First Indochina War

Last updated
First Indochina War
Part of the Indochina Wars, the Cold War, and the decolonization of Asia
First Indochina War COLLAGE.jpg
Clockwise from the top:
After the fall of Dien Bien Phu, supporting Laotian troops fall back across the Mekong River into Laos; French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast in July 1950; M24 Chaffee American light tank used by the French in Vietnam; Geneva Conference on 21 July 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat from Escadrille 1F prepares to land on French aircraft carrier Arromanches operating in the Gulf of Tonkin.
Date December 19, 1946August 1, 1954
(7 years, 7 months, 1 week and 6 days)

DR Vietnam-allied victory [1] [2] [3] [4]


Flag of North Vietnam 1945-1955.svg DR Vietnam

Flag of Laos.svg Lao Issara (1945–1949)
Flag of Laos.svg Pathet Lao (1949–1954) [5]
Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svg Khmer Issarak [5]


Supported by:
Flag of Germany.svg  East Germany (1950–1954)
Flag of the USSR (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union (1952–1954) [7] [8]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  People's Republic of China (1949–1954) [8]

Flag of France (1794-1815).svg French Union

Supported by:
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States (1950–1954) [9]
Commanders and leaders

Total: c. 450,000


State of Vietnam:

  • 150,000 [12]
  • Total: c. 395,000
Casualties and losses
Việt Minh:
  • 175,000–300,000 dead or missing (Western historian estimated) [13] [14] [15] [16]
  • 191,605 dead or missing (Vietnamese government's figure) [17]
French Union:
  • 74,220 dead (20,685 being French) [18]
  • 64,127 wounded

State of Vietnam:

  • 58,877 dead or missing [19]

Total: c. 134,500 dead or missing

The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) was fought between France and Việt Minh (Democratic Republic of Vietnam), and their respective allies, from 19 December 1946 until 20 July 1954. [25] Việt Minh was led by Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh. [26] [27] Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in Northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

At the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the allied Combined Chiefs of Staff decided that Indochina south of latitude 16° north was to be included in the Southeast Asia Command under British Admiral Mountbatten. On V-J Day, September 2, Hồ Chí Minh proclaimed in Hanoi (Tonkin's capital) the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). In late September 1945, Chinese forces entered Tonkin, and Japanese forces to the north of that line surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. At the same time, British forces landed in Saigon (Cochinchina's capital), and Japanese forces in the south surrendered to the British. The Chinese accepted the DRV under Hồ Chí Minh, then in power in Hanoi. The British refused to do likewise in Saigon, and deferred to the French, despite the previous support of the Việt Minh by American OSS representatives. The DRV ruled as the only civil government in all of Vietnam for a period of about 20 days, after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại, who had governed under the Japanese rule. On 23 September 1945, with the knowledge of the British commander in Saigon, French forces overthrew the local DRV government, and declared French authority restored in Cochinchina. Guerrilla warfare began around Saigon immediately, [28] but the French gradually retook control of Indochina. Hồ Chí Minh agreed to talk with France but negotiations failed. After one year of low-level conflict, all-out war broke out in December 1946 between French and Việt Minh forces as Hồ Chí Minh and his government went underground. The French tried to stabilize Indochina by reorganizing it as a Federation of Associated States. In 1949, they put former Emperor Bảo Đại back in power, as the ruler of a newly established State of Vietnam.

The first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French. By 1949 the conflict had turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons, with the French supplied by the United States, and the Việt Minh supplied by the Soviet Union and a newly communist China. [29] French Union forces included colonial troops from the empire – North Africans; Laotian, Cambodian and Vietnamese ethnic minorities; Sub-Saharan Africans – and professional French troops, European volunteers, and units of the Foreign Legion. The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by leftists in France. [30]

The French strategy of inducing the Việt Minh to attack well-defended bases in remote areas at the end of their logistical trails was validated during the Battle of Nà Sản. French efforts were hampered by the limited usefulness of tanks in a forested environment, the lack of a strong air force, and reliance on soldiers from French colonies. The Việt Minh used novel and efficient tactics, including direct artillery fire, convoy ambushes, and anti-aircraft weaponry to impede land and air resupplies together with a strategy based on recruiting a sizable regular army facilitated by large popular support. They used guerrilla warfare doctrine and instruction developed from China, and used war materiel provided by the Soviet Union. This combination proved fatal for the French bases, culminating in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. [31]

An estimated 400,000 to 842,707 soldiers died during the war [20] [15] as well as between 125,000 and 400,000 civilians. [15] [24] Both sides committed war crimes during the conflict, including killings of civilians (such as the Mỹ Trạch massacre by French troops), rape and torture. [32] At the International Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, the new socialist French government and the Việt Minh made an agreement which gave the Việt Minh control of North Vietnam above the 17th parallel, an agreement that was rejected by the State of Vietnam and the United States. A year later, Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Soon an insurgency, backed by the communist north, developed against Diệm's anti-communist government. This conflict, known as the Vietnam War, included large U.S. military intervention in support of the South Vietnamese and ended in 1975 with the defeat of South Vietnam to the North Vietnamese and the reunification of Vietnam.


French Indochina (1913) Indochine francaise (1913).jpg
French Indochina (1913)

Vietnam was absorbed into French Indochina in stages between 1858 and 1887. Vietnamese nationalism grew until World War II, providing a break in French control. Early Vietnamese resistance centered on the intellectual Phan Bội Châu. Châu looked to Japan, which had modernized and was one of the few Asian nations to successfully resist European colonization. With Prince Cường Để, Châu started the two organizations in Japan, the Duy Tân hội (Modernistic Association) and Vietnam Cong Hien Hoi.

Due to French pressure, Japan deported Phan Bội Châu to China. Witnessing Sun Yat-sen's Xinhai Revolution, Châu was inspired to commence the Viet Nam Quang Phục Hội movement in Guangzhou. From 1914 to 1917, he was imprisoned by Yuan Shikai's counterrevolutionary government. In 1925, he was captured by French agents in Shanghai and spirited to Vietnam. Due to his popularity, Châu was spared from execution and placed under house arrest until his death in 1940.

In September 1940, shortly before Phan Bội Châu's death, the Empire of Japan launched its invasion of French Indochina, mirroring its ally Germany's conquest of metropolitan France. Keeping the French colonial administration, the Japanese ruled from behind the scenes in a parallel of Vichy France. As far as Vietnamese nationalists were concerned, this was a double-puppet government. Emperor Bảo Đại collaborated with the Japanese, just as he had with the French, ensuring his lifestyle could continue.

From October 1940 to May 1941, during the Franco-Thai War, the Vichy French in Indochina defended their colony in a border conflict in which the forces of Thailand invaded while the Japanese sat on the sidelines. Thai military successes were limited to the Cambodian border area, and in January 1941 Vichy France's modern naval forces soundly defeated the inferior Thai naval forces in the Battle of Ko Chang. The war ended in May, with the French agreeing to minor territorial revisions which restored formerly Thai areas to Thailand.

Vo Nguyen Giap and Ho Chi Minh (1945) Giap-Ho.jpg
Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh (1945)

Hồ Chí Minh, upon his return to Vietnam in 1941, formed the Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi (League for the Independence of Vietnam), better known as the Việt Minh. Despite his communist background, he founded the Việt Minh as an umbrella organization, seeking to appeal to a broader base by emphasizing national liberation instead of class struggle. [33] [34]

In March 1945, Japan launched the Second French Indochina Campaign to oust the Vichy French and formally installed Emperor Bảo Đại as head of the nominally "independent" Vietnam. The Japanese arrested and imprisoned most of the French officials and military officers remaining in the country.

In Hanoi on 15–20 April 1945 the Tonkin Revolutionary Military Conference of the Việt Minh issued a resolution that was reprinted on pages 1–4 on 25 August 1970 in the Nhân Dân journal. It called for a general uprising, resistance and guerilla warfare against the Japanese by establishing 7 war zones across Vietnam named after past heroes of Vietnam, calling for propaganda to explain to the people that their only way forward was violent resistance against the Japanese and exposing the Vietnamese puppet government that served them. The conference also called for training propagandists and having women spread military propaganda and target Japanese soldiers with Chinese language leaflets and Japanese language propaganda. The Việt Minh's Vietnamese Liberation Army published the "Resistance against Japan" (Khang Nhat) newspaper. They also called for the creation of a group called "Chinese and Vietnamese Allied against Japan" by sending leaflets to recruit overseas Chinese in Vietnam to their cause. The resolution called on forcing French in Vietnam to recognize Vietnamese independence and for the DeGaulle France (Allied French) to recognize their independence and cooperate with them against Japan. [35] [36]

In an article from August 1945, republished on 17 August 1970, the North Vietnamese National Assembly Chairman Truong Chinh, denounced the Japanese claims to have liberated Vietnam from France with the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere announced by Hideki Tojo, saying that the Japanese wanted to plunder Asians for their own market and take it from the United States and Great Britain and were imperialists with no intent on liberating Vietnam, also accusing the Japanese of applying the Three Alls policy (San Kuang) and described atrocities like looting, slaughter and rape against the people of north Vietnam in 1945. According to Truong the Japanese also tried to pit different ethnic and political groups within Indochina against each other and attempted to infiltrate the Viet Minh. [37] [38]

The Japanese forced Vietnamese women to become comfort women and with Burmese, Indonesian, Thai and Filipino women they made up a notable portion of Asian comfort women in general. [39] Japanese use of Malaysian and Vietnamese women as comfort women was corroborated by testimonies. [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] There were comfort women stations in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, North Korea and South Korea. [47] [48] A Korean comfort woman named Kim Ch'un-hui stayed behind in Vietnam and died there when she was 44 in 1963, owning a dairy farm, cafe, US cash and diamonds worth 200,000 US dollars. [49] 2 billion US dollars worth (1945 values) of damage, 148 million dollars of them due to destruction of industrial plants was incurred by Vietnam. 90% of heavy vehicles and motorcycles, cars and 16 tons of junks as well as railways, port installations were destroyed as well as one third of bridges. [50] Some Japanese soldiers married Vietnamese women like Nguyen Thi Xuan and [51] Nguyen Thi Thu and fathered multiple children with the Vietnamese women who remained behind in Vietnam while the Japanese soldiers themselves returned to Japan in 1955. The official Vietnamese historical narrative view them as children of rape and prostitution. [52] [53]

In the Vietnamese Famine of 1945 1 to 2 million Vietnamese starved to death in the Red river delta of northern Vietnam due to the Japanese, as the Japanese seized Vietnamese rice and did not pay. In Phat Diem the Vietnamese farmer Di Ho was one of the few survivors who saw the Japanese steal grain. [54] [55] The North Vietnamese government accused both France and Japan of the famine and said 1–2 million Vietnamese died. [56] [57] Võ An Ninh took photographs of dead and dying Vietnamese during the great famine. [58] [59] [60] Starving Vietnamese were dying throughout northern Vietnam in 1945 due to the Japanese seizure of their crops by the time the Chinese came to disarm the Japanese and Vietnamese corpses were all throughout the streets of Hanoi and had to be cleaned up by students. [61]

Hồ Chí Minh himself, in the Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam blamed "the double yoke of the French and the Japanese" for the deaths of "more than two million" Vietnamese. [62]

On 25 March 2000, the Vietnamese journalist Trần Khuê wrote an article "Dân chủ: Vấn đề của dân tộc và thời đại" where he harshly criticized ethnographers and historians in Ho Chin Minh city's Institute of Social Sciences like Đinh Văn Liên and professor Mạc Đường who tried to whitewash Japan's atrocities against the Vietnamese by portraying Japan's aid to the South Vietnamese regime against North Vietnam as humanitarian aid, portraying the Vietnam war against America as a civil war. changing the death toll of 2 million Vietnamese dead at the hands of the Japanese famine to 1 million and calling the Japanese invasion as a presence and calling Japanese fascists at simply Japanese at the Vietnam-Japan international conference. He accused them of changing history in exchange for only a few tens of thousands of dollars, and the Presidium of international Vietnamese studies in Hanoi did not include any Vietnamese women. The Vietnamese professor Văn Tạo and Japanese professor Furuta Moto both conducted a study in the field on the Japanese induced famine of 1945 admitting that Japan killed 2 million Vietnamese by starvation. [63]

American President Franklin D. Roosevelt and General Joseph Stilwell privately made it clear that France was not to reacquire French Indochina after the war was over. Roosevelt suggested that Chiang Kai-shek place Indochina under Chinese rule; Chiang Kai-shek supposedly replied: "Under no circumstances!" [64] Following Roosevelt's death in April 1945, U.S. resistance to French rule weakened. [65]

After the surrender of Japan

Japanese troops lay down their arms to British troops in a ceremony in Saigon after the surrender of Japan. The Allied Occupation of French Indo-china SE5769.jpg
Japanese troops lay down their arms to British troops in a ceremony in Saigon after the surrender of Japan.

An armistice was signed between Japan and the United States on August 20, 1945. The Provisional Government of the French Republic wanted to restore its colonial rule in French Indochina as the final step of the Liberation of France.

On August 22, 1945, OSS agents Archimedes Patti and Carleton B. Swift Jr. arrived in Hanoi on a mercy mission to liberate Allied POWs, and were accompanied by French government official Jean Sainteny. [66] The Imperial Japanese Army, being the only force capable of maintaining law and order, remained in power while keeping French colonial troops and Sainteny detained. [67]

Japanese forces allowed the Việt Minh and other nationalist groups to take over public buildings and weapons without resistance, which began during the August Revolution. On August 25, Hồ Chí Minh was able to persuade Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate. Bảo Đại was appointed "supreme advisor" to the new Việt Minh-led government in Hanoi.

Commander of the C.L.I. (Corps Leger d'Intervention) arriving in Indochina. Gcma commando french indochina japanese.jpg
Commander of the C.L.I. (Corps Léger d'Intervention) arriving in Indochina.

