|Status||Colony of France |
Constituent territory of French Indochina
(In 1946–69 "Autonomous republic")
|Common languages|| Khmer |
|Religion|| Buddhism (Theravada and Mahayana)|
|Historical era||New Imperialism|
|1 September 1858|
|5 June 1862|
• Part of French Indochina
|17 October 1887|
|22 September 1940|
• Establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
|2 September 1945|
• "Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina"
|1 June 1946|
• Merged to the Central Government
|4 June 1949|
|1868||65,478 km2 (25,281 sq mi)|
|1939||65,478 km2 (25,281 sq mi)|
|Currency|| Vietnamese văn (1862–1945)|
Cochinchina piastre (1878–1885)
French Indochinese piastre (1885–1949)
|Today part of||Vietnam|
a. Population figure taken from P. Gubry, Population et développement au Viêt-nam (2000), p. 44.
French Cochinchina, sometimes spelled Cochin-China (French : Cochinchine Française, Vietnamese : Nam Kỳ, Hán tự: 南圻), was a colony of French Indochina, encompassing the Cochinchina region of southern Vietnam. Formally called Cochinchina, it was renamed in 1946 as Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina, a controversial decision which helped trigger the First Indochina War. In 1948, the autonomous republic, whose legal status had never been formalized, was renamed as the Provisional Government of South Vietnam (not to be confused with the 1969–76 Viet Cong government). It was reunited with the rest of Vietnam in 1949.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. Spoken natively by an estimated 76 million people, it is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception.
In Vietnamese, Cochinchina was called Nam Kỳ (Southern country) although the independentists preferred to use the term Nam Bộ (Southern region).
For a series of complex reasons, the Second French Empire of Napoleon III, with the help of Spanish troops arriving from the Spanish East Indies, invaded the southern part of Nguyen Dynasty Vietnam, then known in the West as Cochinchina in September 1858. France occupied Đà Nẵng (Tourane) and on February 18, 1859, they conquered Saigon and three southern Vietnamese provinces: Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường; the Vietnamese government was forced to cede those territories to France in June 1862 Treaty of Saigon.
The Second French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first President of France, ruling from 1848 to 1852, and the last monarchical ruler of France, reigning from 1852 to 1870. First elected president of the French Second Republic in 1848, he seized power in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected, and became the Emperor of the French. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the Second Italian War of Independence.
The Restoration, or Bourbon Restoration, is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
In 1867, the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1864 all the French territories in southern Vietnam were declared to be the new French colony of Cochinchina, which would be governed by Admiral Marie Jules Dupré from 1871 to 1874.
Hà Tiên Province was a former province of South Vietnam originally formed in 1832 and disestablished in 1956. Its capital was Hà Tiên.
Vĩnh Long is a province located in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam. Its capital is Vĩnh Long. Its population is 1,046,390 and its area is 1,475 square kilometres (570 sq mi).
Cochinchina is a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam whose principal city is Saigon. It was a French colony from 1862 to 1954. The later state of South Vietnam was created in 1954 by combining Cochinchina with southern Annam. In Vietnamese, the region is called Nam Bộ. Historically, it was Gia Định (1779–1832), Nam Kỳ (1834–1945), Nam Bộ (1945–48), Nam phần (1948–56), Nam Việt (1956–75), and later Miền Nam. In French, it was called la colonie de Cochinchine.
In 1887, it became part of the Union of French Indochina. Unlike the protectorates of Annam protectorate and Tonkin protectorate, Cochinchina was ruled directly by the French, both de jure and de facto, and was represented by a deputy in the National assembly. Together with Tonkin, it was one of the economic centers of French Indochina.
French Indochina, officially known as the Indochinese Union from 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Annam was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam. Before the protectorate's establishment, the name Annam was used in the West to refer to Vietnam as a whole; Vietnamese people were referred to as Annamites. The protectorate of Annam became in 1887 a part of French Indochina. Two other Vietnamese regions, Cochinchina in the South and Tonkin in the North, were also units of French Indochina. The region had a dual system of French and Vietnamese administration. The Nguyễn Dynasty still nominally ruled Annam, with a puppet emperor residing in Huế. In 1948, the protectorate was merged in the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, which was replaced the next year by the newly established State of Vietnam. The region was divided between communist North Vietnam and anti-communist South Vietnam under the terms of the Geneva Accord of 1954.
