Fuad I of Egypt

Last updated

Fuad I
Fuad I of Egypt.jpg
King of Egypt and Sovereign of Nubia, the Sudan, Kurdufan and Darfur [2]
Reign15 March 1922 – 28 April 1936
PredecessorHimself as Sultan of Egypt
Successor Farouk I
Prime Ministers
Sultan of Egypt
Reign9 October 1917 – 15 March 1922
Predecessor Hussein Kamel
SuccessorHimself as King of Egypt
Prime Ministers
Born(1868-03-26)26 March 1868
Giza Palace, Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt, Ottoman Empire
Died28 April 1936(1936-04-28) (aged 68)
Koubbeh Palace, Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Burial
Wives Shivakiar Ibrahim
(m. 1895; div. 1898)
Nazli Sabri
(m. 1919)
IssuePrince Isma'il
Princess Fawkia
Farouk I of Egypt
Fawzia, Queen of Iran
Princess Faiza
Princess Faika
Princess Fathia
Full name
Ahmad Fuad
Arabic: أحمد فؤاد
House House of Muhammad Ali
Father Ismail Pasha
Mother Ferial Qadin
Religion Sunni Islam

Fuad I (Arabic : فؤاد الأولFu’ād al-Awwal; Turkish : I. Fuad or Ahmed Fuad Paşa; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.

Contents

Early life

Fuad was born in Giza Palace in Cairo, the seventh son of Isma'il the Magnificent. [3] He spent his childhood with his exiled father in Naples. He got his education from the military academy in Turin, Italy. His mother was Ferial Qadin. [4]

Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a major role in the establishment of Cairo University. He became the university's first rector in 1908, and remained in the post until his resignation in 1913. He was succeeded as rector by then-minister of Justice Hussein Rushdi Pasha. In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure the throne of Albania for himself, which had obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire a year earlier. At the time, Egypt and Sudan was ruled by his nephew, Abbas II, and the likelihood of Fuad becoming the monarch in his own country seemed remote. This, and the fact that the Muhammad Ali dynasty was of Albanian descent, encouraged Fuad to seek the Albanian throne. [5] Fuad also served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918. [6]

Reign

Fuad came under consideration as a candidate for the Albanian throne, but he was ultimately bypassed in favour of a Christian ruler. He ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917. In the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt, and recognised it as a sovereign state on 28 February 1922. On 15 March 1922, Fuad issued a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt. In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution and replacing it with a new constitution that limited the role of parliament to advisory status only. Large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935.

The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers. He made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, and parliaments never lasted for their full four-year term but were dissolved by decree. [7]

Creation of the Royal Archives

Fuad was an instrumental force in modern Egyptian historiography. He employed numerous archivists to copy, translate, and arrange eighty-seven volumes of correspondence related to his paternal ancestors from European archives, and later to collect old documents from Egyptian archives into what became the Royal Archives in the 1930s. Fuad's efforts to portray his ancestors — especially his great-grandfather Muhammad Ali, his grandfather Ibrahim, and his father — as nationalists and benevolent monarchs would prove to be an enduring influence on Egyptian history. [8]

Personal life

Fuad married his first wife in Cairo, on 30 May 1895 (nikah), and at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo, on 14 February 1896 (zifaf), Princess Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947). She was his first cousin once removed and the only daughter of Field Marshal Prince Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmad Pasha (his first cousin) by his first wife, Vijdan Navjuvan Khanum. They had two children, a son, Ismail Fuad, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Fawkia. Unhappily married, the couple divorced in 1898. During a dispute with the brother of his first wife, Prince Ahmad Saif-uddin Ibrahim Bey, Fuad was shot in the throat. He survived, but carried that scar the rest of his life.

Fuad married his second wife at the Bustan Palace in Cairo on 24 May 1919. She was Nazli Sabri (1894–1978), daughter of Abdu'r-Rahim Pasha Sabri, sometime Minister of Agriculture and Governor of Cairo, by his wife, Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Queen Nazli also was a maternal granddaughter of Major-General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, sometime Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, and a great-granddaughter of Suleiman Pasha, a French officer in Napoleon's army who converted to Islam and reorganized the Egyptian army. The couple had five children, the future King Farouk, and four daughters, the Princesses Fawzia (who became Queen Consort of Iran), Faiza, Faika, and Fathiya.

As with his first wife, Fuad's relation with his second wife was also stormy. The couple continually fought, Fuad even forbidding Nazli from leaving the palace. When Fuad died, it was said that the triumphant Nazli sold all of his clothes to a local used-clothes market in revenge. Fuad died at the Koubbeh Palace in Cairo and was buried at the Khedival Mausoleum in the ar-Rifai Mosque in Cairo.

Nazli Sabri

King Fuad’s wife lived as a widow after his death. She did not have good relations with her son. After Fuad’s death, she left Egypt and went to the United States. She converted to Catholicism in 1950 and changed her name to Mary Elizabeth. She got deprived of her rights and titles in Egypt. Once named the world’s richest and most elegant woman, she possessed one of the largest jewellery collections in the world.

