Politics of Chad

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The Politics of Chad take place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Chad is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Chad is one of the most corrupt countries in the world.

Contents

In May 2013, security forces in Chad foiled a coup against the President Idriss Deby that had been in preparation for several months. [1] In April 2021, President Déby was injured by the rebel group Front Pour l'Alternance et La Concorde au Tchad (FACT). He succumbed to his injuries on April 20, 2021. This resulted in both the National Assembly and Chadian Government being dissolved and replaced with a Transitional Military Council. [2] [3] [4]

Executive branch

Main office holders
OfficeNamePartySince
President Patriotic Salvation Movement
Former President Idriss Deby in 2014 Idriss Deby with Obamas (cropped)2014.png
Former President Idriss Deby in 2014

Chad's executive branch is headed by the President and dominates the Chadian political system. Following the military overthrow of Hissène Habré in December 1990, Idriss Déby won the presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. The constitutional basis for the government is the 1996 constitution, under which the president was limited to two terms of office until Déby had that provision repealed in 2005. The president has the power to appoint the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's parastatal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly President and Council of State, may declare a state of emergency. Most of the key advisors for former president Déby were members of the Zaghawa clan, although some southern and opposition personalities were represented in his government.

Legislative branch

According to the 1996 constitution, the National Assembly deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions as necessary and called by the prime minister. Deputies elect a president of the National Assembly every 2 years. Assembly deputies or members of the executive branch may introduce legislation; once passed by the Assembly, the president must take action to either sign or reject the law within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister's plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no-confidence. However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch's program twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through the MPS party structure.

Judicial branch

Despite the constitution's guarantee of judicial independence from the executive branch, the president names most key judicial officials. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councilors chosen by the president and National Assembly; appointments are for life. The Constitutional Council, with nine judges elected to 9-year terms, has the power to review all legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption. The constitution recognizes customary and traditional law in locales where it is recognized and to the extent it does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens.

Political parties and elections

Presidential elections

CandidatePartyVotes%
Idriss Déby Patriotic Salvation Movement 2,219,35259.92
Saleh Kebzabo National Union for Democracy and Renewal 473,07412.77
Laoukein Kourayo MédardChadian Convention for Peace and Development392,98810.61
Djimrangar Dadnadji CAP–SUR186,8575.04
Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye 73,6361.99
Malloum Yoboide Djeraki67,0191.81
Mahamat Ahmad Alhabo58,5331.58
Abdoulaye Mbodou Mbami53,2041.44
Clément Djimet Bagaou48,4711.31
Gali Gatta Ngothé44,8991.21
Brice Mbaimon Guedmbaye36,6470.99
Beassoumda Julien24,1250.65
Djividi Boukar25,1070.68
Total3,703,912100.00
Valid votes3,703,91289.82
Invalid/blank votes419,81810.18
Total votes4,123,730100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,252,54865.95
Source: Constitutional Court

Parliamentary elections

PartySeats
Patriotic Salvation Movement 83
MPSRDP 25
MPSRNDP 18
National Union for Democracy and Renewal 10
MPSRDPRNDP 8
Union for Renewal and Democracy 8
National Rally for Democracy in Chad 8
Federation, Action for the Republic 4
UNDRPLD 2
Democratic and Socialist Party for Alternation 2
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development 2
Union for Democracy and the Republic 2
ARTCNDS 1
MPDTRDP/RCNDS 1
PPJEARTCNDS 1
Chadian Democratic Union 1
National Action for Development 1
New Breath for the Republic 1
Rally of People for Democratic Alternation 1
Movement of Patriotic Chadians for the Republic 1
Democratic Party of the Chadian People 1
Union of Democratic Forces/Republican Party 1
Union of Chadian Ecologists 1
PDIRPT 1
African Party for Peace and Social Justice 1
Party for Unity and Reconstruction 1
AND/R1
USND1
Total188
Source: EISA

International organization participation

ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

2021 government shakeup

On 20 April 2021, following the death of longtime Chad President Idriss Déby, the Military of Chad released a statement confirming that both the Government of Chad and the nation's National Assembly had been dissolved and that a Transitional Military Council led by Déby's son Mahamat would lead the nation for at least 18 months. [5]

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Idriss Déby 6th President of Chad (from 1990–2021)

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Moussa Faki Chadian politician and diplomat

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Elections in Chad includes information on election and election results in Chad.

Nouradine Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye is a Chadian politician and the head of the National Rally for Development and Progress (VIVA-RNDP) political party. After serving as a minister in the government during the 1980s and early 1990s; he was Prime Minister of Chad from November 6, 1993 to April 8, 1995 and again from February 26, 2007 to April 16, 2008. In 2008, he became President of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council.

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2006 Chadian coup détat attempt 2006 coup attempt in Chad

The 2006 Chadian coup d'état attempt was an attempted coup d'état against Chadian President Idriss Déby that was foiled on the night of March 14, 2006.

2006 Chadian presidential election

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 3 May 2006. A referendum in 2005 had led to changes to the constitution that made it possible for President Idriss Déby to run for a third term; having come to power in December 1990, he had previously won elections in 1996 and 2001. Despite a serious rebellion based in the east of the country, the elections were held on schedule; Déby was re-elected with about 65% of the vote, according to official results. The main opposition parties boycotted the election.

National Assembly (Chad)

The National Assembly was the parliament of Chad. It had 188 members, elected for a four-year term. It had 25 single-member constituencies and 34 multi-member constituencies. On 20 April 2021, after Idriss Déby was killed, a coup occurred which dissolved the National Assembly and its functions were assumed by the Transitional Military Council, a junta led by Deby’s son.

Albert Pahimi Padacké 17th and current Prime Minister of Chad since 2021

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Constitution of Chad

The Constitution of the Republic of Chad is the supreme law of Chad. Chad's seventh constitution, it was adopted in 1996, six years after President Idriss Déby rose to power following a successful rebellion against President Hissène Habré, this formal document establishes the framework of the Chadian state and government and enumerates the rights and freedoms of its citizens. In its current form, the contents of the Constitution include a preamble, 16 parts and 225 articles.

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2021 Chadian presidential election Presidential elections in Chad

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 11 April 2021. Incumbent Idriss Déby, who served five consecutive terms since seizing power in the 1990 coup d'état, was running for a sixth. Déby was described as an authoritarian by several international media sources, and as "strongly entrenched". During previous elections, he forbade the citizens of Chad from making posts online, and while Chad's total ban on social media use was lifted in 2019, restrictions continue to exist.

Northern Chad offensive Rebel offensive in Northern Chad

A military offensive in Northern Chad, initiated by the Chadian rebel group Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT), took place from 11 April to 9 May 2021. It began in the Tibesti Region in the north of the country following the 2021 Chadian presidential election.

Transitional Military Council (Chad) Transitional military government of Chad since April 2021

The Transitional Military Council is the ruling military junta in Chad. It announced the death of former President Idriss Déby on 20 April 2021, and declared that it would take charge of the government of Chad and continue hostilities against FACT rebels in the north of the country. It is chaired by Mahamat Idriss Déby, the son of the late President, making him the de facto President of Chad.

References

  1. Chad government foils coup attempt – minister, International: Reuters, 2013
  2. "Chad President Idriss Deby dies on front lines, according to an army statement". Deutsche Welle. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  3. "Chad Sets Up Transitional Military Council Headed By Son Of Late President – Reports". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  4. Reuters (April 20, 2021). "Chad President Idriss Deby killed on frontline, son to take over". Thomas Reuters News. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  5. "Chad's President Idriss Déby dies 'in clashes with rebels'". BBC News. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.