Decolonisation of Africa

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An animated map shows the order of independence of African nations, 1950-2011. African nations order of independence 1950-1993.gif
An animated map shows the order of independence of African nations, 1950–2011.

The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s and 1960s, with sudden and radical regime changes on the continent as colonial governments made the transition to independent states; this was often quite unorganized and marred with violence and political turmoil. There was widespread unrest and organized revolts in both Northern and sub-Saharan colonies, especially in French Algeria, Portuguese Angola, the Belgian Congo and British Kenya. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Algerian War war between France and the Algerian independence movement from 1954 to 1962

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

Angolan War of Independence conflict in Angola between 1961 and 1975

The Angolan War of Independence (1961–1974) began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation, and it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement. The war ended when a leftist military coup in Lisbon in April 1974 overthrew Portugal's Estado Novo regime, and the new regime immediately stopped all military action in the African colonies, declaring its intention to grant them independence without delay.

Congo Crisis 1960–1965 war fought in the Congo

The Congo Crisis, was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo between 1960 and 1965. The crisis began almost immediately after the Congo became independent from Belgium and ended, unofficially, with the entire country under the rule of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu. Constituting a series of civil wars, the Congo Crisis was also a proxy conflict in the Cold War, in which the Soviet Union and the United States supported opposing factions. Around 100,000 people are believed to have been killed during the crisis.

Contents

Background

European control in 1939
Belgian
Italian
British
Portuguese
French
Spanish
Independent Map of Africa in 1939.png
European control in 1939
   Belgian
   Italian
   British
   French
   Spanish
  Independent

The "Scramble for Africa" between 1870 and 1900 ended with almost all of Africa being controlled by a small number of European states. Racing to secure as much land as possible while avoiding conflict amongst themselves, the partition of Africa was confirmed in the Berlin Agreement of 1885, with little regard to local differences. [6] [7] By 1905, control of almost all African soil was claimed by Western European governments, with the only exceptions being Liberia (which had been settled by African-American former slaves) and Ethiopia (then occupied by Italy in 1936). [8] Britain and France had the largest holdings, but Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal also had colonies. As a result of colonialism and imperialism, a majority of Africa lost sovereignty and control of natural resources such as gold and rubber. The introduction of imperial policies surfacing around local economies led to the failing of local economies due to an exploitation of resources and cheap labor. [9] Progress towards independence was slow up until the mid-20th century. By 1977, 54 African countries had seceded from European colonial rulers. [10]

Scramble for Africa Invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of Africa by European powers

The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonisation of African territory by Western European powers during the period of the New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberia remaining independent. With the Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1936, only Liberia remained independent. There were multiple motivations for European colonizers, including the quest for national prestige, tensions between pairs of European powers, religious missionary zeal and internal African native politics.

Berlin Conference international conference that regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany; its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa, although some scholars of history warn against an overemphasis of its role in the colonial partitioning of Africa, drawing attention to bilateral agreements concluded before and after the conference. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

Liberia republic in West Africa

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest. It covers an area of 111,369 square kilometers (43,000 sq mi) and has a population of around 4,900,000. English is the official language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.

Causes

External causes

During the world wars, African soldiers were conscripted into imperial militaries. [11] This led to a deeper political awareness and the expectation of greater respect and self-determination, which was left largely unfulfilled. [12] During the 1941 Atlantic Conference, the British and the US leaders met to discuss ideas for the post-war world. One of the provisions added by President Roosevelt was that all people had the right to self-determination, inspiring hope in British colonies. [10]

On February 12, 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss the postwar world. The result was the Atlantic Charter. [13] It was not a treaty and was not submitted to the British Parliament or the Senate of the United States for ratification, but it turned to be a widely acclaimed document. [14] One of the provisions, introduced by Roosevelt, was the autonomy of imperial colonies. After World War II, the US and the African colonies put pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter. After the war, some Britons considered African colonies to be childish and immature; British colonisers introduced democratic government at local levels in the colonies. Britain was forced to agree but Churchill rejected universal applicability of self-determination for subject nations. He also stated that the Charter was only applicable to German occupied states, not to the British Empire. [10]

Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd president of the United States

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to substantial criticism, he is generally rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.

Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during most of World War II

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was instead a member of the Liberal Party.

The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941 which defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. The leaders of the United Kingdom and the United States drafted the work and all the Allies of World War II later confirmed it. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people (self-determination); restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations. Adherents of the Atlantic Charter signed the Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942, which became the basis for the modern United Nations.