On September 2, aboard USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, CEFEO Expeditionary Corps leader General Leclerc signed the armistice with Japan on behalf of France. [68] The same day, Hồ Chí Minh declared Vietnam's independence from France. Deliberately borrowing from the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America, Hồ Chí Minh proclaimed:

We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. [69]

On 26 September 1945 Ho Chi Minh wrote a letter calling for struggle against the French mentioning they were returning after they sold out the Vietnamese to the Japanese twice in four years. [70] [71] [72] [73]

Although the Japanese Army would end up surrendering or destroying most of their war equipment, soldiers and units gave or sold their weapons to the Việt Minh with some commanders reportedly turning over captured French equipment. [74] [75] In order to further help the nationalists, the Japanese kept Vichy French officials and military officers imprisoned for a month after the surrender. OSS officers met repeatedly with Hồ Chí Minh and other Việt Minh officers during this period. [76] The Việt Minh recruited more than 600 Japanese soldiers and gave them roles to train or command Vietnamese soldiers. [77] [78]

After the August Revolution, Truong Chinh published an article in which he claimed that after the Japanese surrendered on 15 August 1945 the Viet Minh started attacking and slaughtering Japanese and disarming them in a nationwide rebellion on 19 August, saying that the Viet Minh led a brutal, deadly campaign against the Japanese from 9 March to 19 August 1945. According to Truong, the Viet Minh had begun fighting in 1944, when the French were attacked on Dinh Ca in October and in Cao Bang and Bac Can in November. French and Japanese forces fought each other during the Japanese coup, so in Tonkin the Viet Minh began disarming French soldiers and attacking the Japanese, taking control of 6 provinces. He also said that Meo (Hmong) and Muong tribesmen also attacked the Japanese. [79] [80] Although some of these claims are contested by historian David G. Marr. [81]

On September 13, 1945, a Franco-British task force landed in Java, main island of the Dutch East Indies (for which independence was being sought by Sukarno), and Saigon, capital of Cochinchina (southern part of French Indochina), both being occupied by the Japanese and ruled by Field Marshal Hisaichi Terauchi, Commander-in-Chief of Japan's Southern Expeditionary Army Group based in Saigon. [82] Allied troops in Saigon were an airborne detachment, two British companies of the Indian 20th Infantry Division and the French 5th Colonial Infantry Regiment, with British General Sir Douglas Gracey as supreme commander. The latter proclaimed martial law on September 21. The following night the Franco-British troops took control of Saigon. [83]

Telegram from Ho Chi Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, February 28, 1946) HoChiMinhTelegramToTruman1946.png
Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, February 28, 1946)

Almost immediately afterward, as agreed to at the Potsdam Conference (and under Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers' "General Order no. One" [84] [85] ), 200,000 troops of the Chinese 1st Army occupied Indochina as far south as the 16th parallel. They had been sent by Chiang Kai-shek under General Lu Han to accept the surrender of Japanese forces occupying that area, then to supervise the disarming and repatriation of the Japanese Army. In the North, the Chinese permitted the DRV government to remain in charge of keeping the peace and the supply of rice to the occupiers. [86] Initially, the Chinese kept the French Colonial soldiers interned, with the acquiescence of the Americans. [67] The Chinese used the VNQDĐ, the Vietnamese branch of the Chinese Kuomintang, to increase their influence in Indochina and put pressure on their opponents. [87]

On October 9, 1945, General Leclerc arrived in Saigon, accompanied by French Colonel Massu's March Group (Groupement de marche). Leclerc's primary objectives were to restore public order in south Vietnam and to militarize Tonkin (north Vietnam). Secondary objectives were to wait for French backup in view to take back Chinese-occupied Hanoi, then to negotiate with the Việt Minh officials. [83]

Chiang Kai-shek threatened the French with war in response to manoeuvering by the French and Hồ Chí Minh against each other, forcing them to come to a peace agreement. In February 1946, he also forced the French to surrender and renounce all of their concessions and ports in China, such as Shanghai, in exchange for withdrawing from northern Indochina and allowing French troops to reoccupy the region starting in March 1946. [88] [89] [90] [91] Following the Ho–Sainteny agreement, VNQDĐ forces became vulnerable due to the withdrawal of Chinese forces and were attacked by Việt Minh and French troops. The Việt Minh massacred thousands of VNQDĐ members and other nationalists in a large-scale purge. [92] [93]

Chiang Kai-shek deliberately withheld his crack and well trained soldiers from occupying Vietnam, probably because he was going to use them to fight the Communists inside China, and instead sent undisciplined warlord troops from Yunnan under Lu Han to occupy Vietnam north of the 16th parallel and accept the Japanese surrender. [94] [95] In total, 200,000 of General Lu Han's Chinese soldiers occupied north Vietnam starting August 1945. 90,000 arrived by October, the 62nd army came on 26 September to Nam Dinh and Haiphong, later arriving at Lang Son and Cao Bang and the Red River region and Lai Cai were occupied by a column from Yunnan. Vietnamese VNQDD fighters accompanied the Chinese soldiers. Lu Han occupied the French governor general's palace after ejecting the French staff under Sainteny. [96] While the Chinese soldiers occupied northern Indochina, the British under the South-East Asia Command of Lord Mountbatten occupied the south. [97] [98]

Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh tried to organize welcome parades for the Chinese soldiers in Hanoi and Haiphong in order to appease the Chinese army, and try to reassure the Vietnamese that the warlord troops of Lu Han were only there temporarily and that China supported Vietnam's independence. Viet Minh newspapers said that the same ancestors (huyết thống) and culture were shared by Vietnamese and Chinese and that the Chinese were attacked by western imperialists, had changed in the 1911 revolution and heroically fought Japan and so it was "not the same as feudal China". [99]

Ho Chi Minh was compelled to give in to demands made by the Chinese occupation forces: Lu Han extracted a deal out of him, by which he ordered his DRV administration to set quotas for rice to give to the Chinese soldiers. [96] Rice sent to Cochinchina by the French in October 1945 was divided by Ho Chi Minh, the northern Vietnamese only received one third while the Chinese soldiers were given the remaining two thirds. For 15 days elections were postponed by Ho Chi Minh in response to a demand by Chinese general Chen Xiuhe on 18 December 1945 so that the Chinese could get the Dong Minh Hoi and VNQDD to prepare. [100]

Despite the food quotas arranged, the occupiers seized several rice stockpiles, and other private and public goods. Along with this, the Chinese soldiers staged disturbances which resulted in the death of several Vietnamese, and were also accused of raping, beatings, occupying private dwellings and burning down others. The Chinese crimes went mostly unpunished, with the occupiers issuing apologies or partial compensations. On the other hand, Vietnamese crimes against the Chinese were dutifully investigated, Ho Chi Minh even surrendered Vietnamese who attacked Chinese soldiers to be executed as punishment. And forbade his soldiers from attacking Chinese soldiers. [101]

He also called on people to contribute gold taels, jewelry and coins in September 1945, in what was called "Gold Week", mostly to purchase weapons for the Viet Minh but also to finance the Chinese occupation, Ho Chi Minh gave golden smoking paraphernalia and a golden opium pipe to the Chinese general Lu Han after this. [102] [103]

General Lu Han Lu Han.jpg
General Lu Han

Ho Chi Minh appeased and granted numerous concessions to the Chinese soldiers to avoid the possibility of them clashing with the Viet Minh, with him ordering Vietnamese not to carry out anything against Chinese soldiers and pledging his life on his promise, hoping the Chinese would disarm the Japanese soldiers and finish their mission as fast as possible. [104]

While Chiang Kai-shek, Xiao Wen (Hsiao Wen) and the Kuomintang central government of China were uninterested in occupying Vietnam beyond the allotted time period and involving itself in the war between the Viet Minh and the French, the Yunnan warlord Lu Han held the opposite view and wanted to occupy Vietnam to prevent the French from returning and establish a Chinese trusteeship of Vietnam under the principles of the Atlantic Charter with the aim of eventually preparing Vietnam for independence. [105]

Ho Chi Minh sent a cable on 17 October 1945 to American President Harry S. Truman calling on him, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Premier Joseph Stalin and Prime Minister Clement Attlee to go to the United Nations against France and demand that they not be allowed to return to occupy Vietnam, accusing France of having sold out and cheated the Allies by surrendering Indochina to Japan and that France had no right to return. [106] Ho Chi Minh dumped the blame on Dong Minh Hoi and VNDQQ for signing the agreement with France which allowed its soldiers to return to Vietnam. [107] [108]

Chinese communist guerilla leader Chu Chia-pi came into northern Vietnam multiple times in 1945 and 1948 and helped the Viet Minh fight against the French from Yunnan. Other Chinese Communists also did the same. [109]

Intra-Vietnamese factions

In addition to British support, the French also received assistance from various southern groups that modern historians consider unambiguously Vietnamese.

After the August Revolution, the armed militias from the religious Hòa Hảo sect backed by the Japanese were in direct conflict with the Viet Minh who sought to take full control of the country. This ultimately led to the assassination of their leader in April 1947. [110]

The Bình Xuyên organized crime group also sought power in the country and although initially fought alongside the Việt Minh, they would later support Bảo Đại. [111] [112] [113]

Militias from the Cao Đài sect, which had initially joined the Viet Minh in their struggle against the return of the French, made a truce with France when their leader was captured in 6 June 1946. The Viet Minh later attacked the Cao Đài after open conflict had erupted with France, which led them to join the French side. [114] [115] [116]

Vietnamese society also polarized along ethnic lines: the Nung minority assisted the French, while the Tay assisted the Việt Minh. [117]

Course of the war

War breaks out (1946)

Ho Chi Minh and Marius Moutet shaking hands after signing modus vivendi 1946 after Fontainebleau Agreements Vietnam France modus vivendi.JPG
Hồ Chí Minh and Marius Moutet shaking hands after signing modus vivendi 1946 after Fontainebleau Agreements

In March 1946, a preliminary accord signed between the French and Ho Chi Minh which acknowledged the DRV as a free state within an Indochinese Federation in a "French Union" and allowed a limited number of French troops within its borders to replace the Chinese forces which started gradually returning to China. In further negotiations, the French would seek to ratify Vietnam´s position within the Union and the Vietnamese main priorities were preserving their independence and the reunification with the Republic of Cochinchina, which had been created by High Commissioner Georges d'Argenlieu in June. [118] In September, once main negotiations had broken down in Paris over these two key issues, Ho Chi Minh and Marius Moutet, the French Minister of the Colonies, signed a temporary modus vivendi which reaffirmed the March Accord, although no specifications were made on the issue of a Nam Bộ (Cochinchina) reuniffication referendum and negotiations for a definitive treaty were set to begin no later than January 1947. [119]

In the north, an uneasy peace had been maintained during the negotiations, in November however, fighting broke out in Haiphong between the Việt Minh government and the French over a conflict of interest in import duty at the port. [120] On November 23, 1946, the French fleet bombarded the Vietnamese sections of the city killing 6,000 Vietnamese civilians in one afternoon. [121] [122] [123] The Việt Minh quickly agreed to a cease-fire and left the cities. This is known as the Haiphong incident.

There was never any intention among the Vietnamese to give up, as General Võ Nguyên Giáp soon brought up 30,000 men to attack the city. Although the French were outnumbered, their superior weaponry and naval support made any Việt Minh attack unsuccessful. In 19 December, hostilities between the Việt Minh and the French broke out in Hanoi, and Hồ Chí Minh, along with his government, was forced to evacuate the capital in favor of remote forested and mountainous areas. Guerrilla warfare ensued, with the French controlling most of the country except far-flung areas. By January the following year, most provincial capitals had fallen to the French, while Hue fell in February after a six-week siege. [124]

French offensives, creation of the State of Vietnam (1947–1949)

"Envoys probe Indo-China rebellion" (January 16, 1947), Universal Newsreel

In 1947, Hồ Chí Minh and General Võ Nguyên Giáp retreated with his command into the Việt Bắc, the mountainous jungles of northern Vietnam. By March, France had taken control of the main population centers in the country. The French chose not to pursue the Việt Minh before the beginning of the seasonal rains in May, and military operations were postponed until their conclusion. [125]

Come October, the French launched Operation Léa with the objective of swiftly putting an end to the resistance movement by taking out the Vietnamese main battle units and the Việt Minh leadership at their base in Bắc Kạn. Léa was followed by Operation Ceinture in November, with similar aims. As a result of the French offensive, the Việt Minh would end up losing valuable resources and suffering heavy losses, 7,200–9,500 KIA. Nevertheless, both operations failed to capture Hồ Chí Minh and his key lieutenants as intended, and the main Vietnamese battle units managed to survive. [126] [127]

In 1948, France started looking for means of opposing the Việt Minh politically, with an alternative government led by former emperor Bảo Đại to lead an "autonomous" government within the French Union of nations. This new state ruled over northern and central Vietnam, excluding the colony of Cochinchina, and had limited autonomy. This initial accord with the French was decried by non-Communist nationalists and Bảo Đại withdrew from the agreement. It would not be until March 1949 that the French would concede on the issue of unification and a final agreement would be reached. [128] [129]

Two years prior, the French had refused Ho's proposal of a similar status within the French Union, albeit with some restrictions on French power and the latter's eventual withdrawal from Vietnam. [130] However, they were willing to deal with Bảo Đại as he represented a non-radical option who could rally behind him the non-Communist nationalist movement. [131]

In January 1950, France officially recognized the nominal "independence" of the unified State of Vietnam, led by Bảo Đại, as an associated state within the French Union. However, France still controlled all foreign policy, every defense issue and would have a French Union army stationed in the country with complete freedom of movement. [132] Within the framework of the French Union, France also granted independence to the other nations in Indochina, the Kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.

