Voice of America

Last updated

Voice of America
TypeInternational public broadcaster
United States
FoundedFebruary 1, 1942;78 years ago (1942-02-01)
Headquarters Wilbur J. Cohen Federal Building
Washington, D.C.
Official website
Voice of America headquarters in Washington, D.C. Voice of America (18183).jpg
Voice of America headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Yankee Doodle, the interval signal of Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. [1] multimedia agency which serves as the United States government institution for non-military, external broadcasting. It is the largest U.S. international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in 47 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around the globe. It is primarily viewed by foreign audiences, so VOA programming has an influence on public opinion abroad regarding the United States and its people. [2]


VOA was established in 1942, [1] and the VOA charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415) [3] was signed into law in 1976 by President Gerald Ford.

VOA is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and overseen by the U.S. Agency for Global Media, an independent agency of the U.S. government. [4] Funds are appropriated annually by Congress under the budget for embassies and consulates. In 2016, VOA broadcast an estimated 1,800 hours of radio and TV programming each week to approximately 236.6 million people worldwide with about 1,050 employees and a taxpayer-funded annual budget of US$218.5 million. [2] [5]

Some commentators consider Voice of America to be a form of propaganda. [6] [7] However, VOA's Best Practices Guide claims that "The accuracy, quality and credibility of the Voice of America are its most important assets, and they rest on the audiences’ perception of VOA as an objective and reliable source of U.S., regional and world news and information." [8] [ third-party source needed ] Surveys show that 84% of VOA's audiences say they trust VOA to provide accurate and reliable information, and a similar percentage (84%) say that VOA helps them understand current events relevant to their lives. [9] [ third-party source needed ]

In response to the request of the United States Department of Justice that RT register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Russia's Justice Ministry labeled Voice of America and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as foreign agents in December 2017. [10] [11]

Current languages

The Voice of America website had five English language broadcasts as of 2014 (worldwide, Special English, Cambodia, Zimbabwe and Tibet). Additionally, the VOA website has versions in 46 foreign languages (radio programs are marked with an asterisk; TV programs with a plus symbol and icon Tv-icon-2.png ):

The number of languages varies according to the priorities of the United States government and the world situation. [12] [13]


American private shortwave broadcasting before World War II

Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands. [14] Privately controlled shortwave networks included the National Broadcasting Company's International Network (or White Network), which broadcast in six languages, [15] the Columbia Broadcasting System's Latin American international network, which consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries, [16] the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation in Cincinnati, Ohio, and General Electric which owned and operated WGEO and WGEA, both based in Schenectady, New York, and KGEI in San Francisco, all of which had shortwave transmitters. Experimental programming began in the 1930s, but there were fewer than 12 transmitters in operation. [17] In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy:

A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill, understanding and cooperation. Any program solely intended for, and directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service. [18]

This policy was intended to enforce the State Department's Good Neighbor Policy, but some broadcasters felt that it was an attempt to direct censorship. [19]

Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda around 1940. [17] Initially, the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news. [14] The director of Latin American relations at the Columbia Broadcasting System was Edmund A. Chester, and he supervised the development of CBS's extensive "La Cadena de las Americas" radio network to improve broadcasting to South America during the 1940s. [20]

Also included among the cultural diplomacy programming on the Columbia Broadcasting System was the musical show Viva America (1942-1949) which featured the Pan American Orchestra and the artistry of several noted musicians from both North and South America, including Alfredo Antonini, Juan Arvizu, Eva Garza, Elsa Miranda, Nestor Mesta Chaires, Miguel Sandoval, John Serry Sr., and Terig Tucci. [21] [22] [23] By 1945, broadcasts of the show were carried by 114 stations on CBS's "La Cadena de las Americas" network in 20 Latin American nations. These broadcasts proved to be highly successful in supporting President Franklin Roosevelt's policy of Pan-Americanism throughout South America during World War II. [24]

World War II

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government's Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI, in Washington) had already begun providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis through its Foreign Information Service (FIS, in New York) headed by playwright Robert E. Sherwood, the playwright who served as president Roosevelt’s speech writer and information advisor. [25] Direct programming began a week after the United States’ entry into World War II in December 1941, with the first broadcast from the San Francisco office of the FIS via General Electric’s KGEI transmitting to the Philippines in English (other languages followed). The next step was to broadcast to Germany, which was called Stimmen aus Amerika ("Voices from America") and was transmitted on February 1, 1942. It was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war... The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth." [26] Roosevelt approved this broadcast, which then-Colonel William J. Donovan (COI) and Sherwood (FIS) had recommended to him. It was Sherwood who actually coined the term "The Voice of America" to describe the shortwave network that began its transmissions on February 1, from 270 Madison Avenue in New York City.

The Office of War Information, when organized in the middle of 1942, officially took over VOA's operations. VOA reached an agreement with the British Broadcasting Corporation to share medium-wave transmitters in Britain, and expanded into Tunis in North Africa and Palermo and Bari, Italy as the Allies captured these territories. The OWI also set up the American Broadcasting Station in Europe. [27] Asian transmissions started with one transmitter in California in 1941; services were expanded by adding transmitters in Hawaii and, after recapture, the Philippines. [28]

By the end of the war, VOA had 39 transmitters and provided service in 40 languages. [28] Programming was broadcast from production centers in New York and San Francisco, with more than 1,000 programs originating from New York. Programming consisted of music, news, commentary, and relays of U.S. domestic programming, in addition to specialized VOA programming. [29]

About half of VOA's services, including the Arabic service, were discontinued in 1945. [30] In late 1945, VOA was transferred to the Department of State.

Cold War

In 1947, VOA started broadcasting to the Soviet citizens in Russia under the pretext of countering "more harmful instances of Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies" on the part of the internal Soviet Russian-language media, according to John B. Whitton's treatise, Cold War Propaganda. [31] The Soviet Union responded by initiating electronic jamming of VOA broadcasts on April 24, 1949. [31]

Charles W. Thayer headed VOA in 1948–49.

