Fourth Nigerian Republic

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The Fourth Republic is the current republican government of Nigeria. Since 1999 it has governed the country according to the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Second Republic, which was in place between 1979 and 1983 and suffers many of the same problems, such as multiple ministries which made policy planning difficult. Nigeria adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on May 29, 1999.

A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy, or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.

Constitution of Nigeria

The Constitution of Nigeria is the supreme law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

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Founding (1999)

Following the death of military dictator and de facto ruler of Nigeria, General Sani Abacha in 1998, his successor General Abdusalami Abubakar initiated the transition which heralded Nigeria's return to democratic rule in 1999. The ban on political activities was lifted, and political prisoners were released from detention facilities. The constitution was styled after the ill-fated Second Republic — which saw the Westminster system of government jettisoned for an American Presidential system. Political parties were formed (People's Democratic Party (PDP), All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP), and Alliance for Democracy (AD)), and elections were set for April 1999. In the widely monitored 1999 election, former military ruler Olusegun Obasanjo was elected on the PDP platform. On 29 May 1999, Obasanjo was sworn in as President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Dictator An absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state

A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small clique. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency.

Sani Abacha Military leader, politician

Sani Abacha was a Nigerian Army officer and dictator who served as the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. He is also the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full star General without skipping a single rank.

Westminster system democratic parliamentary system of government

The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in England, now a constituent country within the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the British Parliament. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature. It is used, or was once used, in the national and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government, beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system or a hybrid system as their form of government.

In the controversial general election on 21 April 2007, Umaru Yar'Adua of the PDP was elected President.

Following the death of Umaru Yar'Adua on 5 May 2010, Goodluck Jonathan became the third president(Interim) and later won the election the following year which was largely accredited as freer and fairer than all the previous elections of the 4th Republic. Muhammadu Buhari then won the general elections on 28 March 2015 after the PDP rule of sixteen years (1999–2015).

Goodluck Jonathan Nigerian politician and former president

Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan is a Nigerian politician who served as the President of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015. Prior to that he served as Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 and as Governor of Bayelsa State from 2005 to 2007. Bayelsa State Governor, Seriake Dickson in August 2019, appointed former President Goodluck Jonathan as honorary Special Adviser on the Bayelsa Education Trust Fund Board. In June 2019, Goodluck Jonathan emerged as chairperson of the newly inaugurated International Summit Council for Peace (ISCP).

Presidents

Presidents during the Nigerian Fourth Republic
PresidentTermParty
Olusegun Obasanjo 29 May 1999 – 29 May 2007 PDP
Umaru Yar'Adua 29 May 2007 – 5 May 2010 PDP
Goodluck Jonathan 6 May 2010 – 29 May 2015 PDP
Muhammadu Buhari 29 May 2015 - APC

Political parties

All Progressives Congress Nigerian political party

The All Progressives Congress (APC) is a political party in Nigeria, formed on 6 February 2013 in anticipation of the 2015 elections. APC candidate Muhammadu Buhari won the presidential election by almost 2.6 million votes. Incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan conceded defeat on 31 March. This was the first time in Nigeria's political history that an opposition political party unseated a governing party in a general election and one in which power transferred peacefully from one political party to another. In addition, the APC won the majority of seats in the Senate and the House of Representatives in the 2015 elections, though it fell shy of winning a super-majority to override the ability of the opposition People's Democratic Party to block legislation.

Alliance for Democracy (Nigeria)

The Alliance for Democracy is a progressive opposition political party in Nigeria. It was formed on 9 September 1998. At the 2003 legislative elections, 12 April 2003, the party won 8.8% of the popular vote and 34 out of 360 seats in the Nigerian House of Representatives and 18 out of 109 seats in the Nigerian Senate. The party was embroiled in a leadership tussle between Mojisola Akinfenwa and Adebisi Akande, which lingered until September 2006 when the 'Bisi Akande faction merged with other opposition parties to form the Action Congress party.

The All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) was a political party in Nigeria.

Constitutional amendments

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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The People's Democratic Party (PDP) is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies generally lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum. It won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, and was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. Currently, PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria.

Shehu Musa Yar'Adua was a retired Nigerian Army major general who served as the Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters under General Olusegun Obasanjo's 1976 - 1979 military government.

Elections in Nigeria

Elections in Nigeria are forms of choosing representatives to the Nigerian federal government and the various states in the fourth republic Nigeria.

Umaru Musa YarAdua President of Nigeria

Umaru Musa Yar'Adua was the 13th president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. He was governor of Katsina State in northern Nigeria from 29 May,1999 to 28 May,2007. He was declared the winner of the controversial Nigerian presidential election held on 21 April,2007, and was sworn in on 29 May,2007. He was a member of the People's Democratic Party (PDP). In 2009, Yar'Adua left for Saudi Arabia to receive treatment for pericarditis. He returned to Nigeria on 24 February,2010, where he died on 5 May.

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2007 Nigerian general election

General elections were held in Nigeria on 21 April 2007 to elect the President and National Assembly. Governorship and State Assembly elections had been held on 14 April.

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Sahabi Alhaji Yaú is a Nigerian politician who was elected to represent the All Nigeria Peoples Party as Senator in the Zamfara North district of Zamfara State in 2007.

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Omuma is a Local Government Area in Rivers State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Eberi. Its people are of Igbo extraction.

Colonel Bala Mohammed Mande is a former Military Administrator of Nasarawa State. He was later appointed Minister of the Environment in the Cabinet of President Olusegun Obasanjo.

Alhaji Sa'idu Barda is a Nigerian politician who was elected on the National Republican Convention (NRC) platform as Governor of Katsina State, Nigeria, holding office between January 1992 and November 1993 during the Nigerian Third Republic. He remained active in politics in the Nigerian Fourth Republic.

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Lawali Shuaibu was elected Senator for the Zamfara North constituency of Zamfara State, Nigeria at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic, running on the All People's Party (APP) platform. He took office on 29 May 1999. He was re-elected on the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP) platform in 2003 for a further four years.

Saidu Umar Kumo was elected Senator of the Gombe Central constituency Gombe State, Nigeria at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic, contested under the platform of the All Peoples party (APP) which later became the All NIgeria's Peoples Party (ANPP). He took office on 29 May 1999.

Abu Ibrahim is a Nigerian politician who was elected Senator for the Katsina South (Funtua) Senatorial district in April 2003 on the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) platform, serving for one term until May 2007. He was re-elected to the same seat in April 2011.

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