China

The Fuad (Fū’ād) (فؤاد الأول) Muslim Library in China was named after him by the Chinese Muslim Ma Songting. [9] Muḥammad 'Ibrāhīm Fulayfil (محمد إبراهيم فليفل) and Muḥammad ad-Dālī (محمد الدالي) were ordered to Beijing by the King. [10]

Marriages

  1. Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947)
    Children
  2. Nazli Sabri (1894–1978)
    Children

Titles

Honours

King Fuad I in Belgium Fouad1 1927 PI.jpg
King Fuad I in Belgium
Domestic [11]
Foreign [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Farouk of Egypt King of Egypt and the Sudan"`UNIQ--ref-0000003A-QINU`"

Farouk I was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.

Fawzia Fuad of Egypt Egyptian royal

Fawzia Fuad of Egypt, also known as Muluk Fawzia of Iran, was an Egyptian princess who became Queen of Iran as the first wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Khedive noble title of the Ottoman Empire

The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word "servicemen" or possibly viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire. The initially self-declared title was officially recognized by the Ottoman government in 1867, and used subsequently by Ismail Pasha, and his dynastic successors until 1914.

Ismail Pasha Khedive of Egypt and Sudan

Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent, was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he greatly modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing heavily in industrial and economic development, urbanization, and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa.

Tewfik Pasha Khedive of Egypt and Sudan

Mohamed Tewfik Pasha, also known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.

Sultan of Egypt

Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mamluk sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. From 1914, the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922.

Said of Egypt Wāli of Egypt and Sudan

Mohamed Sa'id Pasha was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence. He was the fourth son of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Sa'id was a Francophone, educated in Paris.

Hussein Kamel of Egypt Sultan of Egypt and the Sudan

Sultan Hussein Kamel was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt. He was the first person to hold the title of Sultan of Egypt since the killing of Sultan Tuman II by the Ottomans in 1517 following their conquest of Egypt.

Nazli Sabri Queen Consort of Egypt

Nazli Sabri was the first Queen of Egypt from 1919 to 1936 as the second wife of King Fuad.

Muhammad Ali dynasty ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century

The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century. It is named after its progenitor, Muhammad Ali Pasha, regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also more formally known as the Alawiyya dynasty. Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the title khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the Khedival dynasty.

Hussein Refki Pasha Egyptian Army general and politician

Hussein Refki Pasha Ahmed Hafez Mohammed Hafez was an Egyptian military general and politician who served as Egypt's 25th Minister of War and Marine.

Melek Tourhan Sultana of Egypt

Melek Hassan Tourhan was the second wife of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt. After her husband ascended the throne in 1914, she became known as Sultana Melek.

Fathia Ghali Princess of Egypt

Fathia Ghali was the youngest daughter of Fuad I of Egypt and Nazli Sabri, and so the youngest sister of Farouk I.

Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi founder of the egyptian modern army

Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi, born Joseph Anthelme Sève, was a French-born Egyptian commander.

Faiza Fuad Rauf was an Egyptian princess and a member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.

Faika of Egypt Egyptian princess, member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty

Faika Fouad Sadek (or Princess Faika was an Egyptian royal and a member of the Mohammad Ali Dynasty.

The Albanian community in Egypt started by Ottoman rulers and military personnel appointed in the Egyptian province. A substantial community would grow up later by soldiers and mercenaries who settled in the second half of the 18th century and made a name for themselves in the Ottoman struggle to expel French troops in 1798–1801. Muhammad Ali (1769–1849) who was of Albanian descent, was the ruler who had founded the New Kingdom of Egypt which lasted there until 1952. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many other Albanians settled into Egypt for economical and political reasons. With the fedayeen, Muslim Brotherhood, and the culminating Egyptian Revolution of 1952 the Albanian community in Egypt totally diminished and they settled in Western countries.

Under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, the line of succession to the former Egyptian throne was subject to a number of changes during its history. From its founding in 1805 until 1866, the dynasty followed the imperial Ottoman practice of agnatic seniority, whereby the eldest male in any generation would succeed to the throne. In 1866, however, the then Khedive of Egypt Isma'il Pasha obtained a firman from the Ottoman Emperor which restricted the succession to the male-line descendants of Isma'il Pasha. The resulting succession remained in force until the abolition of the Egyptian monarchy in 1953, following the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.

References

General
Specific
  1. Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 36. ISBN   978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC   18496936 . Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  2. Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 36. ISBN   978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC   18496936 . Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  3. Royal Ark
  4. Hassan Hassan (2000). In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805–1952. American Univ. in Cairo Press. p. 9. ISBN   978-977-424-554-1 . Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  5. Reid, Donald Malcolm (2002). Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Volume 23 of Cambridge Middle East Library. Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN   978-0-521-89433-3. OCLC   49549849 . Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  6. "The Presidents of the Society". Egyptian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  7. Abdalla, Ahmed (2008). The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt, 1923–1973. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN   978-977-416-199-5 . Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  8. Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009)
  9. Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (eds.). Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN   978-0-415-36835-3 . Retrieved 28 June 2010.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  10. Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 382–. ISBN   978-90-04-14473-6.
  11. 1 2 Royal Ark


Fuad I of Egypt
Born: 26 March 1868 Died: 28 April 1936
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hussein Kamel
Sultan of Egypt
1917–1922
Sultanate becomes
independent kingdom
New title
Kingdom of Egypt established
King of Egypt
1922–1936
Succeeded by
Farouk I
Academic offices
New institution Rector of Cairo University
1908–1913
Succeeded by
Hussein Rushdi Pasha
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by
Onofrio Abbate Pasha
President of the Egyptian Geographic Society
1915–1918
Succeeded by
Isma'il Sidqi Pasha