Settler

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An (1850) depiction of the first medieval settlers arriving in Iceland Ingolf by Raadsig.jpg
An (1850) depiction of the first medieval settlers arriving in Iceland

A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are often built on land already claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by governments or large countries. They also sometimes leave in search of religious freedom.

Contents

Historical usage

Chilean settlers in Baker River, 1935. Colonos-del-rio-Baker-Aysen.jpg
Chilean settlers in Baker River, 1935.

One can witness how settlers very often occupied land previously residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous (also called "natives", "Aborigines" or, in the Americas, "Indians"). In some cases (such as Australia), as colonialist mentalities and laws change, the legal ownership of some lands is contested by indigenous people, who either claim or seek restoration of traditional usage, land rights, native title and related forms of legal ownership or partial control.

The word "settler" was not originally usually used in relation to a variety of peoples who became a part of settler societies, such as enslaved Africans (e.g. in the United States), indentured labourers (such as in Colonial America), [1] or convicts (such as in British America, c. 1615–1775; Australia 1788-1868).

In the figurative usage, a "person who goes first or does something first" also applies to the American English use of "pioneer" to refer to a settlera person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there, often to colonize the area; as first recorded in English in 1605. [2] In United States history it refers to those people who helped to settle new lands. In Canada, the term 'settler' is sometimes used as a racist derogatory term for non-Indigenous Canadians such as in claims of an inequitable racial structure in modern society. [3]

In this usage, pioneers are usually among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and join others in the process of human settlement.[ citation needed ] This correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite.

A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, circa 1910 Russian settlers, possibly Molokans, in the Mugan steppe of Azerbaijan. Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii.jpg
A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, circa 1910

In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands. [4] These settlers were called "colonists". See, e.g., articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Volhynia, Russians in Kazakhstan.

Although they are often thought of as traveling by seathe dominant form of travel in the early modern erasignificant waves of settlement could also use long overland routes, such as the Great Trek by the Boer-Afrikaners in South Africa, or the Oregon Trail in the United States.

Anthropological usage

Anthropologists record tribal displacement of native settlers who drive another tribe from the lands it held, such as the settlement of lands in the area now called Carmel-by-the-Sea, California where Ohlone peoples settled in areas previously inhabited by the Esselen tribe (Bainbridge, 1977). [5]

Modern usage

Early North American settlers from Europe often built crude houses in the form of log cabins Conner-prairie-log-cabin-interior.jpg
Early North American settlers from Europe often built crude houses in the form of log cabins

In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter and specific policies referred as "settler". Among those:[ citation needed ]

Women and children experience violence in these highly dangerous areas because of the conflict. Many natives face displacement when new settlements are established. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes and not allowed to return. [6]

Settlements can make it very difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the olive trees grow on then the natives no longer have access to those olive trees and their livelihood is compromised. [6]

Causes of emigration

The reasons for the emigration of settlers vary, but often they include the following factors and incentives: the desire to start a new and better life in a foreign land, personal financial hardship, social, cultural, ethnic, or religious persecution (e.g., the Pilgrims and Mormons), political oppression, and government incentive policies aimed at encouraging foreign settlement.[ citation needed ]

The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a settler's home country, and emigration is sometimes approved by an imperial government.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Indigenous peoples Ethnic groups descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known in some regions as First peoples, First Nations, Aboriginal peoples or Native peoples, or autochthonous peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world except Antarctica.

Colonization is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. Colonization refers strictly to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts, and plantations, while colonialism to the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories". Colonization was linked to the spread of tens of millions from Western European states all over the world. In many settled colonies, Western European settlers eventually formed a large majority of the population after killing or driving away indigenous peoples. Examples include the Americas, Australia and New Zealand. These colonies were occasionally called 'neo-Europes'. In other places, Western European settlers formed minority groups, which often used more advanced weaponry to dominate the people initially living in their places of settlement.