In January 1949, the Vietnamese National Army was created to go along the formation of the new Vietnamese associated state. This was meant to bolster French numbers as their army found itself outnumbered by the People's Army of Vietnam at this point in the war. To this end, the CEFEO provided some of its officers to lead these new divisions. [133]

Việt Minh reorganization (1949–1950)

A map of dissident activities in Indochina in 1950 Dissident Activities in Indochina.svg
A map of dissident activities in Indochina in 1950

Throughout 1948 and 1949, the Việt Minh engaged in ambushes and sabotage of French convoys and infrastructure. Meanwhile, the French government was still looking for a political solution and major military operations stalled for a lack of manpower. [134] [135]

With the triumph of the communists in China's civil war in October 1949, the Vietnamese communists gained a major political ally on their northern border, who supported them with advisers, weapons and supplies along with camps where new recruits were trained. Between 1950 and 1951, Giap re-organized his local forces into five full conventional infantry divisions, the 304th, 308th, 312th, 316th and the 320th. [136]

During 1950, the DRV would seek to secure its control over the Chinese border. In February, Giáp launched "Operation Lê Hong Phong I", taking control of the border town of Lào Cai, in the high valley of the Red River. [137]

By April, most of the northeastern border was under Viet-Minh control, save for a string of posts along the eastern tonkinese frontier, Cao Bằng, Đông Khê, Thất Khê and Lạng Sơn, from North to South, connected by the Colonial Route 4 (RC 4). Here is where the Viet Minh would focus next during "Operation Lê Hong Phong II". This new offensive began on September 16 when forces commanded by General Hoàng Văn Thái attacked Đông Khê, which fell two days later. [138] In response, the French decided to evacuate Cao Bằng, which had become isolated. Soldiers and civilians were to march south and join a group marching north from Thất Khê tasked with recapturing the lost position. However, despite having been ordered to destroy all equipment, the commander of the Cao Bằng force decided to bring along its artillery when they left on October 3, causing delays and making them vulnerable to ambushes. The two forces met four days later on October 7 in Đông Khê but were ultimately defeated. [139] Finally, on October 17, the French command decided to abandon Lạng Sơn before it could come under attack, leaving behind considerable amounts of military supplies. The Viet-Minh now controlled most of the northern half of Tonkin. [140] This operation would cost the French around 6,000 soldiers. [141]

In January 1950, Ho's government gained recognition from China and the Soviet Union. Shortly after, the government of Bảo Đại gained recognition by the United States and the United Kingdom. Along with Mao Zedong's victory in China, this gesture by the main Communist powers, played a part in shifting the US view of the war, which began to be seen as part of the global struggle against Communism. [142] Starting in May, the United States began to provide military aid to France in the form of weaponry and military observers. [143]

In June, the Korean War broke out between communist North Korea (DPRK) supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea (ROK) supported by the United States and its allies in the UN. The Cold War was turning 'hot' in East Asia, and the American government feared communist domination of the entire region would have deep implications for American interests. The US became strongly opposed to the government of Hồ Chí Minh, in part, because it was supported and supplied by China.

Renewed French success (January–June 1951)

General Trinh Minh The Trinh Minh The.jpg
General Trình Minh Thế

A new French commander in chief and high commissioner, General Jean Marie de Lattre de Tassigny, was appointed in December 1950. [144] With him began the construction of a defensive line of fortifications from Hanoi to the Gulf of Tonkin, around the Red River Delta, to protect Tonkin against a possible Chinese invasion and prevent Việt Minh infiltration. It became known as the De Lattre Line. [145]

In late 1950 Giáp decided to go on a "general counteroffensive", seeking the final defeat of the French. [146] On January 13, 1951, he moved the 308th and 312th Divisions, with more than 20,000 men, to attack Vĩnh Yên, 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Hanoi, which was manned by 6,000 French troops. Considered the first set-piece battle of the war, the Vietnamese saw initial success, although as the battle progressed, French aerial supremacy proved decisive as reinforcements flew in from the rest of Indochina and all available aircraft capable of dropping bombs was utilized to carry out what would be the largest aerial bombardement of the war. By noon of January 17, Giáp's troops withdrew in defeat. The Vietnamese had suffered 5,000–6,000 deaths and 500 combatants were captured. [147] [148] [149]

Giáp tried again to break the French defensive line, this time 20 miles (32 km) north-east of Haiphong in an attempt to cut the French access to the port city. On March 23, the Việt Minh's 316th Division, composed of 11,000 men, with the partly rebuilt 308th and 312th Divisions in reserve, launched an attack on Mạo Khê. With instances of hand-to-hand combat, the French, supported by paratroopers and naval artillery, repelled the attack and the Vietnamese were beaten by the morning of March 28. [150] [151] About 1,500 – 3,000 Việt Minh soldiers were killed. [152] [150] [153]

Giáp launched yet another attack, the Battle of the Day River, on May 29 with the 304th Division at Phủ Lý, the 308th Division at Ninh Bình, and the main attack delivered by the 320th Division at Phát Diệm south of Hanoi. The attacks fared no better and the three divisions lost heavily. Taking advantage of this, de Lattre mounted his counteroffensive against the demoralized Việt Minh, driving them back into the forests and eliminating the enemy pockets in the Red River Delta by June 18, costing the Việt Minh over 10,000 killed. [154]

Every effort by Võ Nguyên Giáp to break the De Lattre Line failed, and every attack he made was answered by a French counter-attack that destroyed his forces. Việt Minh casualties rose alarmingly during this period, leading some to question the leadership of the Communist government, even within the party. However, any benefit this may have reaped for France was negated by the increasing domestic opposition to the war in France.

Stalemate (July 1951–1953)

On July 31, French General Charles Chanson was assassinated during a propaganda suicide attack at Sa Đéc in South Vietnam that was blamed on the Việt Minh although it was argued in some quarters that Cao Đài nationalist Trình Minh Thế could have been involved in its planning. [155] [156]

French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with an FM 24/29 light machine gun during an ambush (1952) French indochina 1953 12 1.png
French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with an FM 24/29 light machine gun during an ambush (1952)

Following the Viet Minh's defeats on the Hanoi perimeter, De Lattre decided to seize the city of Hòa Bình, 20 miles (32 km) west of the De Lattre Line, in an attempt to hinder the flow of supplies between Tonkin, which received direct Chinese support, and central and southern Vietnam. It also aimed to maintain the allegiance of the Muong troops. The city was captured by a parachute drop on November 14. [157] [158]

The ensuing battle became increasingly costly to the French and after De Lattre fell ill from cancer and returned to Paris for treatment where he would die shortly thereafter in January 1952, his replacement as the overall commander of French forces in Indochina, General Raoul Salan, decided to pull back from the Hòa Bình salient. [159] [160] The French lost nearly 5,000 men and the Viet Minh "at least that number" according to historian Phillip P. Davidson, while Spencer C. Tucker claims 894 French killed and missing and 9,000 Viet Minh casualties. [159] [161] This campaign showed that the war was far from over.

Throughout the war theater, the Việt Minh cut French supply lines and wore down the resolve of the French forces. There were continued raids, skirmishes and guerrilla attacks, but through most of the rest of the year each side withdrew to prepare for larger operations. In the Battle of Nà Sản, starting on October 2, French commanders began using "hedgehog" tactics, consisting in setting up well-defended outposts to get the Việt Minh out of the forests and force them to fight conventional battles instead of using guerrilla tactics.

On October 17, 1952, Giáp launched attacks against the French garrisons along Nghĩa Lộ, northwest of Hanoi, and overran much of the Black River valley, except for the airfield of Nà Sản where a strong French garrison entrenched. Giáp by now had control over most of Tonkin beyond the De Lattre Line. Raoul Salan, seeing the situation as critical, launched Operation Lorraine along the Clear River to force Giáp to relieve pressure on the Nghĩa Lộ outposts.

On October 29, 1952, in the largest operation in Indochina to date, 30,000 French Union soldiers moved out from the De Lattre Line to attack the Việt Minh supply dumps at Phú Yên. Salan took Phú Thọ on November 5, and Phu Doan on November 9 by a parachute drop, and finally Phú Yên on November 13. Giáp at first did not react to the French offensive. He planned to wait until their supply lines were overextended and then cut them off from the Red River Delta.

Salan correctly guessed what the Việt Minh were up to and cancelled the operation on November 14, beginning to withdraw back to the De Lattre Line. The only major fighting during the operation came during the withdrawal, when the Việt Minh ambushed the French column at Chan Muong on November 17. The road was cleared after a bayonet charge by the Indochinese March Battalion, and the withdrawal could continue. The French lost around 1,200 men during the whole operation, most of them during the Chan Muong ambush. The operation was partially successful, proving that the French could strike out at targets outside the De Lattre Line. However, it failed to divert the Việt Minh offensive or seriously damage its logistical network.

A Bearcat naval fighter aircraft of the Aeronavale drops napalm on Viet Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (November 1953) French indochina napalm 1953-12 1.png
A Bearcat naval fighter aircraft of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (November 1953)

On April 9, 1953, Giáp, after having failed repeatedly in direct attacks on French positions in Vietnam, changed strategy and began to pressure the French by invading Laos, surrounding and defeating several French outposts such as Muong Khoua. In May, General Henri Navarre replaced Salan as supreme commander of French forces in Indochina. He reported to the French government "... that there was no possibility of winning the war in Indo-China", saying that the best the French could hope for was a stalemate.

Navarre, in response to the Việt Minh attacking Laos, concluded that "hedgehog" centers of defense were the best plan. Looking at a map of the area, Navarre chose the small town of Điện Biên Phủ, located about 10 miles (16 km) north of the Lao border and 175 miles (282 km) west of Hanoi, as a target to block the Việt Minh from invading Laos. Điện Biên Phủ had a number of advantages: it was on a Việt Minh supply route into Laos on the Nam Yum River, it had an old airstrip for supply, and it was situated in the Tai mountains where the Tai troops, allied with the French, operated.

Operation Castor was launched on November 20, 1953, with 1,800 men of the French 1st and 2nd Airborne Battalions dropping into the valley of Điện Biên Phủ and sweeping aside the local Việt Minh garrison. The paratroopers gained control of a heart-shaped valley 12 miles (19 km) long and 8 miles (13 km) wide surrounded by heavily wooded mountains. Encountering little opposition, the French and Tai units operating from Lai Châu to the north patrolled the mountains.

The operation was a tactical success for the French. However, Giáp, seeing the weakness of the French position, started moving most of his forces from the De Lattre Line to Điện Biên Phủ. By mid-December, most of the French and Tai patrols in the mountains around the town were wiped out by Việt Minh ambushes.[ citation needed ] The fight for control of this position would be the longest and hardest battle for the French Far East Expeditionary Corps and would be remembered by the veterans as "57 Days of Hell".

French defeat at Dien Bien Phu, end of the war (1954)

Map of the war in 1954: Orange = Areas under Viet Minh control. Purple = Areas under French control. White-dotted hatch = Areas of Viet Minh guerrilla encampment and fighting. First Indochina War map 1954 en.svg
Map of the war in 1954: Orange = Areas under Việt Minh control. Purple = Areas under French control. White-dotted hatch = Areas of Việt Minh guerrilla encampment and fighting.

By 1954, despite official propaganda presenting the war as a "crusade against communism", [162] [163] the war in Indochina was still growing unpopular with the French public. The political stagnation in the Fourth Republic meant that France was unable to extract itself from the conflict.

The Battle of Dien Bien Phu took place in 1954 between Việt Minh forces under Võ Nguyên Giáp, supported by China and the Soviet Union, and the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, supported by US financing [164] and Indochinese allies. The battle was fought near the village of Điện Biên Phủ in northern Vietnam and became the last major battle between the French and the Vietnamese in the First Indochina War.

The battle began on March 13 when a preemptive Việt Minh attack surprised the French with heavy artillery. The artillery damaged both the main and secondary airfields that the French were using to fly in supplies. With French supply lines interrupted, the French position became untenable, particularly when the advent of the monsoon season made dropping supplies and reinforcements by parachute difficult. With defeat imminent, the French sought to hold on until the opening of the Geneva peace meeting on April 26. The last French offensive took place on May 4, but it was ineffective. The Việt Minh then began to hammer the outpost with newly supplied Soviet Katyusha rockets. [165]

The final fall took two days, May 6 and 7, during which the French fought on but were eventually overrun by a huge frontal assault. General Cogny, based in Hanoi, ordered General de Castries, who was commanding the outpost, to cease fire at 5:30 pm and to destroy all matériel (weapons, transmissions, etc.) to deny their use to the enemy. A formal order was given to not use the white flag so that the action would be considered a ceasefire instead of a surrender. Much of the fighting ended on May 7; however, the ceasefire was not respected on Isabelle, the isolated southern position, where the battle lasted until May 8, 1:00 am. [166]

At least 2,200 members of the 20,000-strong French forces died, and another 1,729 were reported missing after the battle, and 11,721 were captured. The Viet Minh suffered approximately 25,000 casualties over the course of the battle, with as many as 10,000 Viet Minh personnel having been killed in the battle. Such a high amount of losses has led some historians to classify the Viet Minh's triumph as a pyrrhic victory and has been attributed as a factor motivating the Viet Minh's leadership to enter peace negotiations with France shortly thereafter. [167] The prisoners taken at Điện Biên Phủ were the greatest number the Việt Minh had ever captured: one-third of the total captured during the entire war.

One month after Điện Biên Phủ, the composite Groupe Mobile 100 (GM100) of the French Union forces evacuated the An Khê outpost and was ambushed by a larger Việt Minh force at the Battle of Mang Yang Pass from June 24 to July 17. The Việt Minh victory at Điện Biên Phủ heavily influenced the outcome of the 1954 Geneva accords that took place on July 21. In August Operation Passage to Freedom began, consisting of the evacuation of Catholic and other Vietnamese civilians from communist North Vietnamese persecution.

Geneva Conference and Partition

The 1954 Geneva Conference Gen-commons.jpg
The 1954 Geneva Conference

The Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, recognized the 17th parallel north as a "provisional military demarcation line", temporarily dividing the country into two zones, communist North Vietnam and pro-Western South Vietnam.