Over the next few years, the U.S. government debated the best role of Voice of America. The decision was made to use VOA broadcasts as a part of its foreign policy to fight the propaganda of the Soviet Union and other countries.

The Arabic service resumed on January 1, 1950, with a half-hour program. This program grew to 14.5 hours daily during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and was six hours a day by 1958. [30]

In 1952, Voice of America installed a studio and relay facility aboard a converted U.S. Coast Guard cutter renamed Courier whose target audience was Soviet Union and other members of Warsaw Pact. The Courier was originally intended to become the first in a fleet of mobile, radio broadcasting ships (see offshore radio) that built upon U.S. Navy experience during WWII in using warships as floating broadcasting stations. However, the Courier eventually dropped anchor off the island of Rhodes, Greece with permission of the Greek government to avoid being branded as a pirate radio broadcasting ship. This VOA offshore station stayed on the air until the 1960s when facilities were eventually provided on land. The Courier supplied training to engineers who later worked on several of the European commercial offshore broadcasting stations of the 1950s and 1960s.

Control of VOA passed from the State Department to the U.S. Information Agency when the latter was established in 1953 [30] to transmit worldwide, including to the countries behind the Iron Curtain and to the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Starting in the 1950s, VOA broadcast American jazz on Voice of America Jazz Hour from 1955 until 2003. Hosted for most of that period by Willis Conover, the program had 30 million listeners at its peak. A program aimed at South Africa in 1956 broadcast two hours nightly, and special programs such as The Newport Jazz Festival were also transmitted. This was done in association with tours by U.S. musicians, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington, sponsored by the State Department. [32] From August 1952 through May 1953, Billy Brown, a high school senior in Westchester County, New York, had a Monday night program in which he shared everyday happenings in Yorktown Heights, New York. Brown's program ended due to its popularity: his "chatty narratives" attracted so much fan mail, VOA couldn't afford the $500 a month in clerical and postage costs required to respond to listeners' letters. [33]

Throughout the Cold War, many of the targeted countries' governments sponsored jamming of VOA broadcasts, which sometimes led critics to question the broadcasts' actual impact. For example, in 1956, Polish People's Republic stopped jamming VOA transmissions [ citation needed ], but People's Republic of Bulgaria continued to jam the signal through the 1970s. Chinese language VOA broadcasts were jammed beginning in 1956 and extending through 1976. [34] However, after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, interviews with participants in anti-Soviet movements verified the effectiveness of VOA broadcasts in transmitting information to socialist societies. [35] The People's Republic of China diligently jams VOA broadcasts. [36] Cuba has also been reported to interfere with VOA satellite transmissions to Iran from its Russian-built transmission site at Bejucal. [37] David Jackson, former director of Voice of America, noted: "The North Korean government doesn't jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They're very resourceful." [38]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, VOA covered some of the era's most important news, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech and Neil Armstrong's first walk on the moon. During the Cuban missile crisis, VOA broadcast around-the-clock in Spanish.

In the early 1980s, VOA began a $1.3 billion rebuilding program to improve broadcast with better technical capabilities. Also in the 1980s, VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. Cuba has consistently attempted to jam such broadcasts and has vociferously protested U.S. broadcasts directed at Cuba.

In September 1980, VOA started broadcasting to Afghanistan in Dari and in Pashto in 1982. At the same time, VOA started to broadcast U.S. government editorials, clearly separated from the programming by audio cues.

In 1985, VOA Europe was created as a special service in English that was relayed via satellite to AM, FM, and cable affiliates throughout Europe. With a contemporary format including live disc jockeys, the network presented top musical hits as well as VOA news and features of local interest (such as "EuroFax") 24 hours a day. VOA Europe was closed down without advance public notice in January 1997 as a cost-cutting measure. [39] It was followed by VOA Express, which from July 4, 1999 revamped into VOA Music Mix. Since November 1, 2014 stations are offered VOA1 (which is a rebranding of VOA Music Mix).

In 1989, Voice of America expanded its Mandarin and Cantonese programming to reach the millions of Chinese and inform the country about the pro-democracy movement within the country, including the demonstration in Tiananmen Square.

Starting in 1990, the U.S. consolidated its international broadcasting efforts, with the establishment of the Bureau of Broadcasting.

Post–Cold War

With the breakup of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, VOA added many additional language services to reach those areas. This decade was marked by the additions of Tibetan, Kurdish (to Iran and Iraq), Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Rwanda-Rundi language services.

In 1993, the Clinton administration advised cutting funding for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as it was felt post-Cold War information and influence was not needed in Europe. This plan was not well received, and he then proposed the compromise of the International Broadcasting Act. The Broadcasting Board of Governors was established and took control from the Board for International Broadcasters which previously oversaw funding for RFE/RL. [40]

In 1994, President Bill Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This law established the International Broadcasting Bureau as a part of the U.S. Information Agency and created the Broadcasting Board of Governors with oversight authority. In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act was signed into law and mandated that BBG become an independent federal agency as of October 1, 1999. This act also abolished the U.S.I.A. and merged most of its functions with those of the State Department.

In 1994, Voice of America became the first [41] broadcast-news organization to offer continuously updated programs on the Internet.

In April 2020, the Trump administration accused Voice of America of being a mouthpiece for authoritarian regimes that "speaks for America’s adversaries," and of "promoting propaganda" instead of "promoting freedom and democracy." [42] [43] [44]

Cuts in services

The Arabic Service was abolished in 2002 and replaced by a new radio service, called the Middle East Radio Network or Radio Sawa, with an initial budget of $22 million. Radio Sawa offered mostly Western and Middle Eastern popular songs with periodic brief news bulletins. Today, the network has expanded to television with Alhurra and to various social media and websites. [45]

On May 16, 2004; Worldnet, a satellite television service, was merged into the VOA network.

