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The Politics of Chad take place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Chad is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Chad is one of the most corrupt countries in the world.
In May 2013, security forces in Chad foiled a coup against the President Idriss Deby that had been in preparation for several months.In April 2021, President Déby was injured by the rebel group Front Pour l'Alternance et La Concorde au Tchad (FACT). He succumbed to his injuries on April 20, 2021. This resulted in both the National Assembly and Chadian Government being dissolved and replaced with a Transitional Military Council.
|President||Patriotic Salvation Movement|
Chad's executive branch is headed by the President and dominates the Chadian political system. Following the military overthrow of Hissène Habré in December 1990, Idriss Déby won the presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. The constitutional basis for the government is the 1996 constitution, under which the president was limited to two terms of office until Déby had that provision repealed in 2005. The president has the power to appoint the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's parastatal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly President and Council of State, may declare a state of emergency. Most of the key advisors for former president Déby were members of the Zaghawa clan, although some southern and opposition personalities were represented in his government.
According to the 1996 constitution, the National Assembly deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions as necessary and called by the prime minister. Deputies elect a president of the National Assembly every 2 years. Assembly deputies or members of the executive branch may introduce legislation; once passed by the Assembly, the president must take action to either sign or reject the law within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime minister's plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no-confidence. However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branch's program twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through the MPS party structure.
Despite the constitution's guarantee of judicial independence from the executive branch, the president names most key judicial officials. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councilors chosen by the president and National Assembly; appointments are for life. The Constitutional Council, with nine judges elected to 9-year terms, has the power to review all legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption. The constitution recognizes customary and traditional law in locales where it is recognized and to the extent it does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens.
|Idriss Déby||Patriotic Salvation Movement||2,219,352||59.92|
|Saleh Kebzabo||National Union for Democracy and Renewal||473,074||12.77|
|Laoukein Kourayo Médard||Chadian Convention for Peace and Development||392,988||10.61|
|Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye||73,636||1.99|
|Malloum Yoboide Djeraki||67,019||1.81|
|Mahamat Ahmad Alhabo||58,533||1.58|
|Abdoulaye Mbodou Mbami||53,204||1.44|
|Clément Djimet Bagaou||48,471||1.31|
|Gali Gatta Ngothé||44,899||1.21|
|Brice Mbaimon Guedmbaye||36,647||0.99|
|Source: Constitutional Court|
|Patriotic Salvation Movement||83|
|National Union for Democracy and Renewal||10|
|Union for Renewal and Democracy||8|
|National Rally for Democracy in Chad||8|
|Federation, Action for the Republic||4|
|Democratic and Socialist Party for Alternation||2|
|Chadian Convention for Peace and Development||2|
|Union for Democracy and the Republic||2|
|Chadian Democratic Union||1|
|National Action for Development||1|
|New Breath for the Republic||1|
|Rally of People for Democratic Alternation||1|
|Movement of Patriotic Chadians for the Republic||1|
|Democratic Party of the Chadian People||1|
|Union of Democratic Forces/Republican Party||1|
|Union of Chadian Ecologists||1|
|African Party for Peace and Social Justice||1|
|Party for Unity and Reconstruction||1|
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On 20 April 2021, following the death of longtime Chad President Idriss Déby, the Military of Chad released a statement confirming that both the Government of Chad and the nation's National Assembly had been dissolved and that a Transitional Military Council led by Déby's son Mahamat would lead the nation for at least 18 months.
Chad, officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon to the south-west, Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. It has a population of 16 million, of which 1.6 million live in the capital and largest city N'djamena.
The Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. Executive power is exercised by the president and the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is nominally independent of the executive and the legislature.
Idriss Déby Itno was a Chadian politician and military officer, and head of the ruling Patriotic Salvation Movement, who was the president of Chad from 1990 until his death at the hands of militant forces when commanding troops on the front in 2021.
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Elections in Chad includes information on election and election results in Chad.
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Presidential elections were held in Chad on 3 May 2006. A referendum in 2005 had led to changes to the constitution that made it possible for President Idriss Déby to run for a third term; having come to power in December 1990, he had previously won elections in 1996 and 2001. Despite a serious rebellion based in the east of the country, the elections were held on schedule; Déby was re-elected with about 65% of the vote, according to official results. The main opposition parties boycotted the election.
The National Assembly was the parliament of Chad. It had 188 members, elected for a four-year term. It had 25 single-member constituencies and 34 multi-member constituencies. On 20 April 2021, after Idriss Déby was killed, a coup occurred which dissolved the National Assembly and its functions were assumed by the Transitional Military Council, a junta led by Deby’s son.
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The Constitution of the Republic of Chad is the supreme law of Chad. Chad's seventh constitution, it was adopted in 1996, six years after President Idriss Déby rose to power following a successful rebellion against President Hissène Habré, this formal document establishes the framework of the Chadian state and government and enumerates the rights and freedoms of its citizens. In its current form, the contents of the Constitution include a preamble, 16 parts and 225 articles.
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Presidential elections were held in Chad on 11 April 2021. Incumbent Idriss Déby, who served five consecutive terms since seizing power in the 1990 coup d'état, was running for a sixth. Déby was described as an authoritarian by several international media sources, and as "strongly entrenched". During previous elections, he forbade the citizens of Chad from making posts online, and while Chad's total ban on social media use was lifted in 2019, restrictions continue to exist.
A military offensive in Northern Chad, initiated by the Chadian rebel group Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT), took place from 11 April to 9 May 2021. It began in the Tibesti Region in the north of the country following the 2021 Chadian presidential election.
The Transitional Military Council is the ruling military junta in Chad. It announced the death of former President Idriss Déby on 20 April 2021, and declared that it would take charge of the government of Chad and continue hostilities against FACT rebels in the north of the country. It is chaired by Mahamat Idriss Déby, the son of the late President, making him the de facto President of Chad.