Student demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements Charles DeGaulle and Ho Chi Minh are hanged in effigy during the National Shame Day celebration in Saigon, July 1964.jpg
Student demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements

Negotiations between France and the Việt Minh started in Geneva in April 1954 at the Geneva Conference, during which time the French Union and the Việt Minh were fighting a battle at Điện Biên Phủ. In France, Pierre Mendès France, opponent of the war since 1950, had been invested as Prime Minister on June 17, 1954, on a promise to put an end to the war, reaching a ceasefire in four months:

Today it seems we can be reunited in a will for peace that may express the aspirations of our country ... Since already several years, a compromise peace, a peace negotiated with the opponent seemed to me commanded by the facts, while it commanded, in return, to put back in order our finances, the recovery of our economy and its expansion. Because this war placed on our country an unbearable burden. And here appears today a new and formidable threat: if the Indochina conflict is not resolved—and settled very fast—it is the risk of war, of international war and maybe atomic, that we must foresee. It is because I wanted a better peace that I wanted it earlier, when we had more assets. But even now there is some renouncings or abandons that the situation does not comprise. France does not have to accept and will not accept settlement which would be incompatible with its more vital interests [applauding on certain seats of the Assembly on the left and at the extreme right]. France will remain present in Far-Orient. Neither our allies, nor our opponents must conserve the least doubt on the signification of our determination. A negotiation has been engaged in Geneva ... I have longly studied the report ... consulted the most qualified military and diplomatic experts. My conviction that a pacific settlement of the conflict is possible has been confirmed. A "cease-fire" must henceforth intervene quickly. The government which I will form will fix itself—and will fix to its opponents—a delay of 4 weeks to reach it. We are today on 17th of June. I will present myself before you before the 20th of July ... If no satisfying solution has been reached at this date, you will be freed from the contract which would have tied us together, and my government will give its dismissal to the President of the Republic. [168]

The Geneva Accords promised elections in 1956 to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. Neither the United States government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. With respect to the question of reunification, the non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam, but lost out when the French accepted the proposal of Việt Minh delegate Phạm Văn Đồng, [169] who proposed that Vietnam eventually be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions". [170] The United States countered with what became known as the "American Plan", with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom. [171] It provided for unification elections under the supervision of the United Nations, but was rejected by the Soviet delegation. [171] From his home in France, Bảo Đại appointed Ngô Đình Diệm as Prime Minister of South Vietnam. With American support, in 1955 Diem used a referendum to remove the former Emperor and declare himself the president of the Republic of Vietnam.

When the elections failed to occur, Việt Minh cadres who stayed behind in South Vietnam were activated and started to fight the government. North Vietnam also invaded and occupied portions of Laos to assist in supplying the National Liberation Front guerrillas fighting in South Vietnam. The war gradually escalated into the Second Indochina War, more commonly known as the Vietnam War in the West and the American War in Vietnam.

French domestic situation

The 1946 Constitution creating the Fourth Republic (1946–1958) made France a parliamentary republic. Because of the political context, it could find stability only by an alliance between the three dominant parties: the Christian Democratic Popular Republican Movement (MRP), the French Communist Party (PCF) and the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO). Known as tripartisme , this alliance briefly lasted until the May 1947 crisis, with the expulsion from Paul Ramadier's SFIO government of the PCF ministers, marking the official start of the Cold War in France. This had the effect of weakening the regime, with the two most significant movements of this period, Communism and Gaullism, in opposition.

Unlikely alliances had to be made between left- and right-wing parties in order to form a government invested by the National Assembly, resulting in parliamentary instability, with 14 prime ministers in succession between 1947 and 1954's Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The rapid turnover of governments (there were 17 different governments during the war) left France unable to prosecute the war with any consistent policy, according to veteran General René de Biré (who was a lieutenant at Dien Bien Phu). [172] France was increasingly unable to afford the costly conflict in Indochina and, by 1954, the United States was paying 80% of France's war effort, which was $3,000,000 per day in 1952. [173] [174]

A strong anti-war movement came into existence in France driven mostly by the powerful French Communist Party (outpowering the socialists) and its young militant associations, major trade unions such as the General Confederation of Labour, and notable leftist intellectuals. [175] [176] The first occurrence was probably at the National Assembly on March 21, 1947, when the communist deputies refused to back the military credits for Indochina. The following year a pacifist event was organized, the "1st Worldwide Congress of Peace Partisans" (1er Congrès Mondial des Partisans de la Paix, the World Peace Council's predecessor), which took place March 25–28, 1948, in Paris, with the French communist Nobel laureate atomic physicist Frédéric Joliot-Curie as president. Later, on April 28, 1950, Joliot-Curie would be dismissed from the military and civilian Atomic Energy Commission for political reasons. [177]

Young communist militants (UJRF) were also accused of sabotage actions like the famous Henri Martin affair and the case of Raymonde Dien, who was jailed one year for having blocked an ammunition train, with the help of other militants, in order to prevent the supply of French forces in Indochina in February 1950. [172] [175] Similar actions against trains occurred in Roanne, Charleville, Marseille, and Paris. Even ammunition sabotage by PCF agents has been reported, such as grenades exploding in the hands of legionaries. [172] These actions became such a cause for concern by 1950 that the French Assembly voted a law against sabotage between March 2–8. At this session tension was so high between politicians that fighting ensued in the assembly following communist deputies' speeches against the Indochinese policy. [177] This month saw the French navy mariner and communist militant Henri Martin arrested by military police and jailed for five years for sabotage and propaganda operations in Toulon's arsenal. On May 5 communist Ministers were dismissed from the government, marking the end of Tripartism. [177] A few months later on November 11, 1950, the French Communist Party leader Maurice Thorez went to Moscow.

Some military officers involved in the Revers Report scandal (Rapport Revers) such as Salan were pessimistic about the way the war was being conducted, [178] with multiple political-military scandals all happening during the war, starting with the Generals' Affair (Affaire des Généraux) from September 1949 to November 1950. As a result, General Georges Revers was dismissed in December 1949 and socialist Defense Ministry Jules Moch (SFIO) was brought on court by the National Assembly on November 28, 1950. The scandal started the commercial success of the first French news magazine, L'Express , created in 1953. [179] The third scandal was financial-political, concerning military corruption, money and arms trading involving both the French Union army and the Việt Minh, known as the Piastres affair. The war ended in 1954 but its sequel started in French Algeria where the French Communist Party played an even stronger role by supplying the National Liberation Front (FLN) rebels with intelligence documents and financial aid. They were called "the suitcase carriers" (les porteurs de valises).

In the French news, the Indochina War was presented as a direct continuation of the Korean War, where France had fought: a UN French battalion, incorporated in a U.S. unit in Korea, was later involved in the Battle of Mang Yang Pass of June and July 1954. [162] In an interview taped in May 2004, General Marcel Bigeard (6th BPC) argues that "one of the deepest mistakes done by the French during the war was the propaganda telling you are fighting for Freedom, you are fighting against Communism", [163] hence the sacrifice of volunteers during the climactic battle of Dien Bien Phu. In the latest days of the siege, 652 non-paratrooper soldiers from all army corps from cavalry to infantry to artillery dropped for the first and last time of their life to support their comrades. The Cold War excuse was later used by General Maurice Challe through his famous "Do you want Mers El Kébir and Algiers to become Soviet bases as soon as tomorrow?", during the Generals' putsch (Algerian War) of 1961, with limited effect though. [180]

A few hours after the French Union defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954, United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made an official speech depicting the "tragic event" and "its defense for fifty seven days and nights will remain in History as one of the most heroic of all time." Later on, he denounced Chinese aid to the Việt Minh, explained that the United States could not act openly because of international pressure, and concluded with the call to "all concerned nations" concerning the necessity of "a collective defense" against "the communist aggression". [7]

The Viet Minh victory in the war had an inspirational effect to independence movements in various French colonies worldwide, most notably the FLN in Algeria. The Algerian War broke out on 1 November 1954, only six months after the Geneva Conference. Benyoucef Benkhedda, later became the head of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, praised the Viet Minh feat at Dien Bien Phu as "a powerful incentive to all who thought immediate insurrection the only possible strategy". [181]


Atrocities occurred in the conflict long before France ratified the 1949 Geneva Conventions on June 28, 1951 in which such acts committed afterwards in violation of the Conventions' provisions in force became war crimes. [182] Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions contains a minimum protection that only applies to humane treatment in a non-international conflict (i.e., war by a state against non-state armed groups or between non-state armed groups themselves). For the purpose of this section, however, atrocities committed before or after France's ratification of the 1949 Geneva Conventions are included.


During the war, there were many instances of war rapes against Vietnamese civilians by French soldiers. This occurred in Saigon, alongside robberies and killings, following the return of the French in August 1945. [183] Vietnamese women were also raped by French soldiers in northern Vietnam in 1948, following the defeat of the Viet Minh, including in Bảo Hà, Bảo Yên District, Lào Cai province and Phu Lu This led to 400 French-trained Vietnamese defecting to the Viet Minh June 1948. [184] French killings of Vietnamese civilians were reported, many of them were caused by the tendency of Viet Minh troops to hide among civilian settlements. [185] One of the largest massacres by French troops was the Mỹ Trạch massacre of November 29, 1947, in which French soldiers killed over 200 women and children. Regarding this massacre and other atrocities during the conflict, Christopher Goscha wrote in The Penguin History of Modern Vietnam:

Rape became a disturbing weapon used by the Expeditionary Corps, as did summary executions. Young Vietnamese women who could not escape approaching enemy patrols smeared themselves with any stinking thing they could find, including human excrement. Decapitated heads were raised on sticks, bodies were gruesomely disemboweled, and body parts were taken as 'souvenirs'; Vietnamese soldiers of all political color also committed such acts. The non-communist nationalist singer, Phạm Duy, wrote a bone-chilling ballad about the mothers of Gio Linh village in central Vietnam, each of whom had lost a son to a French Army massacre in 1948. Troops decapitated their bodies and displayed their heads along a public road to strike fear into those tempted to accept the Democratic Republic of Vietnam's sovereignty. Massacres did not start with the Americans in My Lai, or the Vietnamese communists in Hue in 1968. And yet, the French Union's massacre of over two hundred Vietnamese women and children in My Tratch in 1948 remains virtually unknown in France to this day. [32]

The French Army also utilized torture against Việt Minh prisoners. [186] Benjamin Valentino estimates that the French were responsible for 60,000 to 250,000 civilian deaths. [187]

Viet Minh

According to Arthur J. Dommen, the Việt Minh assassinated 100,000–150,000 civilians during the war out of a total civilian death toll of 400,000. [188]

Viet Minh militants employed terrorist attacks throughout the conflict as a systematic practice, often targeting European and Eurasian civilians. [185] In 1947 wounded soldiers and French civilians who had returned to France from Vietnam reported that Vietnamese "suicide squads" had tortured and massacred French civilians. The Canberra Times reported that "The men were soaked with petrol and set afire. The women were killed after they were raped, and children were hacked to pieces." The witnesses also asserted that they had seen Japanese soldiers among the Viet Minh. [189] One of the worst attacks on Europeans was on 21 July 1952, when Viet Minh militants, using grenades, Sten guns, and machetes, massacred twenty unarmed people at a military hospital in Cap St. Jacques–eight officers on sick leave, six children, four Vietnamese servants, and two women. [190] [191]

Many French Union and Vietnamese National Army prisoners died in the Việt Minh POW camps as a result of torture. In the Boudarel Affair, French Communist militant Georges Boudarel was discovered to have used brainwashing and torture against French Union POWs in Việt Minh reeducation camps. [192] The French national association of POWs brought Boudarel to court for a war crime charge.

French Union involvement

By 1946, France headed the French Union. As successive governments had forbidden the sending of metropolitan troops, the French Far East Expeditionary Corps (CEFEO) was created in March 1945. The Union gathered combatants from almost all French territories made of colonies, protectorates and associated states (Algeria, Morocco, Madagascar, Senegal, Tunisia, etc.) to fight in French Indochina, which was then occupied by the Japanese. About 325,000 of the 500,000 French troops were Indochinese, almost all of whom were used in conventional units. [193]

French West Africa (Afrique Occidentale Française, AOF) was a federation of African colonies. Senegalese and other African troops were sent to fight in Indochina. Some African alumni were trained in the Infantry Instruction Center no.2 (Centre d'Instruction de l'Infanterie no.2) located in southern Vietnam. Senegalese of the Colonial Artillery fought at the siege of Dien Bien Phu. As a French colony (later a full province), French Algeria sent local troops to Indochina including several RTA (Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens) light infantry battalions. Morocco was a French protectorate and sent troops to support the French effort in Indochina. Moroccan troops were part of light infantry RTMs (Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains) for the "Moroccan Sharpshooters Regiment".

French Foreign Legion patrol question a suspected member of the Viet Minh. The French Foreign Legion is playing the major combat role in the war against the Vietminh. Here a red-suspect has been - NARA - 541969.tif
French Foreign Legion patrol question a suspected member of the Việt Minh.