Radio programs in Russian ended in July 2008. [46] In September 2008, VOA eliminated the Hindi language service after 53 years. [46] Broadcasts in Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian and Bosnian also ended. [47] These reductions were part of American efforts to concentrate more resources to broadcast to the Muslim world. [46] [47]

In September 2010, VOA began its radio broadcasts in Sudan. As U.S. interests in South Sudan have grown, there is a desire to provide people with free information. [48]

In 2013, VOA ended foreign language transmissions on shortwave and medium wave to Albania, Georgia, Iran and Latin America; as well as English language broadcasts to the Middle East and Afghanistan. [49] The movement was done due to budget cuts. [49]

On July 1, 2014, VOA cut most of its shortwave transmissions in English to Asia. [50] Shortwave broadcasts in Azerbaijani, Bengali, Khmer, Kurdish, Lao, and Uzbek were dropped too. [50] On August 11, 2014, the Greek service ended after 72 years on air. [51] [52]

List of languages

Language [53] Target audiencefromtoWebsiteRemarks
English Worldwide1942present www.voanews.com
Mandarin Chinese Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China (1941-1949)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China (1949–present)
1941present 美国之音 see also Radio Free Asia
Cantonese Guangdong
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau
美國之音 see also Radio Free Asia
Brazilian Portuguese Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1941
Amoy Fujian (1941-1945, 1951-1963)
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Japanese Taiwan (1941-1945)
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan (1951-1963)
Tagalog Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Commonwealth of the Philippines (1941-1942, 1945-1946)
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Philippine Executive Commission (1942-1943)
Flag of the Philippines (1943-1945).svg Republic of the Philippines (1943-1945)
Korean Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Japanese Korea (1942-1945)
Flag of the People's Committee of Korea.svg People's Republic of Korea (1945)
Flag of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea.svg Soviet Civil Administration in North Korea (1945-1948)
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea (1948-present)
Flag of South Korea (1945-1948).svg United States Army Military Government in Korea (1945-1948)
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea (1948–present)
1942present VOA 한국어 see also Radio Free Asia
Indonesian Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Japanese-occupied Dutch East Indies (1942-1945)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies (1945-1949)
Morning Star flag.svg  Netherlands New Guinea (1949-1962)
Flag of the United Nations.svg West New Guinea (UN Protectorate) (1962-1963)
Flag of Indonesia.svg Republic of Indonesia (1945-1949)
Flag of Indonesia.svg United States of Indonesia (1949-1950)
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia (1950–present)
1942present VOA Indonesia
Turkish Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1942
Amerika'nın Sesi
Spanish Latin America 1942
Voz de América see also Radio y Televisión Martí
Farsi State flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg Imperial State of Iran (1942-1945, 1949–1960, 1964-1966)
Flag of Iran.svg  Islamic Republic of Iran (1979–present)
صدای آمریکا see also Radio Farda
Thai Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1942
วอยซ์ ออฟ อเมริกา
Greek Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Hellenic State (1942-1944)
Axis-occupied Greece (1942-1944)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Italian Islands of the Aegean (1942-1945)
State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg Kingdom of Greece (1944-1973)
Flag of Greece.svg  Hellenic Republic (1973-2014)
Bulgarian Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Kingdom of Bulgaria (1942-1946)
Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg Bulgarian People's Republic (1946-1989)
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria (1989-2004)
19422004see also Radio Free Europe
Czech Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg  Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1942-1945)
Czech inhabited lands of Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Republic (1945-1960)
Czech inhabited lands of Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960-1969)
Flag of Bohemia.svg Czech SR (1969-1990)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic (1990-2004)
19422004see also Radio Free Europe
Hungarian Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; 1-2 aspect ratio).svg Hungarian Republic (1946-1949)
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungarian People's Republic (1949-1989)
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary (1989-1993)
19422004see also Radio Free Europe
Polish Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg General Government of Polish Region (1942-1944)
Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Republic of Poland (1944-1945)
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Republic of Poland (1945-1947)
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Polish People's Republic (1947-1989)
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland (1990-2004)
19422004see also Radio Free Europe
Romanian Flag of Romania.svg  Kingdom of Romania (1942-1947)
Flag of Romania (1952-1965).svg Romanian People's Republic (1947-1965)
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Socialist Republic of Romania (1965-1989)
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania (1989-2004)
19422004see also Radio Free Europe
Slovak Flag of Slovakia (1939-1945).svg Slovak Republic (1942-1945)
Slovak inhabited lands of Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Republic (1945-1960)
Slovak inhabited lands of Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960-1969)
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak SR (1969-1990)
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia (1990-2004)
19422004see also Radio Free Europe
Arabic 1942
see also Radio Sawa and Alhurra
Spanish Flag of Spain 1945 1977.svg  Spanish State (1942-1955, 1955-1975)
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain (1975-1993)

(for local radio stations)
Portuguese Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal (1942-1945, 1951-1953)
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal (1976-1987, 1987-1993)

