|President of the|
Republic of Chad
Président de la
République du Tchad (French)
رئيس جمهورية تشاد (Arabic)
|Residence||Presidential Palace, N'Djamena|
|Term length||5 years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||François Tombalbaye|
|Formation||23 April 1962|
|Salary||800,000 FCFA / month|
|Website||Presidency of Chad|
This is a list of heads of state of Chad since the country gained independence from France in 1960 to the present day.
A total of six people have served as head of state of Chad (not counting two Interim Heads of State). Additionally, one person, Goukouni Oueddei, has served on two non-consecutive occasions.
The current head of state of Chad is Chairman of the Transitional Military Council Mahamat Déby, since 20 April 2021.
|Elected||Term of office||Political party||Prime minister(s)|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|1|| François Tombalbaye |
| 1962 |
|11 August 1960||13 April 1975|
|14 years, 245 days||PPT / MNRCS||Position not established|
|–|| Noël Milarew Odingar |
|—||13 April 1975||15 April 1975||2 days||Military||Position not established|
|2|| Félix Malloum |
|—||15 April 1975||23 March 1979|
|3 years, 342 days||Military||Habré|
|3|| Goukouni Oueddei |
|—||23 March 1979||29 April 1979||37 days||FROLINAT–FAP||Position vacant|
|4|| Lol Mahamat Choua |
|—||29 April 1979||3 September 1979||127 days||MPLT||Position vacant|
|(3)|| Goukouni Oueddei |
|—||3 September 1979||7 June 1982|
|2 years, 277 days||FROLINAT–FAP||Ngardoum|
|5|| Hissène Habré |
| 1989 |
|7 June 1982||2 December 1990|
|8 years, 178 days||FAN / UNIR||Ngardoum|
|6|| Idriss Déby |
| 1996 |
|2 December 1990||20 April 2021|
( killed in action.)
|30 years, 139 days||MPS|| Bawoyeu |
|–|| Mahamat Déby |
|—||20 April 2021||Incumbent||93 days||Military||Padacké|
|Idriss Déby||Patriotic Salvation Movement||3,663,431||79.32|
|Albert Pahimi Padacké||National Rally for Democracy in Chad||476,464||10.32|
|Lydie Beassemda||Party for Democracy and Independence||145,867||3.16|
|Félix Romadoumngar Nialbé||Union for Renewal and Democracy||87,722||1.90|
|Brice Mbaïmon Guedmbaye||Movement of Patriotic Chadians for the Republic||64,540||1.40|
|Baltazar Alladoum Djarma||Chadian Socialist Action for Renewal||59,965||1.30|
|Saleh Kebzabo||National Union for Democracy and Renewal||47,518||1.03|
|Théophile Bongoro||Party for Rally and Equity in Chad||34,610||0.75|
|Théophile Yombombé||Union of Progressive Workers for Cohesion||19,923||0.43|
|Ngarlejy Yorongar||Federation, Action for the Republic||18,693||0.40|
Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It borders Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa".
Currently, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a Federal provisional government. Previously, a President was head of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a de jure multi-party system. Legislative power was officially vested in both the government and in the two chambers, the National Assembly (lower) and the Council of States (higher), of the bicameral National Legislature. The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court. However, following a deadly civil war and the still ongoing genocide in Darfur, Sudan was widely recognized as a totalitarian state where all effective political power was held by President Omar al-Bashir and his National Congress Party (NCP). However, al-Bashir and the NCP were ousted in a military coup which occurred on April 11, 2019. The government of Sudan was then led by the "Transitional Military Council" or TMC. On 20 August 2019, the TMC dissolved giving its authority over to the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, who are planned to govern for 39 months until 2022, in the process of transitioning to democracy.
A military junta is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term junta means "meeting" or "committee" and originated in the national and local junta organized by the Spanish resistance to Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808. The term is now used to refer to an authoritarian form of government characterized by oligarchic military dictatorship, as distinguished from other categories of authoritarian rule, specifically strongman ; machine ; and bossism.
A provisional government, also called an interim government, an emergency government, or a transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration. Provisional governments are generally appointed, and frequently arise, either during or after civil or foreign wars.