As a French protectorate, Bizerte, Tunisia, was a major French base. Tunisian troops, mostly RTT (Régiment de Tirailleurs Tunisiens), were sent to Indochina. Part of French Indochina, then part of the French Union and later an associated state, Laos fought the communists along with French forces. The role played by Laotian troops in the conflict was depicted by veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer's famous 317th Platoon released in 1964. [194] The French Indochina state of Cambodia also played a role during the Indochina War through the Khmer Royal Army, which had been formed in 1946 in an agreement signed with the French. [195]

While Bảo Đại's State of Vietnam (formerly Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina) had the Vietnamese National Army supporting the French forces, some minorities were trained and organized as regular battalions (mostly infantry tirailleurs ) that fought with French forces against the Việt Minh. The Tai Battalion 2 (BT2, 2e Bataillon Thai) is infamous for its desertion during the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Propaganda leaflets written in Tai and French sent by the Việt Minh were found in the deserted positions and trenches. Such deserters were called the Nam Yum rats by Bigeard during the siege, as they hid close to the Nam Yum river during the day and searched at night for supply drops. [196] Another allied minority was the Muong people (Mường). The 1st Muong Battalion (1er Bataillon Muong) was awarded the Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures after the victorious Battle of Vĩnh Yên in 1951. [197]

In the 1950s, the French established secret commando groups based on loyal Montagnard ethnic minorities referred to as "partisans" or "maquisards", called the Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Composite Airborne Commando Group or GCMA), later renamed Groupement Mixte d'Intervention (GMI, or Mixed Intervention Group), directed by the SDECE counter-intelligence service. The SDECE's "Service Action" GCMA used both commando and guerrilla techniques and operated in intelligence and secret missions from 1950 to 1955. [198] [199] Declassified information about the GCMA includes the name of its commander, famous Colonel Roger Trinquier, and a mission on April 30, 1954, when Jedburgh veteran Captain Sassi led the Meo partisans of the GCMA Malo-Servan in Operation Condor during the siege of Dien Bien Phu. [200]

In 1951, Adjutant-Chief Vandenberghe from the 6th Colonial Infantry Regiment (6e RIC) created the "Commando Vanden" (aka "Black Tigers", aka "North Vietnam Commando #24") based in Nam Định. Recruits were volunteers from the Thổ people, Nùng people and Miao people. This commando unit wore Việt Minh black uniforms to confuse the enemy and used techniques of the experienced Bo doi (Bộ đội, regular army) and Du Kich (guerrilla unit). Việt Minh prisoners were recruited in POW camps. The commando was awarded the Croix de Guerre des TOE with palm in July 1951; however, Vandenberghe was betrayed by a Việt Minh recruit, commander Nguien Tinh Khoi (308th Division's 56th Regiment), who assassinated him (and his Vietnamese fiancée) with external help on the night of January 5, 1952. [201] [202] [203] Coolies and POWs known as PIM (Prisonniers Internés Militaires, which is basically the same as POW) were civilians used by the army as logistical support personnel. During the battle of Dien Bien Phu, coolies were in charge of burying the corpses—during the first days only, after they were abandoned, hence giving off a terrible smell, according to veterans—and they had the dangerous job of gathering supply packets delivered in drop zones while the Việt Minh artillery was firing hard to destroy the crates. The Việt Minh also used thousands of coolies to carry the Chu-Luc (regional units) supplies and ammunition during assaults. The PIM were civilian males old enough to join Bảo Đại's army. They were captured in enemy-controlled villages, and those who refused to join the State of Vietnam's army were considered prisoners or used as coolies to support a given regiment. [204]

Foreign involvement

Japanese volunteers

Many former Imperial Japanese Army soldiers fought alongside the Việt Minh—perhaps as many as 5,000 volunteered their services throughout the war. These Japanese had stayed behind in Indochina after World War II concluded in 1945. The occupying British authorities then repatriated most of the rest of the 50,000 Japanese troops back to Japan. [205] For those that stayed behind, supporting the Việt Minh became a more attractive idea than returning to a defeated and occupied homeland. In addition the Việt Minh had very little experience in warfare or government so the advice of the Japanese was welcome. Some of the Japanese were ex-Kenpeitai who were wanted for questioning by Allied authorities. Giap arranged for them all to receive Vietnamese citizenship and false identification papers. [205] Some Japanese were captured by the Việt Minh during the last months of World War II and were recruited into their ranks.

Most of the Japanese officers who stayed served as military instructors for the Việt Minh forces, most notably at the Quảng Ngãi Army Academy. [206] They imparted necessary conventional military knowledge – such as how to conduct assaults, night attacks, company/battalion level exercises, commanding, tactics, navigation, communications and movements. A few, however, actively led Vietnamese forces into combat. [206] The French also identified eleven Japanese nurses and two doctors working for the Việt Minh in northern Vietnam in 1951. The Yasukuni Shrine commemorates a number of Japanese involved in the First Indochina War. [207]

Notable Japanese officers serving in Việt Minh included:


China supplied the Viet Minh with hundreds of Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks during the 1950s. Samochod (GAZ) Lublin-51.jpg
China supplied the Việt Minh with hundreds of Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks during the 1950s.

The victory of the Chinese communists in December 1949 proved decisive in the course of the war as during the early 1950s guerrilla troops used the southern areas of China as a sanctuary where new troops could be trained and fitted beyond the reach of the French. [29] The Việt Minh successfully carried out several hit-and-run ambushes against French Union military convoys along the Route Coloniale 4 (RC 4) roadway, which ran along the Chinese border, and was a major supply passage in Tonkin (northern Vietnam) for a series of frontier forts. [212] One of the most famous attacks of this nature was the Battle of Cao Bằng of 1947–1949.

China supplied and provided the Việt Minh guerrilla forces with almost every kind of crucial and important supplies and material required, such as food (including thousands of tonnes of rice), money, medics and medical aid and supplies, arms and weapons (ranging from artillery guns (24 of which were used at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu) to rifles and machine-guns), ammunition and explosives and other types of military equipment, including a large part of war-material captured from the then-recently defeated National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Chinese government following the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Evidence of the People's Republic of China's secret aid and supplies were found hidden in caves during the French military's Operation Hirondelle in July 1953. [213] [214] 2,000 military advisors from the PRC and the Soviet Union trained the Việt Minh guerrilla force with the aim of turning it into a full-fledged armed force to fight off their French colonial masters and gain national independence. [172] On top of this, the PRC sent two People's Liberation Army (PLA) artillery battalions to fight at the siege of Dien Bien Phu on May 6, 1954, with one battalion operating the Soviet Katyusha multiple-rocket launcher systems (MRLS) against French forces besieged at Dien Bien Phu's valley. [215]

From 1950 to 1954 the Chinese government shipped goods, materials, and medicine worth $49 billion (in 2022 dollars) to Vietnam. From 1950 to 1956 the Chinese government shipped 155,000 small arms, 58 million rounds of ammunition, 4,630 artillery pieces, 1,080,000 artillery shells, 840,000 hand grenades, 1,400,000 uniforms, 1,200 vehicles, 14,000 tons of food, and 26,000 tons of fuel to Vietnam. Mao Zedong considered it necessary to buttress the Viet Minh to secure his country's southern flank against potential interference by westerners, while the bulk of the PRC's regular military forces participated in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. After the end of the Korean War and the resolution of the First Taiwan Strait Crisis, China stepped up involvement in the Indochina Wars, viewing the presence of potentially hostile forces in Indochina as the main threat. [216] [217]

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union was the other major ally of the Việt Minh, alongside the PRC. Moscow supplied GAZ-built trucks, truck engines and motor-parts, fuel, tyres, many different kinds of arms and weapons (including thousands of Škoda-manufactured light machine-guns of Czech origin), all kinds of ammunition (ranging from rifle to machine-gun ammunition), various types of anti-aircraft guns (such as the 37mm air-defense gun) and even cigarettes and tobacco products. During Operation Hirondelle, French Union paratroopers captured and destroyed many tonnes of Soviet-supplied material destined for Việt Minh use in the area of Ky Lua. [213] [218] According to General Giap, the chief military leader of all Việt Minh forces, the Việt Minh used about 400 Soviet-produced GAZ-51 trucks at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Because the trucks were concealed and hidden with the use of highly effective camouflage (comprised predominantly of thick vegetation), French Union reconnaissance aircraft were not able to notice them and take note of the effective Việt Minh supply-train. On May 6, 1954, during the siege against French forces at the valley of Dien Bien Phu, Soviet-supplied Katyusha MLRS were successfully fielded against French Union military outposts, destroying enemy troop formations and bases and lowering their morale levels. Together with the PRC, the Soviet Union sent up to 2,000 military advisors to provide training to the Việt Minh guerrilla troops and to turn it into a conventional army. [172]

United States

Mutual Defense Assistance Act (1950–1954)

Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague during Operation Passage to Freedom in 1954 HD-SN-99-02045.JPEG
Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague during Operation Passage to Freedom in 1954

At the beginning of the war, the U.S. was neutral in the conflict because of its opposition to European colonialism, because the Việt Minh had recently been U.S. allies, and because, in the context of the Cold War, most of its attention was focused on Europe where Winston Churchill argued an "Iron Curtain" had fallen.

The 1949 victory of Mao Zedong's Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil War, the recognition of the DRV by the USSR and the newly formed People's Republic of China in January 1950, which prompted the US and Britain to recognize the State of Vietnam in response, and the signing of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship shortly after in February, shifted the US stance on the matter, and the war came to be viewed as another front in the anticommunist struggle. [219]

Indochina, and Southeast Asia more broadly, was declared vital by the U.S. government, and the containment of communism at the southern Chinese border, and, later, Korea, became one of the priorities of American foreign policy as it was believed that the fall of Indochina to communist hands would lead to the loss of other nations in the region. [220] At this time, communism was seen as a uniform bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union. It was feared in Washington that if Ho were to win the war, he would establish a state politically aligned with Moscow, with the Soviets ultimately controlling Vietnamese affairs. [221] This prospect spurred the U.S. to support France in their war effort, primarily through the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. In May 1950, after Chinese communist forces occupied Hainan island, U.S. President Harry S. Truman began covertly authorizing direct financial assistance to the French, and on June 27, 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, announced publicly that the U.S. was doing so. [222]

On June 30, 1950, the first U.S. supplies for Indochina were delivered. [223] In September, Truman sent the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) to Indochina to assist the French. [224] Later, in 1954, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower explained the escalation risk, introducing what he referred to as the "domino principle", which eventually became the concept of domino theory. [225]

After the Moch–Marshall meeting of September 23, 1950, in Washington, United States, started to support the French Union effort politically, logistically and financially. Officially, US involvement did not include use of armed force.

As the situation at Dien Bien Phu deteriorated in 1954, France requested more support from the United States, including equipment and direct intervention. For instance, on April 4 French Prime Minister Joseph Laniel and Foreign Minister Georges Bidault conveyed to U.S. Ambassador C. Douglas Dillon that "immediate armed intervention of US carrier aircraft at DienBien Phu is now necessary to save the situation". The United States discussed with allies multiple options, including the use of nuclear weapons. A key concern in the planning was the response of China. While the planning continued, the United States moved an aircraft-carrier task-force, which included the carriers Boxer and Essex, into the South China Sea between the Philippines and Indochina. However, the leadership of the United States eventually decided that there was not sufficient international or domestic support for the United States to become directly involved in the conflict. [226]

US Navy assistance (1951–1954)

Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood) transferred to France in 1953 USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) underway on 22 December 1943 (NH 97269).jpg
Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood) transferred to France in 1953

USS Windham Bay delivered Grumman F8F Bearcat fighter aircraft to Saigon on January 26, 1951. [227]

On March 2, 1951, the United States Navy transferred USS Agenor (LST 490) to the French Navy in Indochina in accordance with the MAAG-led MAP. Renamed RFS Vulcain (A-656), she was used in Operation Hirondelle in 1953. USS Sitkoh Bay carrier delivered Grumman F8F Bearcat aircraft to Saigon on March 26, 1951. During September 1953, USS Belleau Wood (renamed Bois Belleau) was lent to France and sent to French Indochina to replace the Arromanches. She was used to support delta defenders in the Hạ Long Bay operation in May 1954. In August she joined the Franco-American evacuation operation called "Passage to Freedom".

The same month, the United States delivered additional aircraft, again using USS Windham Bay. [228] On April 18, 1954, during the siege of Dien Bien Phu, USS Saipan delivered 25 Korean War AU-1 Corsair aircraft for use by the French Aeronavale in supporting the besieged garrison.

US Air Force assistance (1952–1954)

A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla which fought at Dien Bien Phu F4U-Corsair.JPG
A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla which fought at Dien Bien Phu

A total of 94 F4U-7s were built for the Aéronavale in 1952, with the last of the batch, the final Corsair built, rolled out in December 1952. The F4U-7s were actually purchased by the U.S. Navy and passed on to the Aéronavale through the U.S. Military Assistance Program (MAP). They were supplemented by 25 ex-U.S.MC AU-1s (previously used in the Korean War) and moved from Yokosuka, Japan, to Tourane Air Base (Da Nang), Vietnam, in April 1952. US Air Force assistance followed in November 1953 when the French commander in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, asked General Chester E. McCarty, commander of the Combat Cargo Division, for 12 Fairchild C-119s for Operation Castor at Dien Bien Phu. The USAF also provided C-124 Globemasters to transport French paratroop reinforcements to Indochina.

Under the codename Project Swivel Chair, [229] on March 3, 1954, 12 C-119s of the 483rd Troop Carrier Wing ("Packet Rats") based at Ashiya, Japan, were painted with France's insignia and loaned to France with 24 CIA pilots for short-term use. Maintenance was carried out by the US Air Force and airlift operations were commanded by McCarty. [230]

Central Intelligence Agency covert operations (1953-1954)

At the request of the French, the US government tasked the CIA to carry out covert airlift operations to support the French troops in Laos. To that end, during Operation SQUAW, from 5 May to 16 July 1953, the CIA used 12 pilots, officially employed by the (CIA owned) Civil Air Transport airline, to fly equipment on 6 C-119s supplied by the USAF, bearing French colours. [231]

French-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954 Dien bien phu castor or siege deinterlaced.png
French-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954

Twenty four Civil Air Transport pilots supplied the French Union garrison during the siege of Dien Bien Phu – airlifting paratroopers, ammunition, artillery pieces, tons of barbed wire, medics and other military materiel. With the reducing Drop zone areas, night operations and anti-aircraft artillery assaults, many of the "packets" fell into Việt Minh hands. The CIA pilots completed 682 airdrops under anti-aircraft fire between March 13 and May 6, 1954. Two CAT pilots, Wallace Bufford and James B. McGovern Jr. were killed in action when their Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was shot down on May 6, 1954. [230] On February 25, 2005, the French ambassador to the United States, Jean-David Levitte, awarded the seven remaining CIA pilots the Légion d'honneur. [230] [232]

Operation Passage to Freedom (1954)

In August 1954, in support of the French navy and the merchant navy, the U.S. Navy launched Operation Passage to Freedom and sent hundreds of ships, including USS Montague, in order to evacuate non-communist—especially Catholic—Vietnamese refugees from North Vietnam following the July 20, 1954, armistice and partition of Vietnam. Up to 1 million Vietnamese civilians were transported from North to South during this period, [233] with around one-tenth of that number moving in the opposite direction. Loyal Indochinese evacuated to metropolitan France were kept in detention camps.