Dawes Act US legislative act regulating Native American tribal lands

The Dawes Act of 1887 authorized the President of the United States to subdivide Native American tribal landholdings into allotments for Native American heads of families and individuals, transferring traditional systems of land tenure into government-imposed systems of private property by forcing Native Americans to "assume a capitalist and proprietary relationship with property" that did not previously exist. The act also opened up remaining Native land for appropriation by white settlers. Before private property could be dispensed, the government now had to determine "which Indians were eligible" for allotments, which propelled an "official search for a federal definition of Indian-ness."

Bedouin Group of Arab nomads who have historically inhabited the Arabian, North African and Syrian Deserts

The Bedouin or Bedu are a grouping of nomadic Arab people who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, and historically share a common culture of herding camels and goat. The vast majority of Bedouin adhere to Islam, although there are some fewer numbers of Arab Christian Bedouins present in the Fertile Crescent.

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Royal Proclamation of 1763 British Parliamentary act setting a western border for the American colonies

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Alaska Natives indigenous peoples of Alaska

Alaska Natives or Alaskan Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures. They are often defined by their language groups. Many Alaska Natives are enrolled in federally recognized Alaska Native tribal entities, who in turn belong to 13 Alaska Native Regional Corporations, who administer land and financial claims.

The Kaurna people are a group of Indigenous Australians whose traditional lands include the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. Pronunciation of the word "Kaurna" varies slightly by the background and origin of the speaker; the most common is English, sometimes, native [ɡ̊auɳa] or, less often,. They were known as the Adelaide tribe by the early settlers. Kaurna culture and language were almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836. However, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture.

Plantation (settlement or colony) method of colonization in which settlers were "planted" abroad to establish a colonial base

Plantation was an early method of colonisation where settlers went in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base, for example for planting tobacco or cotton. Such plantations were also frequently intended to promote Western culture and Christianity among nearby indigenous peoples, as can be seen in the early East-Coast plantations in America. Although the term "planter" to refer to a settler first appears as early as the 16th-century, the earliest true colonial plantation is usually agreed to be that of the Plantations of Ireland.

Salt Pan Creek, an urban watercourse of the Georges River catchment, is located in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney, in New South Wales, Australia.

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Squatting (Australian history) Australian settlers claim

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Treaty rights are certain rights that were reserved by indigenous peoples when they signed treaties with settler societies in the wake of European colonization. This applies to the rights of Alaska Natives and Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada. It also applies to a smaller number of Inuit and Metis in Canada who have entered into treaties.

Djadjawurrung ethnic group

Djadjawurrung or Dja Dja Wurrung, also known as the Jaara or Jajowrong people and Loddon River tribe, is a native Aboriginal tribe which occupied the watersheds of the Loddon and Avoca rivers in the Bendigo region of central Victoria, Australia. They were part of the Kulin alliance of tribes. There were 16 clans, which adhered to a patrilineal system. Like other Kulin peoples, there were two moieties: Bunjil the eagle and Waa the crow.

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The Treaty of Vincennes is the name of two separate treaties. One was an agreement between the United States of America and the Miami and their allies, the Wea tribes and the Shawnee, and was signed on June 6, 1803. The purpose of the treaty was to get the native tribes to formally recognize the American ownership of the Vincennes Tract, a parcel of land captured from Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. The second occurred on August 27, 1804 and was to purchase land from the tribes.

Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers. As with all forms of colonialism, it is based on exogenous domination, typically organized or supported by an imperial authority. Settler colonialism is enacted by a variety of means ranging from violent depopulation of the previous inhabitants, to more subtle, legal means such as assimilation or recognition of indigenous identity within a colonial framework.

References

  1. Indentured Servitude in Colonial America
  2. Online Etymological Dictionary
  3. Denis, Jeffery. S. (2015). "Contact theory in a small-town settler-colonial context: The reproduction of laissez-faire racism in Indigenous-white Canadian relations". American Sociological Review. 80 (1): 218–242. doi:10.1177/0003122414564998.
  4. Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  5. Prehistoric Sources Technical Study, prepared for the city of Monterey by Bainbridge Behrens Moore Inc., May 23, 1977
  6. 1 2 Olson, Pamela (2013). Fast Times in Palestine. Berkeley, California: Seal Press. p. 35. ISBN   978-1-580-05483-6.