Furthermore, colonies such as Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana pushed for self-governance as colonial powers were exhausted by war efforts. [15]

Internal causes

For early African nationalists, decolonization was a moral imperative. In 1945 the Fifth Pan-African Congress demanded the end of colonialism. Delegates included future presidents of Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and national activists. [16]

Malawi Country in Africa

Malawi, officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. Malawi spans over 118,484 km2 (45,747 sq mi) and has an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area. Its capital is Lilongwe, which is also Malawi's largest city; the second largest is Blantyre, the third largest is Mzuzu and the fourth largest is its old capital Zomba. The name Malawi comes from the Maravi, an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area. The country is also nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people.

Colonial economic exploitation led to European extraction of Ghana’s mining profits to shareholders, instead of internal development, causing major local socioeconomic grievances. [17] Nevertheless, local African industry and towns expanded when U-boats patrolling the Atlantic Ocean reduced raw material transportation to Europe. [10] In turn, urban communities, industries and trade unions grew, improving literacy and education, leading to pro-independence newspaper establishments. [10]

Indeed, in the 1930s, the colonial powers had cultivated, sometimes inadvertently, a small elite of leaders educated in Western universities and familiar with ideas such as self-determination. In some cases where the road to independence was fought, settled arrangements with the colonial powers were also being placed. [9] These leaders came to lead the struggles for independence, and included leading nationalists such as Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Kwame Nkrumah (Gold Coast, now Ghana), Julius Nyerere (Tanganyika, now Tanzania), Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal), Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Côte d'Ivoire).[ citation needed ]

Economic legacy

The economic legacy of colonialism is difficult to quantify but is likely to have been negative. Modernisation theory emphasises that colonial powers built infrastructure to integrate Africa into the world economy, however, this was built mainly for extraction purposes. African economies were structured to benefit the coloniser and any surplus was likely to be ‘drained’, thereby stifling capital accumulation. [18] Dependency theory suggests that most African economies continued to occupy a subordinate position in the world economy after independence with a reliance on primary commodities such as copper in Zambia and tea in Kenya. [19] Despite this continued reliance and unfair trading terms, a meta-analysis of 18 African countries found that a third of countries experienced increased economic growth post-independence. [18]

Social legacy

Language

Scholars including Dellal (2013), Miraftab (2012) and Bamgbose (2011) have argued that Africa’s linguistic diversity has been eroded. Language has been used by western colonial powers to divide territories and create new identities which has led to conflicts and tensions between African nations. [20]

Transition to independence

Following World War II, rapid decolonization swept across the continent of Africa as many territories gained their independence from European colonization.

In August 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss their post-war goals. In that meeting, they agreed to the Atlantic Charter, which in part stipulated that they would, "respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them." [21] This agreement became the post-WWII stepping stone toward independence as nationalism grew throughout Africa.[ citation needed ]

Consumed with post-war debt, European powers were no longer able to afford the resources needed to maintain control of their African colonies. This allowed for African nationalists to negotiate decolonization very quickly and with minimal casualties. Some territories, however, saw great death tolls as a result of their fight for independence.[ citation needed ]

British Empire

British Empire by 1959 British Empire in 1959.png
British Empire by 1959

Ghana

On 6 March 1957, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) became the first sub-Saharan African country to gain its independence from European colonization. [22] Starting in 1945 Pan-African Congress, Gold Coast’s American-educated, independence leader Kwame Nkrumah made his focus clear. In the conference’s declaration, he wrote, “we believe in the rights of all peoples to govern themselves. We affirm the right of all colonial peoples to control their own destiny. All colonies must be free from foreign imperialist control, whether political or economic.” [23]

In 1949, the conflict would ramp up when British troops opened fire on African protesters. Riots broke out across the territory and while Nkrumah and other leaders ended up in prison, the event became a catalyst for the independence movement. After being released from prison, Nkrumah founded the Convention People’s Party (CPP), which launched a mass-based campaign for independence with the slogan ‘Self Government Now!’” [24] Heightened nationalism within the country grew their power and the political party widely expanded. In February of 1951, the Convention People's Party gained political power by winning 34 of 38 elected seats, including one for Nkrumah who was imprisoned at the time. London revised the Gold Coast Constitution to give Blacks a majority in the legislature in 1951. In 1956 they requested independence inside the Commonwealth, which was granted peacefully in 1957 with Nkrumah as prime minister and Queen Elizabeth as sovereign. [25]

British decolonisation in Africa. By 1970 all but Rhodesia (the future Zimbabwe) and the South African mandate of South West Africa (Namibia) were decolonized. British Decolonisation in Africa.png
British decolonisation in Africa. By 1970 all but Rhodesia (the future Zimbabwe) and the South African mandate of South West Africa (Namibia) were decolonized.