Other assistance

During 1952 and 1954 New Zealand provided from its obsolete and surplus (but serviceable) military stocks a selection of military equipment for the French forces in Indochina, including: [234]

A poster celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Liberation of the Capital, Ha Noi Poster celebrating the 60th anniversary of the French recognition of North-Vietnamese independence.jpg
A poster celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Liberation of the Capital, Ha Noi
French Indochina medal, law of August 1, 1953 French Indochina medal law of 1 August 1953.jpg
French Indochina medal, law of August 1, 1953

Although the war was largely treated with indifference in metropolitan France, [235] "the dirty war" has been featured in various films, books and songs. Since its declassification in the 2000s, television documentaries have been released using new perspectives about the U.S. covert involvement and open critics about the French propaganda used during wartime.

The famous Communist propagandist Roman Karmen was in charge of the media exploitation of the battle of Dien Bien Phu. In his documentary, Vietnam (Вьетнам, 1955), he staged the famous scene with the raising of the Việt Minh flag over de Castries' bunker which is similar to the one he staged over the Berlin Reichstag roof during World War II (Берлин, 1945) and the S-shaped POW column marching after the battle, where he used the same optical technique he experimented with before when he staged the German prisoners after the Siege of Leningrad (Ленинград в борьбе, 1942) and the Battle of Moscow (Разгром немецких войск под Москвой, 1942). [236] [237]

Hollywood made a film about Dien Bien Phu in 1955, Jump into Hell , directed by David Butler and scripted by Irving Wallace, before his fame as a bestselling novelist. Hollywood also made several films about the war, Robert Florey's Rogues' Regiment (1948). Samuel Fuller's China Gate (1957). and James Clavell's Five Gates to Hell (1959).

The first French movie about the war, Shock Patrol (Patrouille de Choc) aka Patrol Without Hope (Patrouille Sans Espoir) by Claude Bernard-Aubert, came out in 1956. The French censor cut some violent scenes and made the director change the end of his movie which was seen as "too pessimistic". [238] Léo Joannon's film Fort du Fou (Fort of the Mad) /Outpost in Indochina was released in 1963. Another film was The 317th Platoon (La 317ème Section) was released in 1964, it was directed by Indochina War (and siege of Dien Bien Phu) veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer. Schoendoerffer has since become a media specialist about the Indochina War and has focused his production on realistic war movies. He was cameraman for the army ("Cinematographic Service of the Armies", SCA) during his duty time; moreover, as he had covered the Vietnam War he released The Anderson Platoon , which won the Academy Award for Documentary Feature.

Graham Greene's novel The Quiet American takes place during this war.

In 2011, Vietnamese software developer Emobi Games released a first-person-shooter called 7554 . Named after the date 07-05-54 (7 May 1954) which marks the end of the decisive Battle of Dien Bien Phu, it commemorates the First Indochina War from the Vietnamese point of view.

The 2017 film by Olivier Lorelle, Ciel Rouge , starring Cyril Descours and Audrey Giacomini, is set during the early part of the First Indochina War. [239]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Võ Nguyên Giáp</span> Vietnamese general and communist politician (1911–2013)

Võ Nguyên Giáp was a militarily self-taught general of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), communist revolutionary and politician. Regarded as one of the greatest military strategists of the 20th century, Giáp commanded Vietnamese communist forces in various wars. He served as the military commander of the Việt Minh and later the PAVN from 1941 to 1972, as the minister of defence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and later Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1946–1947 and from 1948 to 1980, and as deputy prime minister from 1955 to 1991. He was also a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Dien Bien Phu</span> 1954 battle of the First Indochina War

The Battle of Điện Biên Phủ was a climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War that took place between 13 March and 7 May 1954. It was fought between the French Union's colonial Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist revolutionaries. The United States was officially not a party to the war, but it was secretly involved by providing financial and material aid to the French Union, which included CIA contracted American personnel participating in the battle. The People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union similarly provided vital support to the Viet Minh, including most of their artillery and ammunition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Viet Minh</span> Vietnamese independence movement active from 1941 to 1951

The Việt Minh was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on 19 May 1941. Also known as the Việt Minh Front, it was created by the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) as a national united front to achieve the independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Điện Biên Phủ</span> City in Điện Biên, Vietnam

Điện Biên Phủ (Vietnamese:[ɗîənˀɓīənfû] is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam. It is the capital of Điện Biên Province. The city is best known for the decisive Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, which occurred during the First Indochina War of independence against France. The region is a center of ethnic Thai culture. In prior history, the city was formerly called Muang Thaeng.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">August Revolution</span> 1945 uprising which resulted in the overthrow of the Vietnamese monarchy

The August Revolution, also known as the August General Uprising, was a revolution launched by the Việt Minh against the Empire of Vietnam and the Empire of Japan in the latter half of August 1945. The Việt Minh, led by the Indochinese Communist Party, was created in 1941 and designed to appeal to a wider population than what the communists could command.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1954 Geneva Conference</span> 1954 international conference on the dismantling of French Indochina

The Geneva Conference was a conference that was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the First Indochina War and involved several nations. It took place in Geneva, Switzerland, from 26 April to 20 July 1954. The part of the conference on the Korean question ended without adopting any declarations or proposals and so is generally considered less relevant. The Geneva Accords that dealt with the dismantling of French Indochina proved to have long-lasting repercussions, however. The crumbling of the French colonial empire in Southeast Asia led to the formation of the states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the State of Vietnam, the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Kingdom of Laos. Three agreements about French Indochina, covering Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, were signed on 21 July 1954 and took effect two days later.

The Indochina Wars were a series of wars which were waged in Indochina from 1945 to 1991, by communist forces against the opponents. The term "Indochina" referred to former French Indochina, which included the current states of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. In current usage, it applies largely to a geographic region, rather than to a political area. The wars included:

The Battle of Vĩnh Yên which occurred from 13 to 17 January 1951, was a major engagement in the First Indochina War between the French Union and the Việt Minh. The French Union forces, led by World War II hero Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, inflicted a decisive defeat on the Việt Minh forces, which were commanded by Võ Nguyên Giáp. The victory marked a turn in the tide of the war, which was previously characterized by a number of Việt Minh victories.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Vietnam</span> Former country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1945 to 1976

North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, was a socialist state in Southeast Asia that existed from 1945 to 1976, with formal sovereignty being fully recognized in 1954. A member of the Eastern Bloc, it opposed the French-backed State of Vietnam and later the Western-allied Republic of Vietnam. North Vietnam emerged victorious over South Vietnam in 1975 and ceased to exist the following year when it unified with the south to become the current Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lê Trọng Tấn</span> Vietnamese politician and army officer

General Lê Trọng Tấn was an officer of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) during 1945 to 1986. During this period of his military career, Lê Trọng Tấn held several senior positions of the Army. Lê Trọng Tấn participated in the Viet Minh movement before the August Revolution in 1945 and gradually became one of the most important figures of the Vietnam People's Army during the Second Indochina War. Being one of the key figures of the North Vietnam armed forces in Vietnam War, Lê Trọng Tấn was Deputy Commander of the Viet Cong (VC) and second commander of the 1975 Spring Offensive that effectively ended the war. Afterwards, he became Chief of the General Staff and Deputy Minister of Defence of Vietnam until his death in December 1986. Lê Trọng Tấn was widely appreciated by his comrades, whom of which include general Võ Nguyên Giáp, as one of the finest commanders of the Vietnam People's Army.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">War in Vietnam (1945–1946)</span> Prelude to the Indochina Wars

The 1945–46 War in Vietnam, codenamed Operation Masterdom by the British, and also known as the Southern Resistance War by the Vietnamese, was a post–World War II armed conflict involving a largely British-Indian and French task force and Japanese troops from the Southern Expeditionary Army Group, versus the Vietnamese communist movement, the Viet Minh, for control of the southern half of the country, after the unconditional Japanese surrender.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Hanoi (1946)</span> 1946-47 battle of the First Indochina War

On December 19, 1946, Viet Minh soldiers detonated explosives in Hanoi, and the ensuing battle, known as the Battle of Hanoi marked the opening salvo of the First Indochina War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hoàng Văn Thái</span> Vietnamese Army General and a communist political figure (1915–1986)

Hoàng Văn Thái, born Hoàng Văn Xiêm, was a Vietnamese Army General and a communist political figure. His hometown was Tây An, Tiền Hải District, Thái Bình Province. During the Tết Offensive, he was the highest senior North Vietnamese officer in South Vietnam. He was the first chief of staff of the Vietnam People's Army, and was responsible for key military forces in North Vietnam. He was also Chief of Staff in the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">French Indochina in World War II</span> Events in French Indochina during World War II

In mid-1940, Nazi Germany rapidly defeated the French Third Republic, and the colonial administration of French Indochina passed to the French State. Many concessions were granted to the Empire of Japan, such as the use of ports, airfields, and railroads. Japanese troops first entered parts of Indochina in September 1940, and by July 1941 Japan had extended its control over the whole of French Indochina. The United States, concerned by Japanese expansion, started putting embargoes on exports of steel and oil to Japan from July 1940. The desire to escape these embargoes and to become self-sufficient in resources ultimately contributed to Japan's decision to attack on December 7, 1941, the British Empire and simultaneously the USA. This led to the USA declaring war against Japan on December 8, 1941. The US then joined the side of the British Empire, at war with Germany since 1939, and its existing allies in the fight against the Axis powers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1954 in Vietnam</span> List of events

When 1954 began, the French had been fighting the insurgent communist-dominated Viet Minh for more than seven years attempting to retain control of their colony Vietnam. Domestic support for the war by the population of France had declined. The United States was concerned and worried that a French military defeat in Vietnam would result in the spread of communism to all the countries of Southeast Asia—the domino theory—and was looking for means of aiding the French without committing American troops to the war.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1940–1946 in French Indochina</span> Historical period in southeast Asia

1940—1946 in French Indochina focuses on events that happened in French Indochina during and after World War II and which influenced the eventual decision for military intervention by the United States in the Vietnam War. French Indochina in the 1940s was divided into four protectorates and one colony (Cochinchina). The latter three territorial divisions made up Vietnam. In 1940, the French controlled 23 million Vietnamese with 12,000 French soldiers, about 40,000 Vietnamese soldiers, and the Sûreté, a powerful police force. At that time, the U.S. had little interest in Vietnam or French Indochina as a whole. Fewer than 100 Americans, mostly missionaries, lived in Vietnam and U.S. government representation consisted of one consul resident in Saigon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1947–1950 in French Indochina</span> Historical period in southeast Asia

1947–1950 in French Indochina focuses on events influencing the eventual decision for military intervention by the United States in the First Indochina War. In 1947, France still ruled Indochina as a colonial power, conceding little real political power to Vietnamese nationalists. French Indochina was divided into five protectorates: Cambodia, Laos, Tonkin, Annam, and Cochinchina. The latter three made up Vietnam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haiphong incident</span>

The Haiphong Incident or the Haiphong Massacre occurred on November 23, 1946, when the French cruiser Suffren and several avisos bombarded the Vietnamese coastal city of Haiphong, killing some 6,000 Vietnamese people. The incident, also known as the Shelling of Haiphong, is thought of as the first armed clash in a series of events that would lead to the Battle of Hanoi on December 19, 1946, and with it the official outbreak of the First Indochina War.

Phạm Thanh Tâm was a Vietnamese journalist and war artist, who used the pen name Huỳnh Biếc. His career spanned the First Indochina War as a Việt Minh soldier participating in the resistance against French colonialism, as well as the Second Indochina War as a member of the People's Army of Vietnam against South Vietnam and the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vương Thừa Vũ</span>

Vương Thừa Vũ was a lieutenant-general in the People's Army of Vietnam active during World War II, the First Indochina War, and the Vietnam War. He commanded Viet Minh forces in their early engagements at Hanoi in 1946, directing the city's two month-long defence against French forces. By 1949, during the Viet Minh's transition from guerrilla to regular warfare, he had risen to command the PAVN's first modern infantry division, the 308th, which he led into battle at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.


