Decolonisation of Asia

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The decolonisation of Asia was the gradual growth of independence movements in Asia, leading ultimately to the retreat of foreign powers and the creation of a number of nation-states in the region. A number of events were catalysts for this shift, most importantly the Second World War. Prior to World War II, some countries (e.g., the Philippines in 1898) had already proclaimed independence.

Asia Earths largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements, as well as vast barely populated regions. Its 4.5 billion people constitute roughly 60% of the world's population.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Philippine Declaration of Independence holiday

The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo, Philippines. With the public reading of the Act of the Proclamation of Independence of the Filipino People, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.



European powers began colonizing Asia in the early 16th century, beginning with the Portuguese seizure of sites, while along the west coast of India, Ceylon and Malacca. In 1511, Portugal established a permanent base in Malacca. In 1565, Spain commenced its colonization of the Philippine Islands, creating a long sea trade route via Mexico to Spain.

Malacca State of Malaysia

Malacca, dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.

The decline of Spain and Portugal in the 17th century paved the way for other European powers, namely the Netherlands, France and England. Portugal would lose influence in all but three of its colonies, Portuguese India, Macau and Timor.

Portuguese India former colony of Portugal

The State of India, also referred as the Portuguese State of India or simply Portuguese India, was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

Portuguese Macau former Portuguese possession in Southeast Asia between 1537 and 1999

Portuguese Macau covers Macau's history from the establishment of a Portuguese settlement in 1557 to the end of colonial rule in 1999. Macau was both the first and last European holding in China.

Portuguese Timor Name of the Portuguese colony, now known as East Timor (Timor-Leste), an independent country

Portuguese Timor refers to East Timor during the historic period when it was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975. During most of this period, Portugal shared the island of Timor with the Dutch East Indies.

By the end of the 17th century, the Dutch had taken over much of the old Portuguese colonies, and had established a strong presence in present-day Indonesia, with colonies in Aceh, Bantam, Makassar and Jakarta. The Dutch also had trade links with Siam, Japan, China and Bengal.

Aceh Province in Indonesia

Aceh is a province of Indonesia, located at the northern end of Sumatra. Its capital and largest city is Banda Aceh. It is close to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India and separated from them by the Andaman Sea. Granted a special autonomous status, Aceh is a religiously conservative territory and the only Indonesian province practicing Sharia law officially. There are ten indigenous ethnic groups in this region, the largest being the Acehnese people, accounting for approximately 80% to 90% of the region's population.

Banten (town) strategically important site and formerly a major trading city with a secure harbour at the mouth of Banten River

Banten, also written as Bantam, is a small port town located near the western end of Java. It has a secure harbour at the mouth of Banten River that provides a navigable passage for light craft into the island's interior. The town is close to the Sunda Strait through which important ocean-going traffic passes between Java and Sumatra. Formerly Old Banten was the capital of a sultanate in the area, was strategically important and a major centre for trade.

Makassar City in Sulawesi, Indonesia

Makassar is the capital of the Indonesian province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth largest urban centre after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Medan. From 1971 to 1999, the city was named after one of its subdistricts, Ujung Pandang. The city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi, facing the Makassar Strait.

The British had competed with Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch for their interests in Asia since the early 17th century and by the mid-19th century held much of India (via the British East India Company), as well as Burma, Ceylon, Malaya and Singapore. After The Indian Rebellion of 1857, Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India, thus solidifying the British rule on the subcontinent. The last British acquisition in Asia was the New Territories of Hong Kong, which was leased from the Qing emperor in 1897, expanding the British colony originally ceded in the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.

British Malaya Former set of states on Malay Peninsula

The term "British Malaya" loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British hegemony or control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Federated and Unfederated Malay States, which were British protectorates with their own local rulers, as well as the Straits Settlements, which were under the sovereignty and direct rule of the British Crown, after a period of control by the East India Company.