Winds of Change

Prime Minister Harold Macmillan gave the famous "Wind of Change" speech in South Africa in February 1960, where he spoke of "the wind of change blowing through this continent". [26] Macmillan urgently wanted to avoid the same kind of colonial war that France was fighting in Algeria. Under his premiership decolonisation proceeded rapidly. [27]

Britain's remaining colonies in Africa, except for Southern Rhodesia, were all granted independence by 1968. British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts of Africa was not a peaceful process. Kenyan independence was preceded by the eight-year Mau Mau Uprising. In Rhodesia, the 1965 Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the white minority resulted in a civil war that lasted until the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979, which set the terms for recognised independence in 1980, as the new nation of Zimbabwe. [28]

French colonial empire

French soldiers with suspected Algerian rebels L'armee Francaise terrorise la population Algerienne.jpg
French soldiers with suspected Algerian rebels

The French colonial empire began to fall during the Second World War when the Vichy France regime controlled the Empire. But one after another most of the colonies were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the United States and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle, who uses colonial base as a launching point to expel Vichy from Metropolitan France. De Gaulle together with most Frenchmen (except the Communists) was committed to preserving the Empire in the new form. The French Union, included in the Constitution of 1946, nominally replaced the former colonial empire, but officials in Paris remained in full control. The colonies were given local assemblies with only limited local power and budgets. There emerged a group of elites, known as evolués, who were natives of the overseas territories but lived in metropolitan France. [29] [30] [31]

De Gaulle assembled a major conference of Free France colonies in Brazzaville, in Africa, in January-February, 1944. The survival of France depended on support from these colonies, and De Gaulle made numerous concessions. They included the end of forced labor, the end of special legal restrictions that apply to natives but not to whites, the establishment of elected territorial assemblies, representation in Paris in a new "French Federation", and the eventual of black Africans in the French Assembly. however, Independence was explicitly rejected as a future possibility:

The ends of the civilizing work accomplished by France in the colonies excludes any idea of autonomy, all possibility of evolution outside the French bloc of the Empire; the eventual Constitution, even in the future of self-government in the colonies is denied. [32]


Conflict

France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonisation movement. In Algeria demonstrations in May 1945 were repressed with an estimated 6,000 Algerians killed. [33] Unrest in Haiphong, Indochina, in November 1945 was met by another warship bombarding the city. [34] Paul Ramadier's (SFIO) cabinet repressed the Malagasy Uprising in Madagascar in 1947. French officials estimated the number of Malagasy killed from a low of 11,000 to a French Army estimate of 89,000. [35]

In France's African colonies, Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed over a two-year period, with perhaps as many as 100 people killed.

Algeria

French involvement in Algeria stretched back a century. Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalised after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army. The Algerian War started in 1954. Atrocities characterized both sides, and the number killed became highly controversial estimates that were made for propaganda purposes. [36] Algeria was a three-way conflict due to the large number of "pieds-noirs" (Europeans who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule). The political crisis in France caused the collapse of the Fourth Republic, as Charles de Gaulle returned to power in 1958 and finally pulled the French soldiers and settlers out of Algeria by 1962. [37] [38] Lasting more than eight years, the estimated death toll typically falls between 300,000 and 400,000 people. [39] By 1958, the FLN was able to negotiate peace accord with French President Charles de Gaulle and nearly 90% of all Europeans had left the territory.

French Community

The special territories of the European Union c. 2011 EU OCT and OMR map en.png
The special territories of the European Union c. 2011

The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution of 1958 by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part in the new colonial organisation. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midst of the Algerian War; almost all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the status of overseas départements (territories). Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the Françafrique had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties with the help of Jacques Foccart, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Nigerian Civil War during the late 1960s. [40]

Robert Aldrich argues that with Algerian independence in 1962, it appeared that the Empire practically had come to an end, as the remaining colonies were quite small and lacked active nationalist movements. However, there was trouble in French Somaliland (Djibouti), which became independent in 1977. There also were complications and delays in the New Hebrides Vanuatu, which was the last to gain independence in 1980. New Caledonia remains a special case under French suzerainty. [41] The Indian Ocean island of Mayotte voted in referendum in 1974 to retain its link with France and forgo independence. [42]

Timeline

This table is the arranged by the earliest date of independence in this graph; 58 countries have seceded.

