Politics of Chad

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The Politics of Chad take place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Chad is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Chad is one of the most corrupt countries in the world.


In May 2013, security forces in Chad foiled a coup against the President Idriss Deby that had been in preparation for several months. [1] In April 2021, President Déby was injured by the rebel group Front Pour l'Alternance et La Concorde au Tchad (FACT). He succumbed to his injuries on April 20, 2021. This resulted in both the National Assembly and Chadian Government being dissolved and replaced with a Transitional Military Council. [2] [3] [4]

Executive branch

Main office holders
President Patriotic Salvation Movement
Former President Idriss Deby in 2014 Idriss Deby with Obamas (cropped)2014.png
Former President Idriss Deby in 2014

Chad's executive branch is headed by the President and dominates the Chadian political system. Following the military overthrow of Hissène Habré in December 1990, Idriss Déby won the presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. The constitutional basis for the government is the 1996 constitution, under which the president was limited to two terms of office until Déby had that provision repealed in 2005. The president has the power to appoint the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's parastatal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly President and Council of State, may declare a state of emergency. Most of the key advisors for former president Déby were members of the Zaghawa clan, although some southern and opposition personalities were represented in his government.

Legislative branch

According to the 1996 constitution, the National Assembly deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions as necessary and called by the prime minister. Deputies elect a president of the National Assembly every 2 years. Assembly deputies or members of the executive branch may introduce legislation; once passed by the Assembly, the president must take action to either sign or reject the law within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister's plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no-confidence. However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch's program twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through the MPS party structure.

Judicial branch

Despite the constitution's guarantee of judicial independence from the executive branch, the president names most key judicial officials. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councilors chosen by the president and National Assembly; appointments are for life. The Constitutional Council, with nine judges elected to 9-year terms, has the power to review all legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption. The constitution recognizes customary and traditional law in locales where it is recognized and to the extent it does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens.

Political parties and elections

Presidential elections

Idriss Déby Patriotic Salvation Movement 2,219,35259.92
Saleh Kebzabo National Union for Democracy and Renewal 473,07412.77
Laoukein Kourayo MédardChadian Convention for Peace and Development392,98810.61
Djimrangar Dadnadji CAP–SUR186,8575.04
Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye 73,6361.99
Malloum Yoboide Djeraki67,0191.81
Mahamat Ahmad Alhabo58,5331.58
Abdoulaye Mbodou Mbami53,2041.44
Clément Djimet Bagaou48,4711.31
Gali Gatta Ngothé44,8991.21
Brice Mbaimon Guedmbaye36,6470.99
Beassoumda Julien24,1250.65
Djividi Boukar25,1070.68
Valid votes3,703,91289.82
Invalid/blank votes419,81810.18
Total votes4,123,730100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,252,54865.95
Source: Constitutional Court

Parliamentary elections

Patriotic Salvation Movement 83
National Union for Democracy and Renewal 10
Union for Renewal and Democracy 8
National Rally for Democracy in Chad 8
Federation, Action for the Republic 4
Democratic and Socialist Party for Alternation 2
Chadian Convention for Peace and Development 2
Union for Democracy and the Republic 2
Chadian Democratic Union 1
National Action for Development 1
New Breath for the Republic 1
Rally of People for Democratic Alternation 1
Movement of Patriotic Chadians for the Republic 1
Democratic Party of the Chadian People 1
Union of Democratic Forces/Republican Party 1
Union of Chadian Ecologists 1
African Party for Peace and Social Justice 1
Party for Unity and Reconstruction 1
Source: EISA

International organization participation


2021 government shakeup

On 20 April 2021, following the death of longtime Chad President Idriss Déby, the Military of Chad released a statement confirming that both the Government of Chad and the nation's National Assembly had been dissolved and that a Transitional Military Council led by Déby's son Mahamat would lead the nation for at least 18 months. [5]

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2021 Chadian presidential election Presidential elections in Chad

Presidential elections were held in Chad on 11 April 2021. Incumbent Idriss Déby, who served five consecutive terms since seizing power in the 1990 coup d'état, was running for a sixth. Déby was described as an authoritarian by several international media sources, and as "strongly entrenched". During previous elections, he forbade the citizens of Chad from making posts online, and while Chad's total ban on social media use was lifted in 2019, restrictions continue to exist.

Northern Chad offensive Rebel offensive in Northern Chad

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Transitional Military Council (Chad) Transitional military government of Chad since April 2021

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  1. Chad government foils coup attempt – minister, International: Reuters, 2013
  2. "Chad President Idriss Deby dies on front lines, according to an army statement". Deutsche Welle. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  3. "Chad Sets Up Transitional Military Council Headed By Son Of Late President – Reports". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  4. Reuters (April 20, 2021). "Chad President Idriss Deby killed on frontline, son to take over". Thomas Reuters News. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  5. "Chad's President Idriss Déby dies 'in clashes with rebels'". BBC News. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.