receiving foreign dignitaries and opening Parliament.

Prime minister most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms.

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Nigerian politician

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, KBE was a Nigerian politician, and the first prime minister of an independent Nigeria.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom Function and history of the British monarchy

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

In January 1966, a group of army officers, led by Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu, overthrew the central and regional governments, killed the prime minister, and tried to take control of the government in a failed coup d'état. Nzeogwu was countered, captured and imprisoned by General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. General Aguiyi-Ironsi was named Military Head of State.

Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Nigerian soldier

Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi MVO, MBE was the first Nigerian Military Head of State. He seized power in the ensuing chaos following the 15 January 1966 military coup, serving as the Nigerian Head of State from 16 January 1966 until his assassination on 29 July 1966 by a group of mutinous Northern Nigerian soldiers who were led by Major Theophilus Danjuma, Major Ibrahim Badamusi Babangida, and General Murtala Mohammed were army soldiers who revolted against his government in what was popularly called the July Counter Coup.

In July 1966, a group of northern army officers revolted against the government, killed General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, and appointed the army chief of staff, General Yakubu Gowon as the head of the new military government.

Yakubu Gowon Nigerian politician and Military general

General Yakubu "Jack" Dan-Yumma Gowon is the former head of state of Nigeria from 1966 to 1975. He ruled during the deadly Nigerian Civil War, which caused the death of almost 3 million people, most which were civilians. He took power after one military coup d'état and was overthrown in another. During his rule, the Nigerian government was able to prevent the Biafran secession during the Civil War, (1967-70).

In 1975, General Yakubu Gowon was deposed and General Murtala Mohammed was the Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria until his assassination in 1976. On his death, the Chief-of-Staff, Supreme Headquarters (equivalent to a Vice-President) General Olusegun Obasanjo assumed office head of state in a meeting of the Supreme Military Council, keeping the chain of command established by Murtala Muhammed in place. Gen. Obasonjo was responsible for completing the democratic transition begun by his predecessor, which culminated in an election in August 1979.

Murtala Mohammed Nigerian politician and general

Murtala Rufai Ramat Muhammed was the military ruler of Nigeria from 1975 until his assassination in 1976.

A vice president is an officer in government or business who is below a president in rank. It can also refer to executive vice presidents, signifying that the vice president is on the executive branch of the government, university or company. The name comes from the Latin vice meaning "in place of". In some countries, the vice president is called the deputy president. In everyday speech, the abbreviation VP can be used.

Olusegun Obasanjo Nigerian politician

Olusegun Mathew Okikiola Aremu Obasanjo, GCFR, Ph.D. is a former Nigerian Army general who was President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007. Obasanjo was a career soldier before serving twice as his nation's head of state: He served as a military ruler from 13 February 1976 to 1 October 1979 and as a democratically elected president from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007. From July 2004 to January 2006, Obasanjo also served as Chairperson of the African Union. Obasanjo is the first Nigerian to serve as a military head of state and a civilian president. Today, he is an icon in the Nigerian political landscape.

In 1979, Nigeria adopted a federal presidential constitution, with provision for an executive President as head of government, and a National Assembly, comprising a Senate and House of Representatives. This transformed the Presidency into the form we know it as today.

Federalism political concept

Federalism were the mixture or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status.

National Assembly (Nigeria) legislature of Nigeria

The National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a bicameral legislature established under section 4 of the Nigerian Constitution. It consists of a Senate with 109 membersand a 360-memberHouse of Representatives The body, modelled after the federal Congress of the United States, is supposed to guarantee equal representation with 3 Senators to each 36 states irrespective of size in the Senate plus 1 senator representing the FCT, Abuja and proportional representation of population in the House. The National Assembly, like many other organs of the Nigerian government, is based in Abuja, in the FCT, Abuja.

Senate of Nigeria upper house of Nigeria legislature

The Senate is the upper chamber of the Nigeria's bicameral legislature, the National Assembly of Nigeria. The National Assembly is the nation's highest legislature,whose power is to make laws, is summarized in chapter one, section four of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution. It consists of 109 senators: the 36 states are each divided in 3 senatorial districts each electing one senator; the Federal Capital Territory elects only one senator.

In October 1979, after more than 13 years of military rule, Nigeria returned to democratic rule. The National Party of Nigeria emerged victorious in the presidential election and Alhaji Shehu Shagari was elected President.

On December 31, 1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic. Major General Muhammadu Buhari emerged as the Chairman of the Supreme Military Council (SMC), the new Head of State.

In August 1985, General Buhari's government was peacefully overthrown by Army Chief of Staff, Major General Ibrahim Babangida. Babangida became the President and Chairman of the Armed Forces Ruling Council.

In August 1993, General Babangida stepped down and chose an interim government to replace him. Ernest Shonekan was named as interim president. General Sani Abacha seized power from Shonekan in November 1993 and became the President and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council.

On 8 June 1998, General Abacha died at the presidential villa in the Nigerian capital, Abuja. Major General Abdulsalami Abubakar became the new President and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council.

In May 1999, Major General Abdulsalami Abubakar stepped down, and the former military head of state, Olusegun Obasanjo, became the newly elected civilian president. Obasanjo served two terms in office.

In May 2007, Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the 13th head of state of Nigeria. Yar'Adua died on 5 May 2010 in the Presidential villa, in Abuja, Nigeria.