RankCountry [lower-alpha 1] Colonial nameColonial power [lower-alpha 2] Independence date [lower-alpha 3] First head of state [lower-alpha 4] Independence won through
1Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia Flag of the United States (1846-1847).svg Liberia Flag of the United States.svg  United States 26 July 1847 [lower-alpha 5] Joseph Jenkins Roberts [lower-alpha 6] Liberian Declaration of Independence
2South Africa Flag 1910-1912.svg  South Africa [lower-alpha 7] Flag of the Cape Colony 1876-1910.svg Cape Colony
Flag of the Natal Colony 1875-1910.svg Colony of Natal
Flag of Orange River Colony.svg Orange River Colony
Flag of the Transvaal Colony (1904-1910).svg Transvaal Colony
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 31 May 1910 [lower-alpha 8] Louis Botha South Africa Act 1909
3Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg  Egypt [lower-alpha 9] Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Sultanate of Egypt 28 February 1922 [lower-alpha 10] Fuad I [lower-alpha 11] Egyptian revolution of 1919
4Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italian Eritrea Flag of Italy.svg  Italy [lower-alpha 12] 10 February 1947 [lower-alpha 13] Haile Selassie [lower-alpha 14] -
5Flag of Libya.svg  Libya [lower-alpha 15] Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italian Libya [lower-alpha 16] Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 24 December 1951 Idris -
6Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Flag of the United Kingdom.svgFlag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom [lower-alpha 17]
Flag of Egypt (1952-1958).svg Republic of Egypt
1 January 1956 [lower-alpha 18] Ismail al-Azhari [lower-alpha 19] - [lower-alpha 20]
7Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan
8Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia [lower-alpha 21] Flag of Tunisia.svg French Protectorate of Tunisia Flag of France.svg  France 20 March 1956 Muhammad VIII al-Amin
Habib Bourguiba
- [lower-alpha 22]
9Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Flag of Morocco.svg French Protectorate in Morocco
Flag of International Tangier.svg Tangier International Zone
Merchant flag of Spanish Morocco.svg Spanish Protectorate in Morocco
Flag of Spain (1945 - 1977).svg Spanish West Africa
Ifni
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
2 March 1956 [lower-alpha 23]
7 April 1956
10 April 1958
4 January 1969
Mohammed V Ifni War
10Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana [lower-alpha 24] Flag of the Gold Coast (1877-1957).svg  Gold Coast Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 6 March 1957 [lower-alpha 25] Kwame Nkrumah [lower-alpha 26] Gold Coast legislative election, 1956
11Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Flag of France.svg  French West Africa Flag of France.svg  France 2 October 1958 Ahmed Sékou Touré Guinean constitutional referendum, 1958
12Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Flag of France.svg French Cameroons Flag of France.svg  France 1 January 1960 [lower-alpha 27] Ahmadou Ahidjo - [lower-alpha 28]
13Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Flag of Togo (1957-1958).svg French Togoland Flag of France.svg  France 27 April 1960 Sylvanus Olympio -
14Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Flag of France.svg French West Africa 20 June 1960 [lower-alpha 29] Modibo Keïta -
15Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor -
16Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar [lower-alpha 30] Flag of France.svg French Madagascar 26 June 1960 Philibert Tsiranana - [lower-alpha 31]
17Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo [lower-alpha 32] Flag of Congo Free State.svg  Belgian Congo Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 30 June 1960 Patrice Lumumba [lower-alpha 33] Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference [lower-alpha 34]
18Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia [lower-alpha 35] Flag of British Somaliland (1952-1960).svg  British Somaliland
State Ensign of Italy.svg Trust Territory of Somaliland
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
26 June 1960
1 July 1960 [lower-alpha 36]
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar -
19Flag of Benin.svg  Benin [lower-alpha 37] Flag of France.svg  French West Africa Flag of France.svg  France 1 August 1960 Hubert Maga -
20Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 3 August 1960 Hamani Diori -
21Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso [lower-alpha 38] 5 August 1960 Maurice Yaméogo -
22Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 7 August 1960 Félix Houphouët-Boigny -
23Flag of Chad.svg  Chad Flag of France.svg  French Equatorial Africa 11 August 1960 François Tombalbaye -
24Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic 13 August 1960 David Dacko -
25Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 15 August 1960 Fulbert Youlou -
26Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon 17 August 1960 Léon M'ba -
27Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Flag of Nigeria (1914-1952).svg Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
British Cameroon Flag.svg British Cameroons