Singapore Republic in Southeast Asia

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%. The country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

The French had little success in India following defeats against the British in the 17th century, though they held onto possessions on the east coast of India (such as Pondicherry and Mahar) until decolonization. The French established their most lucrative and substantial colony in Indochina from 1862, eventually occupying the present-day areas of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia by 1887.

Puducherry Southern Union Territory of India

Puducherry also known by its former name Pondicherry, is a union territory in India. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India, namely Pondichéry, Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanaon (Yanam), excluding Chandernagore. It is named after the largest district, Puducherry. Historically known as Pondicherry, the territory changed its official name to Puducherry on 20 September 2006.

Mahar Caste in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra

The Mahar is an Indian community found largely in the state of Maharashtra and neighbouring areas. Most of the Mahar community followed B. R. Ambedkar in converting to Buddhism in the middle of the 20th century. As of 2017, the Mahar caste was designated as a Scheduled Caste in 16 Indian states.

Vietnam Country in Southeast Asia

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares its maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia through the South China Sea. Its capital city is Hanoi, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.

Japan's first colony was the island of Taiwan, occupied in 1874 and officially ceded by the Qing emperor in 1894. Japan continued its early imperialism with the annexation of Korea in 1910.

The United States entered the region in 1898 during the Spanish–American War, taking the Philippines as its sole colony through a mock battle in the capital and the purchase of the Philippines from Spain after the declaration of independence and the First Philippine Republic.

Asian colonies from the 19th century to the end of the Second World War

The following list shows the colonial powers following the end of World War II in 1945, their colonial or administrative possessions and date of decolonization.

Individual countries


See Burma's colonial era.

Burma was almost completely occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War. Many Burmese fought alongside Japan in the initial stages of the war, though the Burmese Army and most Burmese switched sides in 1945.

A transitional government sponsored by the British government was formed in the years following the Second World War, ultimately leading to Burma's independence in January 1948.


See Cambodia's passage to independence.

Following the capitulation of France and the formation of the Vichy regime, France's Indochinese possessions were given to Japan. While there was some argument that Indochina should not be returned to France, particularly from the United States, Cambodia nevertheless remained under French rule after the end of hostilities.

France had placed Norodom Sihanouk on the throne in 1941, and were hoping for a puppet monarch. They were mistaken however, as the King led the way to Cambodian independence in 1953, taking advantage of the background of the First Indochina War being fought in Vietnam.


See Ceylon and independence.

Ceylon was an important base of operations for the Western Allies during the Second World War. The British gave in to popular pressure for independence and in February 1948, the country won its independence as the Dominion of Ceylon.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong was returned to the United Kingdom following its occupation by the Japanese during the Second World War. [1] It was controlled directly by a British governor until the expiry of the hundred-year(99years) lease, which occurred in 1997. From that date the territory was controlled as a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.


The Philippines unilaterally declared independence from Spain on 12 June 1898 under the leadership of President Emilio Aguinaldo, culminating the 1896 Revolution. Unbeknownst to the newly established government and the Filipino people in general, the United States of America had secretly arranged to purchase the colony along with several other possessions from Spain through the Treaty of Paris that concluded the Spanish–American War. After staging a mock battle in Manila, the Philippine–American War ensued until the Philippine government capitulated in 1902.

The Philippines subsequently underwent successive stages of rule under the United States, first as an unincorporated territory, then as a Commonwealth. It was then occupied by the Japanese during the Second World War. In 1943, Japan granted its short-lived independence to the Philippines and in 1944, the Allied invasion of the Philippines by combined U.S. and Filipino troops began, which resulted in America regaining full control of the nation. In 1946, the United States gave the Philippines its independence.


The "colonial power" and "colonial name" columns are merged when required to denote territories, where current countries are established, that have not been decolonised but achieved independence in different ways.