Tonkin, or Bắc Kỳ (北圻), was a French protectorate encompassing modern Northern Vietnam.
Fifty-one Vietnamese rebels were executed following the 1916 Cochinchina uprising. In 1933, the Spratly Islands were annexed to French Cochinchina. In July 1941, Japanese troops were based in French Cochinchina (a de facto occupation). After the Japanese surrendered in August 1945, Cochinchina was returned to French rule.
The 1916 Cochinchina uprising was a series of defiant protests and attempted revolts in February against the French colonisation of southern Vietnam, which had been the colony of Cochinchina since 1867.
The Spratly Islands are a disputed archipelago in the South China Sea. Composed of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, the archipelago lies off the coasts of the Philippines, Malaysia, and southern Vietnam. Named after the 19th-century British whaling captain Richard Spratly who sighted Spratly Island in 1843, the islands contain less than 2 km2 of naturally occurring land area spread over an area of more than 425,000 km2 (164,000 sq mi).
Military or belligerent occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory, which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign. The territory is then known as the occupied territory and the ruling power the occupant. Occupation is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature, by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.
In 1945, Cochinchina was ruled directly by the Japanese after they had taken over from the French in March. In August, it was briefly incorporated into the Empire of Vietnam. Later that month, the Japanese surrendered to the Việt Minh during the August Revolution.On September 2, 1945 Việt Minh established Democratic Republic of Vietnam with territory of Annam, Tonkin and Cochinchina. The independentists held the general election on January 6, 1946 in order to establish the first National Assembly in Vietnam. The elections were supposedly organized in all areas of Vietnam including Cochinchina, but the southern colony was by then back under the control of the French.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945.
On June 1, 1946, whilst the Viet Minh leadership was in France for negotiations, southern autonomists proclaimed a government of Cochinchina, at the initiative of High Commissioner d'Argenlieu and in violation of the March 6 Ho–Sainteny agreement. The colony was proclaimed an "Autonomous Republic" .War between France and the Viet Minh followed (1946–54). Nguyễn Văn Thinh, the first head of its government, died in an apparent suicide in November of the same year. He was succeeded by Lê Văn Hoạch, a member of the caodaist sect. In 1947, Nguyễn Văn Xuân replaced Lê and renamed the "Provisional Government of the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina" as the "Provisional Government of South Vietnam", overtly stating his aim to reunite the whole country.
The next year, the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam was proclaimed with the merger of Annam and Tonkin : Xuân became its Prime minister and left office in Cochichina, where he was replaced by Trần Văn Hữu. Xuân and the French had agreed to reunite Vietnam, but Cochinchina posed a problem because of its ill-defined legal status. The reunification was opposed by the French colonists, who were still influential in the Cochinchinese council, and by Southern Vietnamese autonomists: they delayed the process of reunification by arguing that Cochinchina was still legally a colony - as its new status as a Republic had never been ratified by the French National Assembly - and that any territorial change therefore required the approval of the French parliament. Xuân issued a by-law reuniting Cochinchina with the rest of Vietnam, but it was overruled by the Cochinchinese council.
Cochinchina remained separated from the rest of Vietnam for over a year, while former Emperor Bảo Đại - whom the French wanted to bring back to power as a political alternative to Ho Chi Minh - refused to return to Vietnam and take office as head of state until the country was fully reunited. On March 14, 1949, the French National Assembly voted a law permitting the creation of a Territorial Assembly of Cochinchina. This new Cochinchinese parliament was elected on April 10, 1949, with the Vietnamese representatives then becoming a majority. On April 23, the Territorial Assembly approved the merger of the Provisional Government of South Vietnam with the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam. The decision was in turn approved by the French National Assembly on May 20,and the merger was effective on June 4. The State of Vietnam could then be proclaimed, with Bảo Đại as head of state.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam, was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam", which was a constitutional monarchy (1949–1955). This became the "Republic of Vietnam" in 1955. Its capital was Saigon. South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast.