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1 October 1960
1 June 1961
1 October 1961 [lower-alpha 39]
Nnamdi Azikiwe -
28Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania Flag of France.svg  French West Africa Flag of France.svg  France 28 November 1960 Moktar Ould Daddah -
29Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone Flag of Sierra Leone 1916-1961.gif Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 27 April 1961 Milton Margai -
30Flag of Tanganyika (1961-1964).svg  Tanganyika [lower-alpha 40] Flag of Tanganyika (1923-1961).svg Tanganyika Territory 9 December 1961 Julius Nyerere -
31Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi [lower-alpha 41] Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Ruanda-Urundi Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1 July 1962 Mwambutsa IV of Burundi -
32Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda Grégoire Kayibanda Rwandan Revolution
33Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Flag of France.svg French Algeria Flag of France.svg  France 5 July 1962 Ahmed Ben Bella [lower-alpha 42] Algerian War
34Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Flag of the Uganda Protectorate.svg Protectorate of Uganda Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 9 October 1962 Milton Obote -
35Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Flag of Kenya (1921-1963).svg Colony and Protectorate of Kenya 12 December 1963 [lower-alpha 43] Jomo Kenyatta [lower-alpha 26] - [lower-alpha 44]
36Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar (1963).svg Sultanate of Zanzibar [lower-alpha 40] Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar (1963).svg Sultanate of Zanzibar 10 December 1963 Jamshid bin Abdullah - [lower-alpha 45]
37Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi Flag of Nyasaland (1919-1925).svg  Nyasaland 6 July 1964 [lower-alpha 46] Hastings Banda [lower-alpha 26] -
38Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia Flag of Northern Rhodesia (1939-1964).svg  Northern Rhodesia 24 October 1964 Kenneth Kaunda -
39Flag of The Gambia.svg  The Gambia Flag of The Gambia (1889-1965).svg Gambia Colony and Protectorate 18 February 1965 [lower-alpha 47] Dawda Jawara [lower-alpha 26] -
40Flag of Rhodesia (1968-1979).svg  Rhodesia
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe
Flag of Southern Rhodesia (1924-1964).svg  Southern Rhodesia 11 November 1965
17 April 1980 [lower-alpha 48]
Ian Smith
Robert Mugabe
Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Lancaster House Agreement
41Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bechuanaland Protectorate 30 September 1966 [lower-alpha 49] Seretse Khama -
42Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Unofficial Basutoland Ensign.svg Territory of Basutoland 4 October 1966 Leabua Jonathan [lower-alpha 50] -
43Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Flag of Mauritius (1923-1968).svg Mauritius 12 March 1968 Seewoosagur Ramgoolam -
44Flag of Eswatini.svg  Swaziland Swaziland 6 September 1968 Sobhuza II -
45Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Flag of Spain (1945 - 1977).svg Spanish Territories of the Gulf of Guinea Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 12 October 1968 Francisco Macías Nguema -
46Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau Flag of Portugal.svg Overseas Province of Guinea Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 10 September 1974 [lower-alpha 51] Luís Cabral Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
47Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique [lower-alpha 52] Flag of Portugal.svg State of Mozambique 25 June 1975 Samora Machel Mozambican War of Independence
48Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde Flag of Portugal.svg Overseas Province of Cape Verde 5 July 1975 Aristides Pereira [lower-alpha 53] Guinea-Bissau War of Independence [lower-alpha 54]
49Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros Flag of France.svg French Comoros Flag of France.svg  France 6 July 1975 Ahmed Abdallah Comorian independence referendum, 1974
50Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe Flag of Portugal.svg Overseas Province of São Tomé and Príncipe Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 12 July 1975 Manuel Pinto da Costa -
51Flag of Angola.svg  Angola [lower-alpha 55] Flag of Portugal.svg State of Angola 11 November 1975 Agostinho Neto Angolan War of Independence
52Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles Flag of Seychelles 1961-1976.gif Seychelles Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 29 June 1976 James Mancha -
53Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti Flag of France.svg French Territory of the Afars and the Issas Flag of France.svg  France 27 June 1977 Hassan Gouled Aptidon Afars and Issas independence referendum, 1977
54Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic [lower-alpha 56] Flag of Spain (1945 - 1977).svg Spanish Sahara
Southern Provinces
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
27 February 1976
independence not yet effectuated
El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed
Mohamed Abdelaziz
Western Sahara War
Western Sahara conflict