  1. Lee Lanning, Michael (2008). Inside the VC and the NVA. Texas A&M University Press. p. 119. ISBN   978-1-60344-059-2.
  2. Crozier, Brian (2005). Political Victory: The Elusive Prize Of Military Wars. Transaction Publishers. p. 47. ISBN   978-0-7658-0290-3.
  3. Fall 1994, p. 63.
  4. Logevall, Fredrik (2012). Embers of War: the fall of an empire and the making of America's Vietnam. Random House. pp. 596–599. ISBN   978-0-375-75647-4.
  5. 1 2 Dalloz, Jacques (1987). La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954[The Indochina War 1945–1954] (in French). Paris: Seuil. pp. 129–130, 206.
  6. Kiernan, Ben (1985). How Pol Pot Came to Power. London: Verso Books. p. 80.
  7. 1 2 henrisalvador (17 May 2007). "John Foster Dulles on the fall of Dien Bien Phu". Dailymotion . Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  8. 1 2 "Viện trợ của Trung Quốc đối với cuộc kháng chiến chống Pháp của Việt Nam" [China's aid to Vietnam's anti-French resistance war] (in Vietnamese). Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  9. "France honors CIA pilots". CNN . February 28, 2005. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  10. Windrow 1998, p. 23.
  11. Ford, Dan. "Japanese soldiers with the Việt Minh".
  12. Windrow 1998, p. 11
  13. Fall, Bernard, The Two Vietnams (1963)
  14. Eckhardt, William, World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Clodfelter, Micheal (1995). Vietnam in Military Statistics.
  16. Stanley Kutler, Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War (1996)
  17. "Chuyên đề 4 CÔNG TÁC TÌM KIẾM, QUY TẬP HÀI CỐT LIỆT SĨ TỪ NAY ĐẾN NĂM 2020 VÀ NHỮNG NĂM TIẾP THEO,ản%20lý%20chỉ%20đạo/Chuyên%20đề%204.doc" . Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  18. Clodfelter 2008, p. 657.
  19. Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, p. 252
  20. 1 2 Lomperis, T. (1996). From People's War to People's Rule.
  21. Karnow, S. (1983). Vietnam: a History.
  22. Smedberg, M. (2008). Vietnamkrigen: 1880–1980[The Vietnam War: 1880–1980] (in Danish). Historiska Media. p. 88.
  23. Eckhardt, William (1987). World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed.). Ruth Leger Sivard.
  24. 1 2 Dommen, Arthur J. (2001). The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans. Indiana University Press. p. 252.
  25. Vo, Nghia M. (August 31, 2011). Saigon: A History. McFarland. ISBN   9780786486342 via Google Books.
  26. "Ho Chi Minh, President of North Vietnam". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15 May 2023.
  27. "Vo Nguyen Giap, Vietnamese general". Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  28. The Pentagon Papers, Part I, via Wikisource
  29. 1 2 Fall 1994, p. 17.
  30. Rice-Maximin, Edward (1986). Accommodation and Resistance: The French Left, Indochina, and the Cold War, 1944–1954. Greenwood.
  31. Flitton, Dave. "Battlefield Vietnam – Dien Bien Phu, the legacy". Public Broadcasting System. Archived from the original on 2021-10-30. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  32. 1 2 Goscha, Christopher (2016). The Penguin History of Modern Vietnam. London: Penguin Books. p. 260. ISBN   9780141946658 via Google Books.
  33. Modelski, George (1964). Communism and RevolutionThe Strategic Uses of Political Violence. Princeton University Press. pp. 189–190. ISBN   9781400874729.
  34. The Pentagon Papers, Part I, via Wikisource
  35. Truong, Chinh (19 May 1971). "I. DOCUMENTS FROM THE AUGUST REVOLUTION RESOLUTION OF THE TONKIN REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY CONFERENCE, JPRS 53169 19 May 1971 TRANSLATIONS ON NORTH VIETNAM No. 940 DOCUMENTS ON THE AUGUST REVOLUTION". Translations on North Vietnam, Volume 17. JPRS (Series). Contributor United States. Joint Publications Research Service. U.S. Joint Publications Research Service. pp. 1–7.
  36. I. DOCUMENTS FROM THE AUGUST REVOLUTION RESOLUTION OF THE TONKIN REVOLUTIONARY MILITARY CONFERENCE [Except from the Resolution of the Tonkin Revolutionary Military Conference Held Between 15 and 20 April 1945; Hanoi, Nhan Dan, Vietnamese, 25 August 1970, pp 1.4]
  37. Truong, Chinh (19 May 1971). "Policy of the Japanese Pirates Towards Our people, JPRS 53169 19 May 1971 TRANSLATIONS ON NORTH VIETNAM No. 940 DOCUMENTS ON THE AUGUST REVOLUTION". Translations on North Vietnam, Volume 17. JPRS (Series). Contributor United States. Joint Publications Research Service. U.S. Joint Publications Research Service. pp. 8–13.
  38. Article by Truong Chinh, chairman of the National Assembly: "Policy of the Japanese Pirates Towards Our people"; Hanoi, Nhan Dan, Vietnamese, 17 August 1970, pp 1, 3
  39. Min, Pyong Gap (2021). Korean "Comfort Women": Military Brothels, Brutality, and the Redress Movement. Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights. Rutgers University Press. ISBN   978-1978814981 via Google Books.
  40. Tanaka, Yuki (2003). Japan's Comfort Women. Routledge. p. 60. ISBN   1134650124 via Google Books. Alt URL
  41. @Mepaynl (April 29, 2015). "Comfort women were Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Burmese, Thai, Dutch, Australian, and Vietnamese women and girls forced into sexual slavery" (Tweet) via Twitter.
  42. Stetz, Margaret D.; Oh, Bonnie B. C. (12 February 2015). Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 126. ISBN   978-1317466253 via Google Books.
  43. Quinones, C. Kenneth (2021). Imperial Japan's Allied Prisoners of War in the South Pacific: Surviving Paradise. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 230. ISBN   978-1527575462 via Google Books.
  44. Min, Pyong Gap (2021). Korean "Comfort Women": Military Brothels, Brutality, and the Redress Movement. Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights. Rutgers University Press. ISBN   978-1978814981 via Google Books.
  45. Double Agency: Acts of Impersonation in Asian American Literature and Culture. Stanford University Press. 2005. p. 209. ISBN   0804751862 via Google Books.
  46. Thoma, Pamela (2004). "Cultural Autobiography, Testimonial, and Asian American Transnational Feminist Coalition in the "Comfort Women of World War II" Conference". In Vo, Linda Trinh; Sciachitano, Marian (eds.). Asian American Women: The Frontiers Reader (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Nebraska Press. p. 175. ISBN   0803296274 via Google Books.
  47. Yoon, Bang-Soon L. (2015). "CHAPTER 20 Sexualized Racism, Gender and Nationalism: The Case of Japan's Sexual Enslavement of Korean "Comfort Women"". In Kowner, Rotem; Demel, Walter (eds.). Race and Racism in Modern East Asia: Interactions, Nationalism, Gender and Lineage. Brill's Series on Modern East Asia in a Global Historical Perspective (reprint ed.). BRILL. p. 464. ISBN   978-9004292932 via Google Books.
  48. Qiu, Peipei; Su, Zhiliang; Chen, Lifei (2014). Chinese Comfort Women: Testimonies from Imperial Japan's Sex Slaves. Oxford oral history series (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 215. ISBN   978-0199373895 via Google Books.
  49. Soh, C. Sarah (2020). The Comfort Women: Sexual Violence and Postcolonial Memory in Korea and Japan. Worlds of Desire: The Chicago Series on Sexuality, Gender, and Culture. University of Chicago Press. pp. 159, 279. ISBN   978-0226768045 via Google Books.
  50. Huff, Gregg (2020). World War II and Southeast Asia: Economy and Society under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge University Press. p. 386. ISBN   978-1108916080 via Google Books.
  51. Tran Thi, Minh Ha (24 February 2017). "60 years after Japan army husband fled, Vietnam war bride clings to love". AFP.
  52. "Ben Valentine: Photographing the Forgotten Vietnamese Widows of Japanese WWII Soldiers". 2016-07-20.
  53. Valentine, Ben (July 19, 2016). "Photographing the Forgotten Vietnamese Widows of Japanese WWII Soldiers". Hyperallergic.
  54. Berger, Thomas U. (2012). War, Guilt, and World Politics after World War II. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN   978-1139510875 via Google Books.
  55. Gunn, Geoffrey (17 August 2015). "The great Vietnam famine".
  56. Gunn, Geoffrey (January 24, 2011). "The Great Vietnamese Famine of 1944-45 Revisited 1944−45年ヴィエトナム大飢饉再訪". The Asia-Pacific Journal. 9 (5 Number 4).
  57. Dũng, Bùi Minh (1995). "Japan's Role in the Vietnamese Starvation of 1944–45". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 29 (3): 573–618. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00014001. S2CID   145374444.
  58. Hien, Nina (Spring 2013). "The Good, the Bad, and the Not Beautiful: In the Street and on the Ground in Vietnam". Local Culture/Global Photography. 3 (2).
  59. Vietnam: Corpses in a mass grave following the 1944-45 famine during the Japanese occupation. Up to 2 million Vietnamese died of starvation. AKG3807269.
  60. "Vietnamese Famine of 1945". Japanese Occupation of Vietnam.
  61. Bui, Diem; Chanoff, David (1999). In the Jaws of History. Vietnam war era classics series (illustrated, reprint ed.). Indiana University Press. pp. 39, 40. ISBN   0253335396 via Google Books.
  62. "Vietnamese Declaration of Independence". Wikisource. 2 September 1945.
  63. "Dân chủ: Vấn đề của dân tộc và thời đại". Hưng Việt: TRANG CHÁNH - Trang 1. 2000. 25 March 2000.
  64. Tuchman 1985 , p. 235
  65. Tuchman 1985 , p. 237
  66. "Interview with Carleton Swift, 1981". Open Vault. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  67. 1 2 Stuart-Fox, Martin (1997). A History of Laos. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  68. "Surrender of Japan (1945)". US National Archives. 2 September 1945.
  69. Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History, (New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1997), 146
  70. Contributor United States. Joint Publications Research Service (1971). Translations on North Vietnam, Volume 17. JPRS (Series). U.S. Joint Publications Research Service. pp. 17, 18 via Google Books.
  71. HO CHI MINH'S LETTER TO THE COCHIN-CHINA COMPATRIOTS [Letter written by President Ho after the war of resistance had broken out in Cochin China: "To the Nam Bo Compatriots"; Hanoi, THong Nhat, Vietnamese, 18 September 1970, p 1] 26 September 1945
  72. Ho, Chi Minh. Selected Writings (1920-1969).
  73. "Z-Library single sign on". Archived from the original on 2023-04-06. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  74. Shrader 2015, pp. 157–158.
  75. Bartholomew-Feis, Dixee R. (2006). The OSS and Ho Chi MinhUnexpected Allies in the War Against Japan. University Press of Kansas. p. 275. ISBN   9780700614318 via Google Books.
  76. "WGBH Open Vault – Interview with Archimedes L. A. Patti, 1981" . Retrieved 2015-08-19.
  77. "ベトナム独立戦争参加日本人の事跡に基づく日越のあり方に関する研究" (PDF). 井川 一久. Tokyo foundation. October 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  78. "日越関係発展の方途を探る研究 ヴェトナム独立戦争参加日本人―その実態と日越両国にとっての歴史的意味―" (PDF). 井川 一久. Tokyo foundation. May 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  79. Truong, Chinh (1971). "Revolution or Coup d'Etat, JPRS 53169 19 May 1971 TRANSLATIONS ON NORTH VIETNAM No. 940 DOCUMENTS ON THE AUGUST REVOLUTION". Translations on North Vietnam, Volume 17. JPRS (Series). Contributor United States. Joint Publications Research Service. U.S. Joint Publications Research Service. pp. 14–16.
  80. [Article by Truong Chinh, chairman of the National Assembly: "Revolution or Coup d'Etat"; Hanoi, Nhan Dan, Vietnamese, 16 August 1970, pp 1, 3] *Reprinted from Co Giai Phong [Liberation Banner], No 16, 12 September 1945.
  81. Marr 2013, p. 275.
  82. Allies Reinforce Java and Saigon, British Paramount News rushes, 1945
  83. 1 2 Philipe Leclerc de Hauteloque (1902–1947), La légende d'un héro, Christine Levisse-Touzé, Tallandier/Paris Musées, 2002
  84. "SCAP General Order no. 1". October 14, 2002. Archived from the original on 2002-10-14.
  85. Hugh Dyson Walker (November 2012). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. pp. 621–. ISBN   978-1-4772-6516-1.
  86. Marr 2013, pp. 269–271.
  87. Peter Neville (2007). Britain in Vietnam: prelude to disaster, 1945-6. Psychology Press. p. 119. ISBN   978-0-415-35848-4 . Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  88. Van Nguyen Duong (2008). The tragedy of the Vietnam War: a South Vietnamese officer's analysis. McFarland. p. 21. ISBN   978-0-7864-3285-1 . Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  89. Stein Tønnesson (2010). Vietnam 1946: how the war began. University of California Press. p. 41. ISBN   978-0-520-25602-6 . Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  90. Elizabeth Jane Errington (1990). Elizabeth Jane Errington; B. J. C. McKercher (eds.). The Vietnam War as history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 63. ISBN   978-0-275-93560-3 . Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  91. "The Vietnam War Seeds of Conflict 1945–1960". The History Place. 1999. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
  92. Tucker, Spencer C. (2000). Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social and Military History. Santa Barbara, Californiap. p 443.
  93. Currey, Cecil B. (1999). Victory at Any Cost: the genius of Viet Nam's Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap. Washington, D.C.: Brassey. p 120.
  94. Neville, Peter (2007). Britain in Vietnam: Prelude to Disaster, 1945–46. Military History and Policy. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN   978-1134244768 via Google Books.
  95. Duiker, William J (2012). Ho Chi Minh: A Life. Hachette Books. ISBN   978-1401305611 via Google Books.
  96. 1 2 Gunn, Geoffrey C. (2014). Rice Wars in Colonial Vietnam: The Great Famine and the Viet Minh Road to Power. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 224. ISBN   978-1442223035 via Google Books.
  97. Roy, Kaushik; Saha, Sourish (2016). Armed Forces and Insurgents in Modern Asia (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 84. ISBN   978-1317231936 via Google Books.
  98. Miller, Edward (2016). The Vietnam War: A Documentary Reader. Uncovering the Past: Documentary Readers in American History (illustrated ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 40. ISBN   978-1405196789 via Google Books.
  99. Marr 2013, pp. 270–271.
  100. Ho Chi Minh: A Biography. Translated by Claire Duiker (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. 2007. p. 108. ISBN   978-0521850629 via Google Books.
  101. Marr 2013, pp. 270–275.
  102. Bob Bergin (June 2018). "Studies in Intelligence Vol. 62, No. 2 (Extracts, June 2018) - Old Man Ho - The OSS Role in Ho Chi Minh's Rise to Political Power" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - Government of the United States . Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  103. Bui, Diem (1999). In the Jaws of History (1999). Indiana University. ISBN   0253335396 . Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  104. Duiker, William J (2018). The Communist Road To Power In Vietnam: Second Edition (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN   978-0429972546.
