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United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. All of the trust territories were administered through the United Nations Trusteeship Council. The concept is distinct from a territory temporarily and directly governed by the United Nations.
The one League of Nation mandate not succeeded by a trust territory was South-West Africa, at South Africa's insistence. South Africa's apartheid regime refused to commit to preparing the territory for independence and majority rule, as required by the trust territory guidelines, among other objections. South-West Africa eventually gained independence in 1990 as Namibia.
All trust territories have either attained self-government or independence. The last was Palau, formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which became a member state of the United Nations in December 1994.
All these territories previously were League of Nations mandates.
These territories were also former League of Nations mandates.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the Permanent Court of International Justice.
The United Nations Trusteeship Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security. The trust territories—most of them former mandates of the League of Nations or territories taken from nations defeated at the end of World War II—have all now attained self-government or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighbouring independent countries. The last was Palau, formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which became a member state of the United Nations in December 1994.
British Cameroon or British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa, formed of Northern Cameroons and Southern Cameroons. Today, Northern Cameroons forms parts of the Borno, Adamawa, and Taraba states of Nigeria, and the self-declared independent state of Southern Cameroons was renamed Ambazonia, the latter considered internationally to be part of Cameroon.
Decolonization or decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories. The concept particularly applies to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. Some scholars of decolonization focus especially on the movements in the colonies demanding independence, such as Creole nationalism.
British Togoland, officially the Mandate Territory of Togoland and later officially the Trust Territory of Togoland, was a territory in West Africa, under the administration of the United Kingdom, which subsequently entered into union with Ghana, part becoming its Volta Region. It was effectively formed in 1916 by the splitting of the German protectorate of Togoland into two territories, French Togoland and British Togoland, during the First World War. Initially, it was a League of Nations Class B mandate. In 1922, British Togoland was formally placed under British rule while French Togoland, now Togo, was placed under French rule.
The Treaty of Peace with Italy was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities. It came into general effect on 15 September 1947.
Italian Somaliland, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Sultanates of Hobyo and Majeerteen in the north, and the Hiraab Imamate and Geledi Sultanate in the south, the territory was acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s to 1975, with sudden and radical regime changes on the continent as colonial governments made the transition to independent states. The process was often quite disorganised, and marred with violence, political turmoil, widespread unrest, and organised revolts in both northern and sub-Saharan countries including the Algerian War in French Algeria, the Angolan War of Independence in Portuguese Angola, the Congo Crisis in the Belgian Congo, the Mau Mau Uprising in British Kenya, and the Nigerian Civil War in the secessionist state of Biafra.
French Togoland was a French colonial League of Nations mandate from 1916 to 1960 in French West Africa. In 1960 it became the independent Togolese Republic, and the present day nation of Togo.
A colonial empire is a collective of territories, either contiguous with the imperial center or located overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.
The State of Somaliland was a short-lived independent country in the territory of present-day unilaterally declared Republic of Somaliland. It existed on the territory of former British Somaliland for five days between 26 June 1960 and 1 July 1960, when it merged with the formerly Italian administered Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic.
The Trust Territory of Somaliland, officially the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration" was a United Nations Trust Territory situated in present-day Somalia. Its capital was Mogadishu and was administered by Italy from 1950 to 1960, following the dissolution of the former British Military Administration. The Trust Territory was very poorly prepared for independence because Italy was financially unable to handle its role, and because it imposed a Western political model that did not fit the needs. After 1990 Somalia collapsed into violence and chaos.
The Italian colonial empire, known as the Italian Empire between 1936 and 1943, began in Africa in the 19th century. By 1936 it comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions and dependencies of the Kingdom of Italy. In Africa, the colonial empire included the territories of present-day Libya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea. Outside Africa, Italy possessed the Dodecanese Islands off the coast of Turkey and a small concession in Tianjin in China. Albania was a protectorate from 1917 to 1920 and from 1925 to 1939, when it was invaded and forced into a personal union with the kingdom of Italy. Benito Mussolini, the dictator after 1922, sought to increase the size of the Italian empire and to satisfy the claims of Italian irredentists. Their goal of resettling large numbers of Italians in the colonies was talked about but never well funded. Italians migrated by the millions to North and South America, but not to the Italian colonies. By 1935, at most 45,000 new settlers had relocated to the harsh conditions in Africa.
The 1956 British Togoland status plebiscite was held in British Togoland on 9 May 1956. Since World War I the territory had been a League of Nations mandate, then a United Nations Trust Territory under British control. The referendum offered residents the choice of remaining a Trust Territory until neighbouring French Togoland had decided upon its future, or becoming part of soon-to-be Ghana. The Togoland native and dominant ethnic group, the Togolese Ewe people, Togolese Ewe-based Togoland Congress campaigned against and preferred amalgamation with French Togoland.
French Cameroon or French Cameroons was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa. It now forms part of the independent country of Cameroon.
The Allied administration of Libya was the control of the ex-Italian colony of Italian Libya by the Allies from 13 May 1943 until Libyan independence was granted in 1951. It was divided into two parts:
The British Military Administration of Libya was the control of the regions of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania of the former Italian Libya by the British from 1943 until Libyan independence in 1951. It was part of the Allied administration of Libya.
The British Military Administration of Somalia or (BMAS) was the control of the regions of British Somaliland and of the former Italian Somaliland by the British from 1941 until 1949. At the end of 1949, it became a United Nations trust territory which would last from 1950 until 1960 whilst under Italian administration.