(for local radio stations)
German Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German Reich (1942-1943)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German-occupied Austria (1942-1945)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Greater German Reich (1943-1945)
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg  Allied-occupied Germany (1945-1949)
Flag of Saar (1947-1956).svg  Saar Protectorate (1947-1956)
Flag of Germany.svg Federal Republic of Germany (1949-1960)
Flag of Berlin.svg Allied-occupied Berlin (1949-1960)
Flag of East Germany.svg  German Democratic Republic (1949-1960)
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany (1991-1993)
Japanese Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan (1942-1945)
Flag of Allied Occupied Japan.svg Occupied Japan (1951-1952)
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan (1952-1962)
French Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg French State (1942-1944)
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg  Free France (1942-1944)
War Ensign of Germany (1938-1945).svg Military Administration in France (1942-1944)
French and Walloon inhabited lands of War Ensign of Germany (1938-1945).svg Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France (1942-1944)
French and Walloon inhabited lands of Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France (1944)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Italian Military Administration in France (1942-1943)
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Occupied Corsica (1942-1943)
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg French Republic (1944-1946)
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg French Republic (1946-1958)
Flag of France.svg French Republic (1958-1961)
Italian Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Kingdom of Italy (1942-1945)
Flag of Italy.svg  Italian Republic (1951-1957)
Free Territory Trieste Flag.svg Free Territory of Trieste (1951-1954)
Finnish Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1942
Afrikaans Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  Union of South Africa 19421949
Danish Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 19421945
Flemish Flemish inhabited lands of War Ensign of Germany (1938-1945).svg Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France (1942-1944)
Flemish inhabited lands of Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichskommissariat of Belgium and Northern France (1944)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Flandern (1944-1945)
Norwegian Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichskommissariat Norwegen 19421945
Serbian War Ensign of Germany (1938-1945).svg Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia + Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg German-occupied Montenegro (1943-1944)
Flag of Serbia (1947-1992).svg Federal State of Serbia + Flag of Montenegro (1946-1993).svg Federal State of Montenegro (1944-1946)
Flag of Serbia (1947-1992).svg People's Republic of Serbia + Flag of Montenegro (1946-1993).svg People's Republic of Montenegro (1946-1963)
Flag of SR Serbia.svg  Socialist Republic of Serbia + Flag of Montenegro (1946-1993).svg Socialist Republic of Montenegro (1963-1992)
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003)
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003-2006)
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia (2006–present)
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro (2006–present)
1943present Glas Amerike see also Radio Free Europe
Albanian Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom (1943-1944)
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svg Democratic Government of Albania (1944-1945)
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg  People's Republic of Albania (1951-1976)
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg  People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1976-1998)
Flag of Albania.svg  Republic of Albania (1998–present)
Zëri i Amerikës see also Radio Free Europe
Burmese Flag of the State of Burma (1943-45).svg  State of Burma (1943-1945)
Flag of Burma (1948-1974).svg  Union of Burma (1951-1974)
Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg  Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (1974-1988)
Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg  Union of Myanmar (1988-2011)
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar (2011–present)
ဗီြအိုေအသတင္းဌာန see also Radio Free Asia
Vietnamese Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  French Indochina (1943-1945)
Flag of the Empire of Vietnam (1945).svg Empire of Vietnam (1945)
Flag of Colonial Annam.svg Protectorate of Tonkin + First flag of the Nguyen Dynasty.svg Protectorate of Annam + Flag of Republic of Cochinchina.svg French Cochinchina (1945-1946)
Flag of South Vietnam.svg  State of Vietnam (1951-1955)
Flag of North Vietnam (1955-1975).svg  North Vietnam (1955-1976)
Flag of South Vietnam.svg  South Vietnam (1955-1975)
FNL Flag.svg Occupied South Vietnam (1969-1976)
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam (1976–present)
Ðài Tiếng nói Hoa Kỳ see also Radio Free Asia
Croatian Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg  Independent State of Croatia (1943-1945)
Flag of Croatia (1947-1990).svg Federal State of Croatia (1945-1946)
Flag of Croatia (1947-1990).svg People's Republic of Croatia (1946-1963)
Flag of Croatia (1947-1990).svg Socialist Republic of Croatia (1963-1990)
Flag of Croatia (1990).svg Republic of Croatia (1990-1991)
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia (1991-2011)
19432011see also Radio Free Europe
Swedish Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 19431945
Slovene Slovenian inhabited lands of Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichsgau Steiermark , Reichsgau Kärnten and Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral (1944-1945)
Flag of Slovenia (1945-1991).svg People's Republic of Slovenia (1949-1963)
Flag of Slovenia (1945-1991).svg Socialist Republic of Slovenia (1963-1990)
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia (1990-2004)
Wu Chinese Shanghai 19441946
Dutch Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Reichskommissariat Niederlande 19441945
Icelandic Flag of Iceland (1918-1944).svg  Kingdom of Iceland 19441944
Russian Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg Russian SFSR (1947-1991)
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia (1991–present)
1947present Голос Америки see also Radio Liberty
Ukrainian Flag of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Ukrainian SSR (1949-1991)
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine (1991–present)
1949present Голос Америки see also Radio Liberty
Armenian Flag of Armenian SSR.svg Armenian SSR (1951-1991)
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia (1991–present)
1951present (web) Ամերիկայի Ձայն see also Radio Liberty
Georgian Flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Georgian SSR (1951-1991)
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia (1991–present)
1951present (web)see also Radio Liberty
Urdu Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1951
وائس آف امریکہ
Azerbaijani Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1956-1991).svg Azeri SSR (1951-1953, 1982-1991)
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan (1991–present)
present (web)
Amerikanın Səsi see also Radio Liberty
Hindi Northern Flag of India.svg  India 1951
Estonian Flag of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Soviet-occupied Estonia (1951-1990)
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia (1990-2004)
19512004see also Radio Liberty
Latvian Flag of Latvian SSR.svg Soviet-occupied Latvia (1951-1990)
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia (1990-2004)
19512004see also Radio Liberty
Lithuanian Flag of Lithuanian SSR.svg Soviet-occupied Lithuania (1951-1990)
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania (1990-2004)
19512004see also Radio Liberty
Malayan Flag of Malaya.svg Federation of Malaya 19511955
Hakka Hakka inhabited lands of Southern Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China 19511954
Hebrew Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 19511953
Swatow Shantou 19511953
Tatar Flag of Tatar ASSR.svg Tatar ASSR 19511953see also Radio Liberty
Tamil Madras State (1954-1969)
..Tamil Nadu Flag(INDIA).png Tamil Nadu (1969-1970)
Flag of Ceylon (1951-1972).svg  Dominion of Ceylon
Khmer Flag of Cambodia.svg Kingdom of Cambodia (1955-1957, 1962-1970)
Flag of the Khmer Republic.svg  Khmer Republic (1970-1975)
Flag of Democratic Kampuchea.svg Democratic Kampuchea (1975-1979)
Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svg  People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979-1989)
Flag of the State of Cambodia.svg State of Cambodia (1989-1993)
Flag of Cambodia.svg Kingdom of Cambodia (1993–present)
see also Radio Free Asia
Malayalam ..Kerala Flag(INDIA).png Kerala
Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands
Gujarati Gujarati inhabited lands of Bombay State 19561958
Telugu Andhra Pradesh 19561958
Belarusian Flag of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1951-1991).svg Byelorussian SSR 19561957see also Radio Liberty
Bengali Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 1958present ভয়েস অফ আমেরিকা
French (to Africa)1960present VOA Afrique
Lao Flag of Laos (1952-1975).svg  Kingdom of Laos (1962-1975)
Flag of Laos.svg  Lao People's Democratic Republic (1975–present)
1962present ສຽງອາເມຣິກາ ວີໂອເອ see also Radio Free Asia
Swahili 1962present Sauti ya Amerika
English (to Africa)1963 August 4present www.voaafrica.com
Uzbek Flag of the Uzbek SSR.svg Uzbek SSR (1972-1991)
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan (1991–present)