On 6 May 2010, the Vice President Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the 14th head of state.

On 29 May 2015, Muhammadu Buhari was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the 15th head of state after winning the general election.

Functions of the President of Nigeria

The President has the powers entrusted by the Constitution and legislation, including those necessary to perform the functions of Head of State and Head of the national executive.

The President of Nigeria is responsible for:

Eligibility

Chapter VI, Part I, Section 131 of the constitution states that a person may be qualified for election of the office of the President if:

A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of the President if:

Oath of office

The Constitution of Nigeria specifies an oath of office for the President of the federation. The oath is administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria or the person for the time being appointed to exercise the functions of that office:

I do solemnly swear/affirm that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to the Federal Republic of Nigeria; that as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, I will discharge my duties to the best of my ability, faithfully and in accordance with the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the law, and always in the interest of the sovereignty, integrity, solidarity, well-being and prosperity of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; that I will strive to preserve the Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy contained in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; that I will not allow my personal interest to influence my official conduct or my official decisions; that I will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; that I will abide by the Code of Conduct contained in the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; that in all circumstances, I will do right to all manner of people, according to law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will; that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as President; and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of Nigeria. So help me God.

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers (Nigerians) living in the area as early as 1100 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Empire, and the Oyo Empire. Islam reached Nigeria through the Borno Empire between and Hausa States around during the 11th century, while Christianity came to Nigeria in the 15th century through Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal. The Songhai Empire also occupied part of the region.

Muhammadu Buhari Nigerian president

Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician currently serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.

Ibrahim Babangida Head of State of Nigeria

Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, is a retired Nigerian Army General who was President of Nigeria from 27 August 1985 to 26 August 1993. He previously served as the chief of army staff from January 1984 to August 1985. Babangida was a key player in most of the military coups in Nigeria.

Vice President of Nigeria

The Vice President of Nigeria is the second-in-command to the President of Nigeria in the Government of Nigeria. Officially styled Vice President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the Vice President is elected alongside the President in national elections. The office is currently held by Yemi Osinbajo.

Lieutenant Colonel Bukar Suka Dimka was a Nigerian Army officer who played a leading role in the February 13, 1976 abortive military coup against the government of General Murtala Ramat Mohammed. Dimka also participated in the Nigerian Counter-Coup of 1966 which toppled the government of General Aguiyi Ironsi.

Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–98

The Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–98 were a pair of military dictatorships in Nigeria that were led by the Nigerian Armed Forces, having a chairman or president in charge.

Thomas "Tom" Aguiyi-Ironsi is a career diplomat and former Defence Minister of Nigeria. He is the son of former military leader Major General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, and was the ambassador to Togo before former President Olusegun Obasanjo appointed him to succeed Roland Oritsejafor as Defence Minister. Aguiyi-Ironsi is from Umuahia, Abia State.

Second Nigerian Republic

The Second Nigerian Republic was a brief formation of the Nigerian state which succeeded the military governments formed after the overthrow of first republic.

Independent National Electoral Commission Nigerian electoral body

The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), set up in 1998, is the electoral body which was set up to oversee elections in Nigeria.

This article is about the particular significance of the year 1966 to Nigeria and its people. See also: Timeline of Nigerian history.

Dodan Barracks is a military barracks occupying a large area located off Awolowo Road, Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria. Dodan Barracks was the residence of the heads of state of various Military Governments in Nigeria, and also the Supreme Military Headquarters from 1966 until the move to Abuja in 1991. The name "Dodan" originated from the site of a battle fought during the Second World War by the 82nd West African Division in Burma.

Salaudeen Adebola Latinwo is a retired group captain in the Nigerian Air Force and a former military governor of Kwara State, Nigeria, under Muhammadu Buhari's military government.

Colonel Ibrahim Taiwo was a Military Governor of Kwara State from July 1975 to February 1976 during the military regime of General Murtala Mohammed. He assisted in establishment of the University of Ilorin, which was founded by decree August, 1975.

Garba Duba is a retired Nigerian Army Lieutenant General who was Governor of Bauchi State, Nigeria from July 1978 to October 1979 during the military regime of General Olusegun Obasanjo, and Administrator of Sokoto State from January 1984 to August 1985 during the military regime of Major General Muhammadu Buhari.

There have been a large number of successful and failed military coups in Nigeria since the country's independence from the British Empire in 1960. A military coup is the violent or non-violent overthrow of an existing political regime by the military. Between 1966 and 1999 the army held power in Nigeria without interruption apart from a short-lived return to democracy between 1979-1983. “Military coups and military rule became a seemingly permanent feature of Nigerian politics.Buhari was the one who lead the military coup of 1983. Buhari removed then head of state shehu shagari and imprisoned him for two years in a closed door without light.

Order of the Federal Republic

The Order of the Federal Republic (OFR) is one of two orders of merit, established by the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1963. It is senior to the Order of the Niger.

The Nigerian military coup of December 31, 1983 was coordinated by key officers of the Nigerian military, led to the ouster of the democratically elected government of President Shehu Shagari, and the installation of Major General Muhammadu Buhari as Head of State.

References

  1. Ibeh, Nnenna (30 May 2015). "Buhari to earn N14 million as annual salary, allowances". Premium Times. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  2. "bookreader demo". credo.library.umass.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-11.