FROLINAT was an insurgent rebel group active in Chad between 1966 and 1993.
The Chadian National Armed Forces was the army of the central government of Chad from January 1983, when the President Hissène Habré's forces, in first place his personal Armed Forces of the North (FAN), were merged. Consisting of about 10,000 soldiers at that time, it swelled with the assimilation of former Chadian Armed Forces (FAT) and codos rebels from the south and, in 1986, with the addition of Transitional Government of National Unity (GUNT) soldiers who had turned against their Libyan allies. Freshly outfitted by France and the United States, FANT drove Libyan troops from their bases in northern Chad in a series of victories in 1987, during the Toyota War; but it dissolved defeated by the Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) led by Idriss Déby, who conquered the capital N'Djamena on December 2, 1990.
Lol Mahamat Choua was a Chadian politician who served as his country's head of state for four months in 1979. He was the President of the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP) political party.
Negue Djogo was a Chadian officer and politician.
The military dictatorship in Nigeria was a period when members of the Nigerian Armed Forces seized power in Nigeria from 1966 to 1999 with an interregnum from 1979 to 1983. The military was able to rise to power often with the tacit support of the elite through coup d'ètats. Since the country became a republic in 1963, there has been a series of military coups in Nigeria.
The Constitution of the Republic of Chad is the supreme law of Chad. Chad's seventh constitution, it was adopted in 1996, six years after President Idriss Déby rose to power following a successful rebellion against President Hissène Habré, this formal document establishes the framework of the Chadian state and government and enumerates the rights and freedoms of its citizens. In its current form, the contents of the Constitution include a preamble, 16 parts and 225 articles.
The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists who were dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge due to its oppressive rule of Cambodia and defected from it after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government. Brought about by an invasion from Vietnam, which routed the Khmer Rouge armies, it had Vietnam and the Soviet Union as its main allies.
Chad achieved independence in 1960. At the time, it had no armed forces under its own flag. Since World War I, however, southern Chad, particularly the Sara ethnic group, had provided a large share of the Africans in the French army. Chadian troops also had contributed significantly to the success of the Free French Forces in World War II. In December 1940, two African battalions began the Free French military campaign against Italian forces in Libya from a base in Chad, and at the end of 1941, a force under Colonel Jacques Leclerc participated in a spectacular campaign that seized the entire Fezzan region of southern Libya. Colonel Leclerc's 3,200-man force included 2,700 Africans, the great majority of them southerners from Chad. These troops went on to contribute to the Allied victory in Tunisia. Chadians, in general, were proud of their soldiers' role in the efforts to liberate France and in the international conflict.
The National Union for Independence and Revolution was the ruling party in Chad between 1984 and 1990. It was founded in June 1984 by President Hissène Habré as a successor of his Armed Forces of the North, the insurgent group through which Habré had conquered power in 1982. The party was banned six years later by Idriss Déby when he assumed power by overthrowing Habré.
The Chadian Civil War of 1965–1979 was waged by several rebel factions against two Chadian governments. The initial rebellion erupted in opposition to Chadian President François Tombalbaye whose regime was marked by authoritarianism, extreme corruption, and favoritism. In 1975, Tombalbaye was murdered by his own army, resulting in the emergence of a military government headed by Félix Malloum that continued the war against the insurgents. Following foreign interventions by Libya and France, the fracturing of the rebels into rival factions, as well as an escalation of fighting, Malloum stepped down in March 1979. This paved the way for a new national government known as "Transitional Government of National Unity" (GUNT).
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process. These opposition forces included organized and armed militia groups, participants in the Libyan Civil War, Libyan diplomats who switched their allegiance from the Gaddafi-led government, and Libyan military units that switched sides to support the protestors.
The Transitional Military Council is the ruling military junta in Chad. It announced the death of former President Idriss Déby on 20 April 2021, and declared that it would take charge of the government of Chad and continue hostilities against FACT rebels in the north of the country. It is chaired by Mahamat Idriss Déby, the son of the late President, making him the de facto President of Chad.