Amerika Ovozi see also Radio Liberty
Portuguese (to Africa)1976present Voz da América
Hausa Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 1979 January 21present Muryar Amurka
Dari Flag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svg Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1980-1987)
Flag of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg Republic of Afghanistan (1987-1992)
Flag of Afghanistan (1992-1996; 2001).svg  Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992-1996, 2001-2002)
Flag of Taliban.svg  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996-2001)
Flag of Afghanistan (2002-2004).svg Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (2002-2004)
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2004–present)
1980present صدای امریکا
Amharic Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 1982 Septemberpresent የአሜሪካ ድምፅ
Pashto Pashtun inhabited lands of Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 1982present اشنا راډیو
Creole 1987present Lavwadlamerik
Tibetan Tibet Autonomous Region
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan
1991present ཨ་རིའི་རླུང་འཕྲིན་ཁང་།
see also Radio Free Asia
Kurdish Flag of Kurdistan.svg Iraqi Kurdistan
De facto SA-NES Flag.svg Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
Kurdish inhabited lands of Turkey
Kurdish inhabited lands of Iran
1992present ده‌نگی ئه‌مه‌ریکا
Dengê Amerîka
Somali Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia
Flag of Somaliland.svg  Somaliland
VOA Somali
Nepali Flag of Nepal.svg  Kingdom of Nepal 19921993
Afaan Oromo Flag of the Oromia Region.svg Oromia Region 1996 Julypresent Sagalee Ameerikaa
Bosnian Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1996present Glas Amerike see also Radio Free Europe
Kinyarwanda/Kirundi Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi
Eastern Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo
Southern Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda
Northwestern Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania
1996 Julypresent Ijwi ry'Amerika
Tigrinya Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 1996 Julypresent ድምፂ ረድዮ ኣሜሪካ
Macedonian Flag of North Macedonia.svg Republic of Macedonia 19992008see also Radio Free Europe
Ndebele Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe 2003present VOA Ndebele
Shona Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique
2003present VOA Shona
Pashto Pashtun inhabited lands of Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 2006present ډیوه ریډیو
Bambara Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 2013 Marchpresent VOA Bambara

List of directors

  1. 1942–1943 John Houseman
  2. 1943–1945 Louis G. Cowan
  3. 1945–1946 John Ogilvie
  4. 1948–1949 Charles W. Thayer
  5. 1949–1952 Foy D. Kohler
  6. 1952–1953 Alfred H. Morton
  7. 1953–1954 Leonard Erikson
  8. 1954–1956 John R. Poppele
  9. 1956–1958 Robert E. Burton
  10. 1958–1965 Henry Loomis
  11. 1965–1967 John Chancellor
  12. 1967–1968 John Charles Daly
  13. 1969–1977 Kenneth R. Giddens
  14. 1977–1979 R. Peter Straus
  15. 1980–1981 Mary Bitterman
  16. 1981–1982 James B. Conkling
  17. 1982 John Hughes
  18. 1982–1984 Kenneth Tomlinson
  19. 1985 Gene Pell
  20. 1986–1991 Dick Carlson
  21. 1991–1993 Chase Untermeyer
  22. 1994–1996 Geoffrey Cowan
  23. 1997–1999 Evelyn S. Lieberman
  24. 1999–2001 Sanford J. Ungar
  25. 2001–2002 Robert R. Reilly
  26. 2002–2006 David S. Jackson
  27. 2006–2011 Danforth W. Austin
  28. 2011–2015 David Ensor
  29. 2016 - 2020 Amanda Bennett
  30. 2020–Present Michael Pack


Voice of America has been a part of several agencies. From its founding in 1942 to 1945, it was part of the Office of War Information, and then from 1945 to 1953 as a function of the State Department. VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency in 1953. When the USIA was abolished in 1999, VOA was placed under the Broadcasting Board of Governors, or BBG, which is an autonomous U.S. government agency, with bipartisan membership. The Secretary of State has a seat on the BBG. [54] The BBG was established as a buffer to protect VOA and other U.S.-sponsored, non-military, international broadcasters from political interference. It replaced the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) that oversaw the funding and operation of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a branch of VOA. [40]


Smith–Mundt Act

From 1948 until its amendment in 2013, Voice of America was forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens under § 501 of the Smith–Mundt Act. [6] The act was amended as a result of the passing of the Smith-Mundt Modernization Act provision of the National Defense Authorization Act for 2013. [7] The intent of the legislation in 1948 was to protect the American public from propaganda actions by their own government and to have no competition with private American companies. [55] The amendment had the intent of adapting to the Internet and allow American citizens to request access to VOA content. [56]

Internal policies

VOA charter

Under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, VOA Director Henry Loomis commissioned a formal statement of principles to protect the integrity of VOA programming and define the organization's mission, and was issued by Director George V. Allen as a directive in 1960 and was endorsed in 1962 by USIA director Edward R. Murrow. [57] The principles were signed into law on July 12, 1976, by President Gerald Ford. It reads:

The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America must win the attention and respect of listeners. These principles will therefore govern Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. 1. VOA will serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news. VOA news will be accurate, objective, and comprehensive. 2. VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. 3. VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussions and opinion on these policies. [4]


The Voice of America Firewall was put in place with the 1976 VOA Charter and laws passed in 1994 and 2016 as a way of ensuring the integrity of VOA's journalism. This policy fights against propaganda and promotes unbiased and objective journalistic standards in the agency. The charter is one part of this firewall and the other laws assist in ensuring high standards of journalism. [58]

"Two-source rule"

According to former VOA correspondent Alan Heil, the internal policy of VOA News is that any story broadcast must have two independently corroborating sources or have a staff correspondent actually witness an event. [59]


Voice of America's central newsroom has hundreds of journalists and dozens of full-time domestic and overseas correspondents, who are employees of the U.S. government or paid contractors. They are augmented by hundreds of contract correspondents and stringers throughout the world, who file in English or in one of VOA's other radio and television broadcast languages.