Country [lower-alpha 1] Colonial nameColonial power [lower-alpha 2] Independence declared [lower-alpha 3] First head of state [lower-alpha 4] Independence won through
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spanish East Indies Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg  Spanish Empire 12 June 1898 Emilio Aguinaldo - [lower-alpha 5]
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen [lower-alpha 6] Kingdom of Yemen
Colony and Protectorate of Aden
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire 1 November 1918
30 November 1967
Yahya I
Qahtan Mohammed al-Shaabi
World War I
Aden Emergency
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan (1901-1919).svg Afghanistan 19 August 1919 Amanullah Khan Third Anglo-Afghan War
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt [lower-alpha 7] Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Sultanate of Egypt 28 February 1922 [lower-alpha 8] Fuad I [lower-alpha 9] Egyptian revolution of 1919
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Flag of Iraq (1921-1959).svg Mandatory Iraq 3 October 1932 [lower-alpha 10] Faisal I of Iraq - [lower-alpha 11]
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Lebanese French flag.svg Greater Lebanon Flag of France.svg  France 22 November 1943 Bechara El Khoury [lower-alpha 12] -
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Flag of the French Mandate of Syria (1920).svg Mandate of Syria 30 November 1943 Shukri al-Quwatli Syrian Revolution
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia [lower-alpha 13] Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 17 August 1945 [lower-alpha 14] Sukarno Indonesian National Revolution
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam [lower-alpha 15] Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  French Indochina Flag of France.svg  France 2 September 1945 Hồ Chí Minh August Revolution
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Flag of Jordan.svg  Transjordan Emirate of Transjordan Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire 25 May 1946 Abdullah I -
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Commonwealth of the Philippines Flag of the United States.svg  United States 4 July 1946 Manuel Roxas -
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan [lower-alpha 16] British Raj Red Ensign.svg  India Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire 14 August 1947 Liaquat Ali Khan [lower-alpha 17] - [lower-alpha 18]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh
as part of Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
14 August 1947 [lower-alpha 19] Liaquat Ali Khan [lower-alpha 20]
Flag of India.svg  India [lower-alpha 21] 15 August 1947 [lower-alpha 22] Jawaharlal Nehru [lower-alpha 23] Indian independence movement
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar British Burma 1937 flag.svg  British Burma 4 January 1948 U Nu
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Flag of Ceylon (1951-1972).svg  Dominion of Ceylon 4 February 1948
22 February 1972
Don Senanayake -
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Mandatory Palestine Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire Flag of the Arab League.svg  Arab League 14 May 1948 [lower-alpha 24] David Ben-Gurion [lower-alpha 25] 1948 Palestine war
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Japanese Korea Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 15 August 1945 [lower-alpha 26] Syngman Rhee [lower-alpha 27] Korean independence movement
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 15 August 1945 [lower-alpha 28] Kim Il-sung [lower-alpha 29]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Flag of Manchukuo.svg Manchukuo Flag of Japan.svg Japan 9 August 1945 Mao Zedong Second Sino-Japanese War
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos [lower-alpha 30] Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  French Indochina Flag of France.svg  France 22 October 1953 [lower-alpha 31] Sisavang Vong [lower-alpha 32] - [lower-alpha 33]
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 9 November 1953 Norodom Sihanouk
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Flag of Malaya.svg  Malaya
Flag of North Borneo (1948-1963).svg Colony of North Borneo
Flag of Sarawak (1946-1963).svg Colony of Sarawak
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire 31 August 1957
16 September 1963
Tuanku Abdul Rahman Malayan Emergency [lower-alpha 34]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Flag of Cyprus (1922-1960).svg British Cyprus 16 August 1960 [lower-alpha 35] Makarios III - [lower-alpha 36]
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait Flag of Kuwait 1940-1961.png Sheikhdom of Kuwait 19 June 1961 [lower-alpha 37] Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah -
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman Flag of Muscat.svg  Muscat and Oman [lower-alpha 38] Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire
26 January 1650
Sultan I bin Saif
Said bin Taimur
Night attack on Muscat
- [lower-alpha 39]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the British Straits Settlements (1925-1946).svg  Straits Settlements Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire 31 August 1963;
9 August 1965 [lower-alpha 40]
Yusof Ishak -
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives Flag of the Maldives 1953.svg Maldives 26 July 1965 Muhammad Fareed Didi -
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 3 September 1971 Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani -
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates Flag of the Trucial States.svg  Trucial States 2 December 1971 [lower-alpha 41] Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan -
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain Flag of Bahrain (1932 to 1972).svg  Bahrain 15 August 1971 [3] [lower-alpha 42] Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifa [lower-alpha 43] - [lower-alpha 44]
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor Flag of Portugal.svg  Portuguese Timor
Flag of Timor Timur.svg  Timor Timur
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
1 January 1769-28 November 1975 (Portuguese Colonization Period)
28 November 1975-20 May 2002 (Indonesian Invasion & Occupation)
20 May 2002 (Independence from Indonesia)
[lower-alpha 45]
Francisco Xavier do Amaral;
Xanana Gusmão
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei Flag of Brunei 1906-1959.svg  Brunei Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire 1 January 1984 Hassanal Bolkiah - [lower-alpha 46]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong Flag of Hong Kong 1959.svg  British Hong Kong 1 July 1997 [lower-alpha 47] Tung Chee-hwa -
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau Flag of the Government of Portuguese Macau (1976-1999).svg Portuguese Macau Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 20 December 1999 [lower-alpha 47] Edmund Ho -
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine [lower-alpha 48] [lower-alpha 49] [lower-alpha 51] Flag of Palestine.svg  West Bank
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan
10 June 1967;
15 November 1988;
independence pending due to territorial dispute with Israel
Yasser Arafat ;
Mahmoud Abbas
Six-Day War;
Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty ;
Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank ;
Israeli–Palestinian conflict