Footnotes

  1. Explanatory notes are added in cases where decolonization was achieved jointly by multiple countries or where the current country is formed by the merger of previously decolonized countries. Although Ethiopia was administered as a colony in the aftermath of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and was recognized by the international community as such at the time, it is not listed here as its brief period under Italian rule (which lasted for a little more than five years and ended with the return of the previous native government) is now usually seen as a military occupation.
  2. Some territories changed hands multiple times, so in the list is mentioned the last colonial power. In addition, the mandatory or trustee powers are mentioned for territories that were League of Nations mandates and UN Trust Territories.
  3. The dates of decolonization for territories annexed by or integrated into previously decolonized independent countries are given in separate notes, as are dates when a commonwealth realm abolished its monarchy.
  4. For countries that became independent either as a Commonwealth realm, a monarchy with a strong Prime Minister, or a parliamentary republic, the head of government is listed instead.
  5. Liberia would later annexed the Republic of Maryland, another settler colony made up of former African-American slaves, in 1857. Liberia would not be recognized by the United States until 5 February 1862.
  6. Stephen Allen Benson was President on the date of the United States' recognition.
  7. As Union of South Africa.
  8. The Union of South Africa was constituted through the South Africa Act entering into force on 31 May 1910. On 11 December 1931 it got increased self-governance powers through the Statute of Westminster which was followed by transformation into republic after the 1960 referendum. Afterwards, South Africa was under apartheid until elections resulting from the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa on 27 April 1994 when Nelson Mandela became president.
  9. As the Kingdom of Egypt. Transcontinental country, partially located in Asia.
  10. On 28 February 1922 the British government issued the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence. Through this declaration, the British government unilaterally ended its protectorate over Egypt and granted it nominal independence with the exception of four "reserved" areas: foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. [43] The Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936 reduced British involvement, but still was not welcomed by Egyptian nationalists, who wanted full independence from Britain, which was not achieved until 23 July 1952. The last British troops left Egypt after the Suez Crisis of 1956.
  11. Although the leaders of the 1952 revolution (Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser) became the de facto leaders of Egypt, neither would assume office until September 17 of that year when Naguib became Prime Minister, succeeding Aly Maher Pasha who was sworn in on the day of the revolution. Nasser would succeeded Naguib as Prime Minister on 25 February 1954.
  12. From 1 April 1941 to its eventual transfer to Ethiopia, Italian Eritrea was occupied by the United Kingdom.
  13. Date marking the de jure end of Italian rule. The transfer of Eritrea to the Ethiopian Empire occurred on 15 September 1952. On 24 May 1993, after decades of fighting starting from 1 September 1961, Eritrea formally seceded from Ethiopia.
  14. Emperor of Ethiopia on the date of the transfer. Isaias Afwerki became President of Eritrea upon independence.
  15. As the United Kingdom of Libya.
  16. From 1947, Libya was administrated by the Allies of World War II (United Kingdom and France). Part of the British Military Administration originally gained independence as the Cyrenaica Emirate; it was only recognized by the United Kingdom. The Cyrenaica Emirate also merged to form the United Kingdom of Libya.
  17. Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands. [44]
  18. Before Sudan even gained its independence, on 18 August 1955 the southern area of Sudan began fighting for greater autonomy. After the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement on 28 February 1972, South Sudan was granted autonomous rule. On 5 June 1983, however, the Sudan government revoke this autonomous rule, igniting a new war for control of South Sudan. (The main non-government combatant of the Second Sudanese Civil War largely claimed to be fighting for a united, secular Sudan rather than South Sudan's independence.) On 9 July 2005, in accordance to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed on 9 January of that year, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was restored; exactly six years later, in the aftermath of the 9-15 January 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum, South Sudan became independent.