In late 2005, VOA shifted some of its central-news operation to Hong Kong where contracted writers worked from a "virtual" office with counterparts on the overnight shift in Washington, D.C., but this operation was shut down in early 2008.

Shortwave frequencies

By December 2014, the number of transmitters and frequencies used by VOA had been greatly reduced. VOA still uses shortwave transmissions to cover some areas of Africa and Asia. Shortwave broadcasts still take place in these languages: Afaan Oromoo, Amharic, Bambara, Cantonese, Chinese, English, Indonesian, Korean and Swahili.

VOA Radiogram

VOA Radiogram was an experimental Voice of America program starting in March 2013 which transmitted digital text and images via shortwave radiograms. [60] There were 220 editions of the program, transmitted each weekend from the Edward R. Murrow transmitting station. The audio tones that comprised the bulk of each 30 minute program were transmitted via an analog transmitter, and could be decoded using a basic AM shortwave receiver with freely downloadable software of the Fldigi family. This software is available for Windows, Apple (OSX), Linux, and FreeBSD systems.

Broadcasts can also be decoded using the free TIVAR app from the Google Play store using any Android device.

The mode used most often on VOA Radiogram, for both text and images, was MFSK32, but other modes were also occasionally transmitted.

The final edition of VOA Radiogram was transmitted during the weekend of June 17–18, 2017, a week before the retirement of the program producer from VOA. An offer to continue the broadcasts on a contract basis was declined, [61] so a follow-on show called Shortwave Radiogram began transmission on June 25, 2017 from the WRMI transmitting site in Okeechobee, Florida. [62]

Shortwave Radiogram program schedule [63]
DayTime (UTC) Shortwave frequency (MHz)Origin
Saturday1600–16309.4Space Line, Bulgaria
Sunday0600–06307.73 WRMI, Florida
Sunday2030–210011.58 WRMI, Florida
Sunday2330–240011.58 WRMI, Florida

Transmission facilities

One of VOA's radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a 625-acre (2.53 km2) site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The site is now a recreational park with a lake, lodge, dog park, and Voice of America museum. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994. [64] Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, (Monrovia) Liberia, Costa Rica, Belize, and at least two in Greece.[ citation needed ]

Between 1983 and 1990, VOA made significant upgrades to transmission facilities in Botswana, Morocco, Thailand, Kuwait, and Sao Tome. [65]

Currently, VOA and USAGM continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters and antenna farms at International Broadcasting Bureau Greenville Transmitting Station in the United States, close to Greenville, North Carolina, "Site B." They do not use FCC-issued callsigns, since the FCC does not regulate communications by other federal government agencies. (The FCC regulates broadcasting by private companies and other businesses, state governments, nonprofit organizations [NPOs] and non-government organizations [NGOs], and private individuals.) The IBB also operates a transmission facility on São Tomé and (Tinang) Concepcion, Tarlac, Philippines for VOA.[ citation needed ]

Comparing VOA-RFE-RL-RM to other broadcasters

In 1996, the U.S.'s international radio output consisted of 992 hours per week by VOA, 667 by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and 162 by Radio Marti.


Mullah Omar interview

In late September 2001, VOA aired a report that contained brief excerpts of an interview with then Taliban leader Mullah Omar Mohammad, along with segments from President Bush's post-9/11 speech to Congress, an expert in Islam from Georgetown University,[ who? ] and comments by the foreign minister of Afghanistan's anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. State Department officials including Richard Armitage and others argued that the report amounted to giving terrorists a platform to express their views.[ citation needed ] In response, reporters and editors argued for the VOA's editorial independence from its governors.[ citation needed ] VOA received praise from press organizations for its protests, and the following year in 2002, it won the University of Oregon's Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism. [66]

Abdul Malik Rigi interview

On April 2, 2007, Abdul Malik Rigi, the leader of Jundullah, a militant group with possible links to al-Qaeda, appeared on Voice of America's Persian language service. VOA introduced Rigi as "the leader of popular Iranian resistance movement." [67] [ unreliable source? ][ verification needed ] The interview resulted in public condemnation by the Iranian-American community, as well as the Iranian government. [68] [69] Jundullah is a militant organization that has been linked to numerous attacks on civilians, such as the 2009 Zahedan explosion. [70] [71]

Tibetan protester interview

In February 2013, a documentary released by China Central Television interviewed a Tibetan self-immolator who failed to kill himself. The interviewee said he was motivated by Voice of America's broadcasts of commemorations of people who committed suicide in political self-immolation. VOA denied any allegations of instigating self-immolations and demanded that the Chinese station retract its report. [72]

Trump presidency concerns

After the inauguration of US President Donald Trump, several tweets by Voice of America (one of which was later removed) seemed to support the widely criticized statements by White House press secretary Sean Spicer about the crowd size and biased media coverage. This first raised concerns over possible attempts by Trump to politicize the state-funded agency. [73] [74] [75] [76] This amplified already growing propaganda concerns over the provisions in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, signed into law by Barack Obama, which replaced the board of the Broadcasting Board of Governors with a CEO appointed by the president. Trump sent two of his political aides, Matthew Ciepielowski and Matthew Schuck, to the agency to aid its current CEO during the transition to the Trump administration. Criticism was raised over Trump's choice of aides; Schuck was a staff writer for right-wing website The Daily Surge until April 2015, while Ciepielowski was a field director at the conservative advocacy group Americans for Prosperity. [73] VOA officials responded with assurances that they would not become "Trump TV". [73] BBG head John F. Lansing told NPR that it would be illegal for the administration to tell VOA what to broadcast, while VOA director Amanda Bennett stressed that while "government-funded", the agency is not "government-run". [75]