See also


  1. Timeline list arranged according to current countries. Explanatory notes are added in cases where decolonization was achieved jointly or where the current state is formed by merger of previously decolonized states. Former Soviet republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan), as well as Kuwait under Iraqi rule are excluded from this list, as they were not administered as colonies. Countries like Bhutan, China, Iran, and Japan are also excluded, as they were able to maintain their sovereignty despite encroachment by the Western colonial powers.
  2. Some territories changed hands multiple times, so in the list is mentioned the last colonial power. In addition to it the mandatory or trustee powers are mentioned for territories that were League of Nations mandates and United Nations trust territories.
  3. Date of decolonization. Dates for territories annexed by or integrated into previously decolonized independent countries are given in separate notes. Subsequent mergers, secessions and civil and other wars in the period after decolonization and the resulting states and federations are not part of this list and are only noted- see the list of sovereign states by formation date. Date of when a commonwealth realm abolished its monarchy are noted. Any discrepancies between dates listed here and public holidays celebrating the country's independence (and whether the date listed is celebrated as a holiday at all) are noted, as well as the national day if the country does not have an independence day.
  4. For countries that became independent either as a Commonwealth realm or as a parliamentary republic the head of government is listed instead.
  5. In the 1896-19 period there were the Philippine Revolution and Philippine–American War. Prior to American invasion and annexation, the country declared independence from Spain during 1898.
  6. North Yemen and South Yemen were unified into the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990.
  7. As the Kingdom of Egypt. Transcontinental country, partially located in Africa.
  8. Not celebrated as a holiday. On 28 February 1922 the British government issued the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence. Through this declaration, the British government unilaterally ended its protectorate over Egypt and granted it nominal independence with the exception of four "reserved" areas: foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. [2] The Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936 reduced British involvement, but still was not welcomed by Egyptian nationalists, who wanted full independence from Britain, which was not achieved until 23 July 1952. The last British troops left Egypt after the Suez Crisis of 1956. For this, the 23 July date, celebrated as Revolution Day, serves as Egypt's national day.
  9. Although the leaders of the 1952 revolution (Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser) became the de facto leaders of Egypt, neither would assume office until September 17 of that year when Naguib became Prime Minister, succeeding Aly Maher Pasha who was sworn in on the day of the revolution. Nasser would succeeded Naguib as Prime Minister on 25 February 1954.
  10. Celebrated as National Day. (While Iraq does not have a holiday called Independence Day, National Day is celebrated as such).
  11. The Iraqi revolt against the British was an armed uprising that failed to prevent the incoming British colonization.
  12. Riad Al Solh was Prime Minister on the date of independence.
  13. Transcontinental country, partially located in Oceania.
  14. Not celebrated as a holiday. Netherlands New Guinea was separated from the Dutch East Indies on 29 December 1949. Following skirmishes with Indonesia in 1961 and the New York Agreement, the Netherlands transferred authority of Dutch New Guinea to a UN protectorate on 1 October 1962 and it was integrated into Indonesia on 1 May 1963. The date 17 August 1945 (when Sukarno formally proclaimed Indonesia's independence) is celebrated as Indonesia's date of independence.
  15. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed independence on 2 September 1945 as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The State of Vietnam declared independence on 14 June 1949, but remained de facto under French rule until 1 August 1954. South Vietnam was the successor state to the State of Vietnam under the name of Republic of Vietnam. Both parts of Vietnam merged into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 30 April 1975, after the Vietnam War.
  16. As the Dominion of Pakistan.
  17. Muhammad Ali Jinnah became Governor-General of Pakistan upon independence.
  18. See Pakistan Movement.
  19. Not celebrated as a holiday. On 16 December 1971, after months of fighting starting from 26 March of that year, Bangladesh formally seceded from Pakistan. The 26 March date is celebrated as Bangladesh's date of independence.
  20. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the President on the date of Bangladesh's secession.
  21. As the Dominion of India.
  22. Subsequently, a free and sovereign India unilaterally annexed Hyderabad State from Mir Osman Ali Khan in 1948 and Goa from Portugal in 1961; Puducherry was ceded by France in 1954. On 26 January 1950, India formally abolished its Commonwealth monarchy and became a republic.
  23. Remained Prime Minister when India abolished it monarchy. Rajendra Prasad became President upon abolition.