  19. Salva Kiir Mayardit became President of South Sudan upon independence. Abel Alier was the first President of the High Executive Council of the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region, while John Garang became its President following its restoration.
  20. Sudan's independence is indirectly linked to the Egyptian revolution of 1952, whose leaders eventually denounced Egypt's claim over Sudan. (This revocation would force the British to end the condominium.)
  21. As the Kingdom of Tunisia.
  22. See Tunisian independence.
  23. Cape Juby was ceded by Spain to Morocco on 2 April 1958. Ifni was returned from Spain to Morocco on 4 January 1969.
  24. As the Dominion of Ghana.
  25. The British Togoland mandate and trust territory was integrated into Gold Coast colony on 13 December 1956. On 1 July 1960 Ghana formally abolished its Commonwealth monarchy and became a republic.
  26. 1 2 3 4 Originally as Prime Minister; became President upon the monarchy's abolition.
  27. After the French Cameroun mandate and trust territory gained independence it was joined by part of the British Cameroons mandate and trust territory on 1 October 1961. The other part of British Cameroons joined Nigeria.
  28. Minor armed insurgency from Union of the Peoples of Cameroon.
  29. Senegal and French Sudan gained independence on 20 June 1960 as the Mali Federation, which dissolved a few months later into present day Senegal and Mali.
  30. As the Malagasy Republic.
  31. The Malagasy Uprising was an earlier armed uprising that failed to gain independence from France.
  32. As the Republic of the Congo.
  33. Joseph Kasa-Vubu became President upon independence.
  34. The Congo Crisis occurred after independence.
  35. As the Somali Republic.
  36. The Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) united with the State of Somaliland (former British Somaliland) on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic (Somalia).
  37. As the Republic of Dahomey.
  38. As Upper Volta.
  39. Part of the British Cameroons mandate and trust territory on 1 October 1961 joined Nigeria. The other part of British Cameroons joined the previously decolonized French Cameroun mandate and territory.
  40. 1 2 After both gained independence Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged on 26 April 1964 as Tanzania.
  41. As the Kingdom of Burundi.
  42. Assumed office on September 27, 1962 as Prime Minister. From the date of independence to Ben Bella's inauguration, Abderrahmane Farès served as President of the Provisional Executive Council.
  43. Abolished its commonwealth monarchy exactly one year later; Jamhuri Day ("Republic Day") is a celebration of both dates.
  44. The Mau Mau Uprising was an earlier armed uprising that failed to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
  45. The Sultanate of Zanzibar would later be overthrown within a month of sovereignty by the Zanzibar Revolution.
  46. Abolished its commonwealth monarchy exactly two years later.
  47. Abolished its commonwealth monarchy on 24 April 1970.
  48. Due the Rhodesia's unwillingness to accommodate the British government's request for black majority rule, the United Kingdom (along with the rest of the international community) refused to recognize the white-minority led government. The former self-governing colony would not be recognized as an independent state until the aftermath of the Rhodesian Bush War, under the name Zimbabwe.
  49. Botswana Day Holiday is the second day of the two-day celebration of Botswana's independence. The first day is also referred to as Botswana Day.
  50. Moshoeshoe II became King upon independence.
  51. Not celebrated as a holiday. The date 24 September 1973 (when the PAIGC formally declared Guinea's independence) is celebrated as Guinea-Bissau's date of independence.
  52. As the People's Republic of Mozambique
  53. Pedro Pires was sworn in as Prime Minister three days after independence.
  54. Although the fight for Cape Verdean independence was linked to the liberation movement occurring in Guinea-Bissau, the island country itself saw little fighting.
  55. As the People's Republic of Angola
  56. The Spanish colonial rule de facto terminated over the Western Sahara (then Spanish Sahara), when the territory was passed on to and partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco (which annexed the entire territory in 1979). The decolonization of Western Sahara is still pending, while a declaration of independence has been proclaimed by the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, which controls only a small portion east of the Moroccan Wall. The UN still considers Spain the legal administrating country of the whole territory, [45] awaiting the outcome of the ongoing Manhasset negotiations and resulting election to be overseen by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara. However, the de facto administrator is Morocco (see United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories).