On April 10, 2020, the White House published an article in its daily newsletter critical of VOA coverage of the coronavirus pandemic. [77] Emails revealed in a Freedom of Information Act request showed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) press official Michawn Rich had sent a memo to agency employees stating in part, "as a rule, do not send up [interview] requests for Greta Van Susteren or anyone affiliated with Voice of America," referencing the White House story. [78]

On June 3, 2020, the Senate confirmed Michael Pack, a maker of conservative documentaries and close ally of Steve Bannon, to serve as head of the United States Agency for Global Media, which oversees VOA. [79] Subsequently, Director Bennet and deputy director Sandy Sugawara resigned from VOA. CNN reported on June 16 that plans for a leadership shakeup at VOA were being discussed, including the possibility that controversial former White House aide Sebastian Gorka would be given a leadership role at VOA. [80] On June 17, the heads of VOA's Middle East Broadcasting, Radio Free Asia, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and the Open Technology Fund were all fired, their boards were dissolved and external communications from VOA employees made to require approval from senior agency personnel in what one source described as an "unprecedented" move, while Jeffrey Shapiro, like Pack a Bannon ally, was rumored to be in line to head the Office of Cuba Broadcasting. [81] Four former members of the advisory boards subsequently filed suit challenging Pack's standing to fire them. [82] On July 9, NPR reported VOA would not renew the work visas of dozens of non-resident reporters, many of whom could face repercussions in their home countries. [83]

Guo Wengui interview

On April 19, 2017, VOA interviewed the Chinese real estate tycoon Guo Wengui in a live broadcast. The whole interview was scheduled for 3 hours. After Guo Wengui alleged to own evidence of corruption among the members of the Politburo Standing Committee of China, the highest political authority of China, the interview was abruptly cut off, after only one hour and seventeen minutes of broadcasting. Guo's allegations involved Fu Zhenhua and Wang Qishan, the latter being a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and the leader of the massive anti-graft movement. [84] It was reported that Beijing warned VOA's representatives not to interview Guo for his "unsubstantiated allegations". [85] Four members of the U.S. Congress requested the Office of Inspector General to conduct an investigation into this interruption on August 27, 2017. [86] The OIG investigation concluded that the decision to curtail the Guo interview was based solely on journalistic best practices rather than any pressure from the Chinese government. [87]

Another investigation, [87] by Professor Mark Feldstein, Richard Eaton, Chair of Broadcast Journalism at the University of Maryland, College Park, and a journalist with decades of experiences as an award-winning television investigative reporter, concluded that "The failure to comply with leadership’s instructions during the Guo interview “was a colossal and unprecedented violation of journalistic professionalism and broadcast industry standards.” The report also said that "There had been “a grossly negligent approach” to pre-interview vetting and failure to “corroborate the authenticity of Guo’s evidence or interview other sources” in violation of industry standards. The interview team apparently “demonstrated greater loyalty to its source than to its employer — at the expense of basic journalistic standards of accuracy, verification, and fairness," the Feldstein report concluded. [87]

The VOA and the Cold War

The VOA started its operations during the Cold War and that is when its influence first started as well. Foy Kohler, the director of VOA during the Cold War, strongly believed that the VOA was serving its purpose, which he identified as aiding in the fight against communism. [88] He argued that the numbers of listeners they were getting such as 194,000 regular listeners in Sweden, and 2.1 million regular listeners in France, was an indication of a positive impact. As further evidence, he noted that the VOA received 30,000 letters a month from listeners all over the world, and hundreds of thousands of requests for broadcasting schedules. [89] There was an analysis done of some of those letters sent in 1952 and 1953 while Kohler was still director. The study found that letter writing could be an indicator of successful, actionable persuasion. It was also found that broadcasts in different countries were having different effects. In one country, regular listeners adopted and practiced American values presented by the broadcast. Age was also a factor: younger and older audiences tended to like different types of programs no matter the country. [90] Kohler used all of this as evidence to claim that the VOA helped to grow and strengthen the free world. It also influenced the UN in their decision to condemn communist actions in Korea, and was a major factor in the decline of communism in the “free world, including key countries such as Italy and France. [88] In Italy, the VOA did not just bring an end to communism, but it caused the country to Americanize. [91] The VOA also had an impact behind the Iron Curtain. Practically all defectors during Kohler's time claimed the VOA helped in their decision to defect. Another indication of impact, according to Kohler, was the Soviet response. Kohler argued that the soviets responded because the VOA was having an impact. Based on Soviet responses, it can be presumed that the most effective programs were ones that compared the lives of those behind and outside the iron curtain, questions on the practice of slave labor, as well as lies and errors in Stalin’s version of Marxism. [88]

DEEWA Radio’s impact

DEEWA Radio, of the VOA, airs in Pakistan. Although some listeners are suspicious that the program is promoting an American agenda, others claim to be experiencing a positive effect. Some listeners feel that the programs are giving a voice to the voiceless, leading them to a sense of empowerment. [92]

VOA in Kurdistan and Iran

VOA's service in Iran has had a negative impact on Kurds and Kurdistan according to the publication, Kurdish Life. They claim that the VOA has exacerbated the conflict between the Talabani and the Barzani. [93] They further claim that the VOA is covering up wrongful imprisonments, wrongful arrests, and the building of extremist mosques. According to the same publication, Kurds are being turned into fanatics, and a new generation of terrorists is forming because of the VOA. They claim the VOA is doing this to help PUK. [94]

VOA and Latin America

There is evidence to suggest that the people who listen to the Latin American service are being influenced, but not in the way the VOA wants. Instead of understanding and adopting the American way of life, listeners are parroting values and beliefs that do not mesh with their lives. However, others have adopted a negative view of America, because they think that the VOA is propaganda. [95]

VOA and China

A study was done on Chinese students in America. It found that through the VOA, they disapproved of the actions of the Chinese government. [96] Another study was done on Chinese scholars in America, and found that the VOA had an effect on their political beliefs. Their political beliefs did not change in relation to China, though, as they did not tend to believe the VOA's reports on China. [97]

See also

Related Research Articles

BBC World Service International radio division of the BBC

The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster, owned and operated by the BBC. It is the world's largest of any kind. It broadcasts radio news, speech and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In 2015, The World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week. In November 2016, the BBC announced that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s.