  24. 5 Iyar 5708 on the Jewish calendar. As Israel based its holidays on the Jewish calendar, celebrations do not always corresponds with the Georgian date. One day after Israel declared its independence, the Arab League launched an attack on Israel that would last until 20 July 1949, ending with Israel securing its sovereignty.
  25. Originally as Chairman of the Provisional State Council before becoming Prime Minister three days after independence; Chaim Weizmann succeeded him on that same day. Both remained in office (this time with Weizmann as President) on the date of the armistice.
  26. Date of Japanese surrender and the transfer of the southern half of the Korean peninsula to the United States. Celebrated as Liberation Day (or "Gwangbokjeol"). American administration lasted exactly three years. Gaecheonjeol ("National Foundation Day") celebrates the date 3 October 2333 BC, which (according to Korean mythology) was when the Gojoseon kingdom was founded.
  27. Assumed office on 24 July 1948 as President.
  28. Date of Japanese surrender and the transfer of the northern half of the Korean peninsula to the Soviet Union. Celebrated as Liberation Day (or "Jogukhaebangŭi nal"). Soviet administration lasted until 9 September 1948; this date, celebrated as Day of the Foundation of the Republic, serves as North Korea's national day.
  29. Assumed office as Premier on 9 September 1948. Kim Tu-bong became Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly upon that same date.
  30. As the Kingdom of Laos.
  31. Not celebrated as a holiday. National Day celebrates the date 2 December 1975, which was when the Pathet Lao established the Lao People's Democratic Republic and ended both the monarchy and the decades-long civil war.
  32. Souvanna Phouma was Prime Minister on the date of independence.
  33. Although the First Indochina War occurred throughout French Indochina, most of the fighting was between the Việt Minh and France with occasional resistance from Laos and Cambodia. (The Kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia were nominal allies with France.)
  34. The Malayan Communist Party fought in the Malayan Emergency between June 1948 – 12 July 1960.
  35. Not celebrated as a holiday. For reasons unknown Cyprus celebrates October 1, 1960 as its date of independence.
  36. Armed struggles by the EOKA (Greek) and TMT (Turkish) organizations.
  37. Not celebrated as a holiday. National Day celebrates the date 25 February 1950, which was when Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah was crowned.
  38. Muscat and Oman was de facto a British protectorate. On 4 June 1856, the Sultan who ruled from Stone Town, Zanzibar, died without appointing an heir. With British intervention on 6 April 1861, Zanzibar and Oman were divided into two separate principalities. Zanzibar later became a formal British protectorate, but the British influence over Muscat and Oman remained informal. In 1962 Britain declared Muscat and Oman an independent nation.
  39. See the Dhofar Rebellion defeated with British help.
  40. Between 16 September 1963 and 9 August 1965 Singapore was part of the Federation of Malaysia.
  41. The independent UAE was joined by Ras al-Khaimah on 11 February 1972.
  42. Not celebrated as a holiday. National Day celebrates the date 16 December 1961, which was when Isa ibn Salman was crowned. [4]
  43. Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa was Prime Minister on the date of independence.
  44. The Bahraini independence survey, 1970 was a United Nation-run survey asking Bahrainis if they would rather be independent or under Iran control. Although a non-binding survey that makes no mention of the United Kingdom, the results (which showed an overwhelming majority supporting independence) led to Iran to denounce its claims over Bahrain, which in turn led to the United Kingdom to end its protectorate.
  45. Celebrated respectively as Proclamation of Independence Day and Independence Restoration Day. Independence was declared on 28 November 1975, but nine days later Indonesia invaded East Timor and formally annexed it on 17 July 1976. Throughout the Indonesian occupation most of international community refused to recognize East Timor as a province of Indonesia. Independence was restored after UN intervention from 25 October 1999 till 20 May 2002. Independence Restoration Day serves as East Timor's national day.
  46. The Brunei Revolt was a rebellion against the sultan suppressed with British assistance in 1966.
  47. 1 2 Date of transfer to the People's Republic of China.
  48. Also referred to as Judea and Samaria Area or West Bank and Gaza Strip.
  49. In the aftermath of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War the Palestinian territories were divided between Israel, Egypt and Jordan. After the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (1982) and Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank (1988), following decades of Arab–Israeli conflict, the Palestine Liberation Organization declared independence for a State of Palestine, but its control over the West Bank and Gaza (through the Palestinian National Authority) is still limited due to continued conflict with Israel.
  50. Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones".
  51. Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on the area classification. It maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, [5] sea beyond internal waters, [lower-alpha 50] land [6] ) in the Gaza Strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), and varying degrees of interference elsewhere. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] See also Israeli-occupied territories.