  105. Patti, Archimedes L. A. (1980). Why Viet Nam?: Prelude to America's Albatross (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 336. ISBN   0520041569 via Google Books.
  106. Ho, Chi Minh (1995). "9. Vietnam's Second Appeal to the United States: Cable to President Harry S Truman (October 17, 1945)*". In Gettleman, Marvin E.; Franklin, Jane; Young, Marilyn Blatt; Franklin, Howard Bruce (eds.). Vietnam and America: A Documented History (illustrated, revised ed.). Grove Press. p. 47. ISBN   0802133622 via Google Books.
  107. SarDesai, D.R. (2018). Vietnam: Past and Present (4, reprint ed.). Routledge. ISBN   978-0429975196 via Google Books.
  108. Hearden, Patrick J. (2016). Tragedy of Vietnam (4, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 67. ISBN   978-1315510842 via Google Books.
  109. Calkins, Laura M. (2013). China and the First Vietnam War, 1947-54. Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia (reprint ed.). Routledge. p. 12. ISBN   978-1134078479 via Google Books.
  110. Fall, Bernarnd (1955). "The Political-Religious Sects of Viet-Nam" . Pacific Affairs. Pacific Affairs. 28 (3): 246–248. doi:10.2307/3035404. JSTOR   3035404.
  111. The Pentagon Papers, Part I, via Wikisource
  112. Bodard, Lucien (1977). La guerre d'Indochine[The Indochina War] (in French). Hachette. pp. 354–372. ISBN   2-246-55291-5.
  113. AFRVN Military History Section J-5, Strategic Planning and Policy (1977) [1966]. Quân Sử 4: Quân lực Việt Nam Cộng Hòa trong giai-đoạn hình-thành: 1946-1955[Military History Volume 4:AFRVN, the formation period, 1946-1955] (in Vietnamese). Taiwan: DaiNam Publishing. pp. 409–411.
  114. Fall 1955 , p. 239
  115. Vietnam Timeline 1955,, retrieved 18 July 2015
  116. "Vietnam: International Religious Freedom Report 2005". U.S. Department of State . 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  117. Howard, Michael C.; Howard, Kim Be (2002). Textiles of the Daic Peoples of Vietnam. White Lotus Press. p. 46. ISBN   978-974-7534-97-9 via Google Books.
  118. Marr 2013, pp. 213, 229.
  119. Tonnesson, Stein (2011). Vietnam 1946: How the war began . University of California Press. p. 83. ISBN   9780520269934.
  120. Windrow 2011, p. 90.
  121. Barnet, Richard J. (1968). Intervention and Revolution: The United States in the Third World . World Publishing. p.  185. ISBN   978-0-529-02014-7.
  122. Sheehan, Neil (1988). A Bright Shining Lie . New York: Random House. p.  155. ISBN   978-0-394-48447-1.
  123. Cirillo, Roger (2015). The Shape of Battles to Come. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky. p. 187. ISBN   978-0813165752.
  124. Cima, R. J. (1987). Vietnam: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 54.
  125. Davidson 1988, p. 46.
  126. Tucker 1999, p. 54.
  127. Fall 1994, p. 28.
  128. Spector 1983, pp. 91–93.
  129. The Pentagon Papers, Part II pp. 12 – 13, via Wikisource
  130. Spector 1983, pp. 78.
  131. Hammer, Ellen J. (March 1950). "The Bao Dai Experiment" . Pacific Affairs . 23 (1): 51–52. doi:10.2307/2753754. JSTOR   2753754 . Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  132. Hammer, Ellen J. (March 1950). "The Bao Dai Experiment" . Pacific Affairs . 23 (1): 57–58. doi:10.2307/2753754. JSTOR   2753754 . Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  133. Cadeau 2015, pp. 274–278.
  134. Windrow 2011, pp. 98–104.
  135. Cadeau 2015, pp. 180–181.
  136. Windrow 2011, pp. 148–150.
  137. Fall 1963, pp. 108–109.
  138. "Trận then chốt Đông Khê". Quân đội nhân dân (in Vietnamese). Retrieved September 3, 2023.
  139. Fall 1963, pp. 109–110.
  140. Fall 1963, pp. 110–111.
  141. Cadeau 2015, p. 244.
  142. Statler, Kathryn C. (July 2007). Replacing France: The Origins of American Intervention in Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 15–25. ISBN   978-0813124407.
  143. The Pentagon Papers,Part IV, p. 22 via Wikisource
  144. Davidson 1988, p. 101.
  145. Windrow 2011, p. 116.
  146. Fall 1994, p. 34.
  147. Windrow 2011, p. 79.
  148. Fall 1994, pp. 34–38.
  149. Shrader 2015, p. 218.
  150. 1 2 Shrader 2015, p. 220.
  151. Fall 1994, pp. 41–42.
  152. Windrow 2011, p. 80.
  153. Tucker 2011, p. 497.
  154. Gras, Yves (1979). Histoire de la Guerre d'Indochine. Paris. p. 408. ISBN   978-2-259-00478-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  155. McFall Waddell III, William (2014). In the Year of the Tiger: the War for Cochinchina, 1945-1951 (PhD). Ohio State University. pp. 338–339.
  156. "Battle of Indo-China: Marked Men". Time . 13 August 1951. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  157. Fall 1994, pp. 47–48.
  158. Davidson 1988, p. 129.
  159. 1 2 Davidson 1988, p. 133.
  160. Fall 1994, p. 59.
  161. Tucker, Spencer C. (2002). Vietnam Warfare and History. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN   9781135357795.
  162. 1 2 "La Guerre En Indochine" (video). newsreel. October 26, 1950. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  163. 1 2 "Bigeard et Dien Bien Phu" (video). TV news. Channel 2 (France). May 3, 2004. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  164. US Department of State (1982). Foreign Relations of the United States 1952-1954 . US Government Printing Office. pp. 814–817.
  165. Davidson 1988, pp. 223–224.
  166. "". Archived from the original on October 24, 2003.
  167. Asselin, Pierre (15 October 2010). "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the 1954 Geneva Conference: A revisionist critique". Cold War History . 11 (2): 155–195. doi:10.1080/14682740903244934. S2CID   154533911 . Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  168. Assemblée Nationale. "Le Gouvernement provisoire et la Quatrième République (1944–1958)". Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-02-15.
  169. The Pentagon Papers (1971), Beacon Press, vol. 3, p. 134.
  170. The Pentagon Papers (1971), Beacon Press, vol. 3, p. 119.
  171. 1 2 The Pentagon Papers (1971), Beacon Press, vol. 3, p. 140.
  172. 1 2 3 4 5 Hercombe, Peter (2004). "Dien Bien Phu, Chronicles of a Forgotten Battle". documentary. Transparences Productions/Channel 2 (France). Archived from the original on March 21, 2007.
  173. "France's war against Communists rages on" (video). newsreel. News Magazine of the Screen/Warner Bros. May 1952. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  174. A Bernard Fall Retrospective, presentation of Bernard B. Fall, Vietnam Witness 1953–56, New York, Praeger, 1966, by the Ludwig von Mises Institute
  175. 1 2 Ruscio, Alain (August 2, 2003). "Guerre d'Indochine: Libérez Henri Martin" (in French). l'Humanité. Archived from the original on August 4, 2003. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  176. Nhu Tang, Truong (March 12, 1986). "A Vietcong Memoir: An Inside Account of the Vietnam War and Its Aftermath". Vintage. ISBN   0394743091.
  177. 1 2 3 "France History, IV Republic (1946–1958)" (in French). Quid Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on August 30, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  178. Patrick Pesnot, Rendez-vous Avec X – Dien Bien Phu Archived October 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , France Inter, December 4, 2004 (Rendez-vous With X broadcast on public station France Inter)
  179. ""We wanted a newspaper to tell what we wanted" interview by Denis Jeambar & Roland Mihail". Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  180. "General Challe's appeal (April 22, 1961)". Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
  181. Alain Ruscio (July 2004). "Dien Bien Phu, Symbol for All Time". Le Monde diplomatique.
  182. "Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties - France". University of Minnesota Human Rights Library.
  183. Donaldson, Gary (1996). America at War Since 1945: Politics and Diplomacy in Korea, Vietnam, and the Gulf War. Religious Studies; 39 (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 75. ISBN   0275956601.
  184. Chen, King C. (2015). Vietnam and China, 1938-1954. Vol. 2134 of Princeton Legacy Library (reprint ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 195. ISBN   978-1400874903.
  185. 1 2 Foundation, World Peace. "Indochina: First Indochina War | Mass Atrocity Endings" . Retrieved 2023-08-02.
  186. "UQAM | Guerre d'Indochine | TORTURE, FRENCH".
  187. Valentino, Benjamin (2005). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century. Cornell University Press. p. 83. ISBN   9780801472732.
  188. Dommen, Arthur J (2002-02-20). The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: Nationalism and Communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Indiana University Press. ISBN   978-0253109255.
  189. "VIETNAM SUICIDE SQUADS ACTIVE". Canberra Times. 1947-01-30. Retrieved 2023-01-30.
  190. "INDO-CHINA: Massacre at Cap". Time . 1952-08-04. ISSN   0040-781X . Retrieved 2023-01-30.
  191. "Le Vietminh effectue un coup de main" SUR LA STATION DE REPOS DU CAP SAINT-JACQUES considérée comme centre hospitalier Vingt et une personnes tuées et vingt-trois blessées". Le (in French). 1952-07-24. Retrieved 2023-02-03.
  192. "Accueil". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  193. Alf Andrew Heggoy and Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Algeria, Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1972, p.175
  194. "The 317th Platoons script" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007.
  195. Conboy, Kenneth (2011). The War in Cambodia 1970–75. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN   9781780961385.
  196. "Original audio recordings of General de Castries (Dien Bien Phu) and General Cogny (Hanoi) transmissions on May 7, 1954, during the battle of Dien Bien Phu (from the European Navigator based in Luxembourg)". Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  197. "French Defense Ministry archives, ECPAD". Archived from the original on September 14, 2007.
  198. Raymond Muelle; Éric Deroo (1992). Services spéciaux, armes, techniques, missions: GCMA, Indochine, 1950–1954 . Editions Crépin-Leblond. ISBN   978-2-7030-0100-3.
  199. Michel David (2002). Guerre secrète en Indochine: Les maquis autochtones face au Viêt-Minh (1950–1955). Lavauzelle. ISBN   978-2-7025-0636-3.
  200. Dien Bien Phu – Le Rapport Secret , Patrick Jeudy, TF1 Video, 2005
  201. "French Defense Ministry archives". Archived from the original on September 15, 2007.
  202. "French Defense Ministry archives". Archived from the original on September 14, 2007.
  203. "French Defense Ministry archives". Archived from the original on September 16, 2007.
  204. "Dr. Jacques Cheneau in In Vietnam, 1954. Eight episode". Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
  205. 1 2 Goscha 2008 , pp. 46–49
  206. 1 2 Goscha 2008 , pp. 50–55
  207. Igawa, Sei (2005-10-10). "Japan-Vietnam relations, were based on the performance of Japanese volunteers in Vietnam Independence War" (PDF). Tokyo Foundation (in Japanese). Retrieved 2009-09-06.
  208. "Colonel Masanobu Tsuji of Malaya". Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  209. Goscha, Christopher E. (2006). "Belated Asian Allies: The Technical and Military Contributions of Japanese Deserters, (1945–50)". A Companion to the Vietnam War. Blackwell Publishing Company. pp. 37–64. doi:10.1002/9780470997178.ch3. ISBN   9780470997178.
  210. "20th century - Which Japanese military officers helped Ho Chi Minh?". History Stack Exchange. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  211. "Japanese soldiers serving with the Viet Minh". Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  212. Windrow 2011, p. 73.
  213. 1 2 "French Defense Ministry archives". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  214. "French Defense Ministry archives". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
  215. Chinese General Hoang Minh Thao and Colonel Hoang Minh Phuong, quoted by Pierre Journoud (researcher at the Defense History Studies (CHED), Paris University Pantheon-Sorbonne), in Paris Hanoi Beijing published in Communisme magazine and the Pierre Renouvin Institute of Paris, July 20, 2004.
  216. Xiaobing, Li. "Building Ho's Army: Chinese Military Assistance to North Vietnam." Kentucky University Press, August 2019. Pages 61-62.
  217. Xiaobing, p. 60.
  218. "French Defense Ministry archives". Archived from the original on September 14, 2007.
  219. Statler, Kathryn C. (July 2007). Replacing France: The Origins of American Intervention in Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 15–25. ISBN   978-0813124407.
  220. Spector 1983, pp. 106–107.
  221. The Pentagon Papers, Part IV, p. 14, via Wikisource
  222. The Pentagon Papers, Part IV, p. 23 - p. 24, via Wikisource
  223. Spector 1983, pp. 123.
  224. Spector 1983, pp. 115–116.
  225. "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952–1954, Indochina, Volume XIII, Document 716". Office of the Historian . Retrieved August 12, 2023.
  226. History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the first Indochina War, 1947-1954 (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Office of Joint History, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 2004. pp. 151–167. ISBN   0-16-072430-9 . Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  227. "Médiathèque de la Défense". November 23, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-11-23.
  228. "Indochina War: The "good offices" of the Americans". National Audiovisual Institute.
  229. Conboy, Morrison, p. 6.
  230. 1 2 3 "U.S. Pilots Honored For Indochina Service" (PDF). Embassy of France in the U.S. February 24, 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 11, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
  231. Leary, William R. (2007). CIA Air Operations in Laos, 1955-1974 (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. p. 4.
  232. Leary, William R. (2007). CIA Air Operations in Laos, 1955-1974 (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. p. 5.
  233. Lindholm, Richard (1959). Viet-nam, the first five years: an international symposium. Michigan State University Press.
  234. Rabel, Roberto Giorgio (2005). New Zealand and the Vietnam war: politics and diplomacy. Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press. ISBN   1-86940-340-1. OCLC   62369998.
  235. "Ifop Collectors n°29 - 1945-1954 : La Guerre d'Indochine". (in French). Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  236. Pierre Schoendoerffer interview with Jean Guisnel in Some edited pictures Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  237. Roman Karmen, un cinéaste au service de la révolution Archived September 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , Dominique Chapuis & Patrick Barbéris, Kuiv Productions / Arte France, 2001
  238. "La Cinémathèque de Toulouse".
  239. Ciel Rouge - dossier de presse. Mille et une productions and Jour2Fête, 2017.


Further reading