International broadcasting is broadcasting that is deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. It usually is broadcast by means of longwave, mediumwave, or shortwave radio, but in recent years has also used direct satellite broadcasting and the internet as means of reaching audiences.

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty United States government–funded broadcasting organization

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a United States government-funded organization that broadcasts and reports news, information and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed". RFE/RL is a 501(c)(3) corporation supervised by the U.S. Agency for Global Media, an agency overseeing all U.S. federal government international broadcasting services.

United States Information Agency Former government agency

The United States Information Agency (USIA), which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to "public diplomacy". In 1999, USIA's broadcasting functions were moved to the newly created Broadcasting Board of Governors, and its exchange and non-broadcasting information functions were given to the newly created Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs at the U.S. Department of State. The agency was previously known overseas as the United States Information Service (USIS).

Radio y Televisión Martí American radio and television broadcaster to Cuba

Radio Televisión Martí is an American radio and television international broadcaster based in Miami, Florida, financed by the Federal government of the United States through the U.S. Agency for Global Media, which transmits news in Spanish to Cuba. Its broadcasts can also be heard and viewed worldwide through their website and on shortwave radio frequencies.

The U.S. Agency for Global Media (USAGM), formerly the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), is an independent agency of the United States government which operates various state-run media outlets. It describes its mission, "vital to US national interests", to "inform, engage, and connect people around the world in support of freedom and democracy" and in accordance to the "broad foreign policy objectives of the United States". USAGM supervises Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio y Televisión Martí, Radio Free Asia, and Alhurra.

Radio Havana Cuba public radio in Cuba

Radio Havana Cuba is the official government-run international broadcasting station of Cuba. It can be heard in many parts of the world including the United States on shortwave frequencies. Radio Havana, along with Radio Rebelde, Cubavision Television and other Cuban Radio and Television broadcasts to North, Central and South America via free-to-air programming from the Hispanisat satellite over the Atlantic Ocean and via Internet streaming.

Radio Free Asia East Asia news broadcaster

Radio Free Asia (RFA) is a United States government–funded, nonprofit international broadcasting corporation that broadcasts and publishes online news, information and commentary to readers and listeners in East Asia. Its self-stated mission is "to provide accurate and timely news and information to Asian countries whose governments prohibit access to a free press."

Shortwave listening the hobby of listening to shortwave radio broadcasts

Shortwave listening, or SWLing, is the hobby of listening to shortwave radio broadcasts located on frequencies between 1700 kHz and 30 MHz. Listeners range from casual users seeking international news and entertainment programming, to hobbyists immersed in the technical aspects of radio reception and collecting official confirmations that document their reception of distant broadcasts (DXing). In some developing countries, shortwave listening enables remote communities to obtain regional programming traditionally provided by local medium wave AM broadcasters. In 2002, the number of households that were capable of shortwave listening was estimated to be in the hundreds of millions.

Smith–Mundt Act

The U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948, popularly called the Smith–Mundt Act, is the basic legislative authorization for propaganda activities conducted by the U.S. Department of State, sometimes called "public diplomacy". The act was first introduced by Congressman Karl E. Mundt (R-SD) in January 1945 in the 79th Congress. It was subsequently passed by the 80th Congress and signed into law by President Harry S. Truman on January 27, 1948.

Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications. In the United States, radio jamming devices are illegal and their use can result in large fines.

Radio Farda Persian Radio & Media

Radio Farda is a U.S. government state sponsored media. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), its parent agency, is an external broadcast service is tasked by U.S. Agency for Global Media laws to allegedly provide "factual, objective and professional journalism" to its audiences. It broadcasts 24 hours a day in the Persian language and other languages from its headquarters in the district Hagibor of Prague, Czech Republic. However, accusations of corruption and inaccurate reporting have troubled the agency over the years.

Radio Taiwan International International radio service of the Republic of China (Taiwan)

Radio Taiwan International is the English name and call sign of the international radio service, the Central Broadcasting System (CBS) of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan. It is a government-owned station that broadcasts in 13 languages around the world, with a majority emphasis on Mandarin and Taiwanese-language broadcasts over shortwave into China.

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The International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) is the technical support outlet within the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), which is a U.S. independent agency. The IBB supports the day-to-day operations of Voice of America (VOA) and the Office of Cuba Broadcasting. It also provides transmission and technical support for all of the independent non-military broadcasting services funded by the (BBG). The IBB is located in Washington, D.C.

A radiogram is a formal written message transmitted by radio. Also known as a radio telegram or radio telegraphic message, radiograms use a standardized message format, form and radiotelephone and/or radiotelegraph transmission procedures. These procedures typically provide a means of transmitting the content of the messages without including the names of the various headers and message sections, so as to minimize the time needed to transmit messages over limited and/or congested radio channels. Various formats have been used historically by maritime radio services, military organizations, and Amateur Radio organizations.

Radio jamming in China is a form of censorship in the People's Republic of China that involves deliberate attempts by state or Communist Party organs to interfere with radio broadcasts. In most instances, radio jamming targets foreign broadcasters, including Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Asia, the BBC World Service, the NHK World and stations based in Taiwan.

Radio propaganda is propaganda aimed at influencing attitudes towards a certain cause or position, delivered through radio broadcast. The power of radio propaganda came from its revolutionary nature. The radio, like later technological advances in the media, allowed information to be transmitted quickly and uniformly to vast populations. Internationally, the radio was an early and powerful recruiting tool for propaganda campaigns.

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Fldigi is a free and open-source program which allows an ordinary computer's sound card to be used as a simple two-way data modem. The software is mostly used by amateur radio operators who connect the microphone and headphone connections of an amateur radio SSB transceiver or an FM two way radio to the computer's headphone and microphone connections, respectively.


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