Bảo Đại, born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, the last ruling family of Vietnam. From 1926 to 1945, he was Emperor of Annam. During this period, Annam was a protectorate within French Indochina, covering the central two-thirds of the present-day Vietnam. Bảo Đại ascended the throne in 1932.
Vietnam's recorded history dates back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BC, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue were established. Northern Vietnam was since the late third millennium BC populated by early farming communities, that had expanded from the original centers of rice and millet domestication in the Yangzi and Yellow River valleys. The Red River valley formed a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the north and west by mountains and jungles, to the east by the sea and to the south by the Red River Delta. According to legends, the first Vietnamese state was founded in 2879 BC, but archaeological studies suggest development towards chiefdoms during the late Bronze Age Đông Sơn culture.
The French Protectorate of Cambodia refers to the Kingdom of Cambodia when it was a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Colonial Empire. The protectorate was established in 1867 when the Cambodian King Norodom requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country, meanwhile Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and officially recognised the French protectorate on Cambodia. Cambodia was integrated into the French Indochina union in 1887 along with the French colonies and protectorates in Vietnam. In 1946, Cambodia was granted self-rule within the French Union and had its protectorate status abolished in 1949. Cambodia later gained its independence and the independence day was celebrated on 9 November 1953.
Articles related to Vietnam and Vietnamese culture include:
The flag of Vietnam, or "red flag with a gold star", was designed in 1940 and used during an uprising against French rule in southern Vietnam that year. Red symbolizes the goals of social revolution behind the Vietnamese national uprising. The star represents the five main classes in Vietnamese society—intellectuals, farmers, workers, businesspeople and military personnel.
Empress Nam Phương, born Marie-Thérèse Nguyễn Hữu Thị Lan, was the first and primary wife of Bảo Đại, the last emperor of Vietnam, from 1934 until her death. She was also the second and last empress consort of the Nguyễn dynasty.
The State of Vietnam was a state and member of the French Union that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the First Indochina War, although large parts of its territory was actually controlled by the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam of the Việt Minh. The state was created in 1949 by France and was internationally recognised in 1950. Former Emperor Bảo Đại became Chief of State. After the 1954 Geneva Agreements, the State of Vietnam had to abandon the northern part of the country to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Ngô Đình Diệm was appointed prime minister that same year and—after having ousted Bảo Đại in 1955—became president of the Republic of Vietnam.
The Provisional Central Government of Vietnam was an entity proclaimed in Vietnam during the First Indochina War. It was created as a transitional government replacing the protectorates of Tonkin and Annam, until Cochinchina could be reunited with the rest of the country.
French–Vietnamese relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes. Various traders would visit Vietnam during the 18th century, until the major involvement of French forces under Pigneau de Béhaine from 1787 to 1789 helped establish the Nguyễn Dynasty. France was heavily involved in Vietnam in the 19th century under the pretext of protecting the work of Catholic missionaries in the country.
The Cochinchina Campaign ; is the common designation for a series of military operations between 1858 and 1862, launched by a joint naval expedition force on behalf of the French Empire and the Kingdom of Spain against the Nguyễn dynasty of Dai Nam. Initially a limited punitive expedition against the persecution and execution of French Catholic missionaries in Dai Nam, the ambitious French emperor Napoleon III however, authorized the deployment of increasingly larger contingents, that subdued Dai Nam territory and established French military and economic dominance. The war concluded with the founding of the French colony of Cochinchina and inaugurated nearly a century of French colonial dominance in Indochina.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976.
Đinh Xuân Quảng was a Vietnamese judge and a politician who helped institute a new constitution for South Vietnam. Đinh Xuân Quảng was one of the main advocates of the “Nationalist solution” in the efforts to regain independence from France after World War II – an independence which could ultimately be settled through negotiations and peaceful means. He participated throughout this resolution process and negotiated various agreements with France. His efforts led to the abrogation of the Patenotre Treaty in 1884 which had placed Vietnam under a protectorate of France.
Political organizations and Armed forces in Vietnam, since 1912 :