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Decolonization of the Americas process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule

Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. Decolonization began with a series of revolutions in the late 18th and early to mid-19th centuries. The status quo then prevailed for more than a century, excepting the independence of Cuba.

This is a non-exhaustive chronology of colonialism-related events, which may reflect political events, cultural events, and important global events that have influenced colonization and decolonization. See also Timeline of imperialism.

History of colonialism aspect of history

The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time. Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism, began in the 15th century with the "Age of Discovery", led by Portuguese, and then by the Spanish exploration of the Americas, the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and East Asia. The Portuguese and Spanish empires were the first global empires because they were the first to stretch across different continents, covering vast territories around the globe. In 1492, notable Genoese (Italian) explorer Christopher Columbus and his Castilian (Spanish) crew discovered the Americas for the Crown of Castile. The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was first used for the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. During the late 16th and 17th centuries, England, France and the Dutch Republic also established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other.

The decolonization of Oceania occurred after World War II when nations in Oceania achieved independence by transitioning from European colonial rule to full independence.


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  5. Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip.
  6. Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
  7. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  8. Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza Is Still 'Occupied' Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief . Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 5 (3). Retrieved 16 July 2010.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief . Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 7 (29). Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  10. Transcript (22 January 2008). "Address by FM Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs . Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  11. Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law . Retrieved 26 September 2011.

Further reading