See also

Notes

  1. John Hatch, Africa: The Rebirth of Self-Rule (1967)
  2. William Roger Louis, The transfer of power in Africa: decolonization, 1940-1960 (Yale UP, 1982).
  3. Birmingham, David (1995). The Decolonization of Africa. Routledge. ISBN   1-85728-540-9.
  4. John D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa (2014).
  5. for the viewpoint from London and Paris see Rudolf von Albertini, Decolonization: the Administration and Future of the Colonies, 1919-1960 (Doubleday, 1971).
  6. "Berlin Conference of 1884-1885". www.oxfordreference.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  7. "A Brief History of the Berlin Conference". teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  8. Evans, Alistair. "Countries in Africa Considered Never Colonized". africanhistory.about.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  9. 1 2 Hunt, Michael (2017). The World Transformed 1945 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 264. ISBN   9780199371020.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 , DECOLONISATION OF AFRICA. (2017). HISTORY AND GENERAL STUDIES.
  11. , "The call of the Empire, the call of the war", Telegraph.
  12. Ferguson, Ed, and A. Adu Boahen. (1990). "African Perspectives On Colonialism." The International Journal Of African Historical Studies 23 (2): 334. doi:10.2307/219358.
  13. "The Atlantic Conference & Charter, 1941". history.state.gov. Retrieved 26 January 2015. The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 14, 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of state in Newfoundland.
  14. Karski, Jan (2014). The Great Powers and Poland: From Versailles to Yalta. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 330. ISBN   9781442226654 . Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  15. Assa, O. (2006). A History of Africa. Volume 2. Kampala East Africa Education Publisher ltd.
  16. , A ‘Wind Of Change’ That Transformed The Continent | Africa Renewal Online. 2017. Un.Org.
  17. [Boahen, A. (1990) Africa Under Colonial Domination, Volume 7]
  18. 1 2 Bertocchia, G. & Canova, F., (2002) Did colonization matter for growth? An empirical exploration into the historical causes of Africa's underdevelopment. European Economic Review, Volume 46, pp. 1851-1871
  19. Vincent Ferraro, "Dependency Theory: An Introduction," in The Development Economics Reader, ed. Giorgio Secondi (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 58-64
  20. IMF Country Report No. 17/80 (2017). Article Iv Consultation - Press Release; Staff Report; And Statement By The Executive Director For Nigeria.
  21. "Atlantic Charter", August 14, 1941, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_16912.htm
  22. Esseks, John D. "Political independence and economic decolonization: the case of Ghana under Nkrumah." Western Political Quarterly 24.1 (1971): 59-64.
  23. Nkrumah, Kwame, Fifth Pan-African Congress, Declaration to Colonial People of the World (Manchester, England, 1945).
  24. "POLITICAL PARTY ACTIVITY IN GHANA—1947 TO 1957 - Government of Ghana". www.ghana.gov.gh. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  25. Daniel Yergin; Joseph Stanislaw (2002). The Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy. p. 66.
  26. Frank Myers, "Harold Macmillan's" Winds of Change" Speech: A Case Study in the Rhetoric of Policy Change." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 3.4 (2000): 555-575. excerpt
  27. Philip E. Hemming, "Macmillan and the End of the British Empire in Africa." in R. Aldous and S. Lee, eds., Harold Macmillan and Britain’s World Role (1996) pp. 97-121, excerpt
  28. James, pp. 618–21.
  29. Patrick Manning, Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa 1880-1995 (1998) pp 135-63.
  30. Guy De Lusignan, French-speaking Africa since independence (1969) pp 3-86.
  31. Rudolph von, Decolonization: the Administration and Future of the Colonies, 1919-1960 (1971), 265-472.
  32. Tony Smith, "A Comparative Study of French and British Decolonization" Comparative Studies in Society and History 20#1 (1978), pp. 70-102, quoting page 73
  33. Horne, Alistair (1977). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962. New York: The Viking Press. p. 27.
  34. J.F.V. Keiger, France and the World since 1870 (Arnold, 2001) p 207.
  35. Anthony Clayton, The Wars of French Decolonization (1994) p 85
  36. Martin S. Alexander; et al. (2002). Algerian War and the French Army, 1954–62: Experiences, Images, Testimonies. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 6. ISBN   9780230500952.
  37. Spencer C. Tucker, ed. (2018). The Roots and Consequences of Independence Wars: Conflicts that Changed World History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 355–57. ISBN   9781440855993.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  38. James McDougall, "The Impossible Republic: The Reconquest of Algeria and the Decolonization of France, 1945–1962," Journal of Modern History 89#4 (2017) pp 772–811 excerpt
  39. "Algeria celebrates 50 years of independence - France keeps mum". RFI. 2012-07-05. Retrieved 2018-05-12.
  40. Dorothy Shipley White, Black Africa and de Gaulle: From the French Empire to Independence (1979).
  41. Robert Aldrich, Greater France: A history of French overseas expansion (1996) pp 303–6
  42. "Mayotte votes to become France's 101st département". The Daily Telegraph . 29 March 2009.
  43. King, Joan Wucher (1989) [First published 1984]. Historical Dictionary of Egypt. Books of Lasting Value. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 259–260. ISBN   978-977-424-213-7.
  44. Robert O. Collins, A History of Modern Sudan
  45. UN General Assembly Resolution 34/37 and UN General Assembly Resolution 35/19

Further reading

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Colony territory under the political control of an overseas state, generally with its own subordinate colonial government

In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception.

Kwame Nkrumah Pan Africanist and First Prime Minister and President of Ghana

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Gold Coast (British colony) former British colony from 1867 until 1957, now Ghana

The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957.

French Union

The French Union (1946–1958) was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system, colloquially known as the "French Empire". It was the formal end of the "indigenous" status of French subjects in colonial areas.

French colonial empire Set of territories that were under French rule primarily from the 17th century to the late 1960s

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "first colonial empire," that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, and the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830. The second colonial empire came to an end after the loss in later wars of Indochina (1954) and Algeria (1962), and relatively peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after 1960.

French Fifth Republic fifth and current republican constitution of France since 1958

The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential, or dual-executive, system that split powers between a Prime Minister as head of government and a President as head of state. De Gaulle, who was the first French President elected under the Fifth Republic in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation.

Decolonization or decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination on overseas territories. The concept particularly applies to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. Scholars focus especially on the movements in the colonies demanding independence, such as Creole nationalism.

United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories UN General Assembly document listing places that are not self-governing and subject to decolonization

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French Community

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Union of African States international organization

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Brazzaville Conference

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Decolonization of the Americas process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule

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Year of Africa

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History of colonialism aspect of history

The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time. Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism, began in the 15th century with the "Age of Discovery", led by Portuguese, and then by the Spanish exploration of the Americas, the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and East Asia. The Portuguese and Spanish empires were the first global empires because they were the first to stretch across different continents, covering vast territories around the globe. In 1492, notable Genoese (Italian) explorer Christopher Columbus and his Castilian (Spanish) crew discovered the Americas for the Crown of Castile. The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was first used for the Spanish Empire in the 16th century. During the late 16th and 17th centuries, England, France and the Dutch Republic also established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other.

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