Fuad I of Egypt

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Fuad I
Fuad I of Egypt.jpg
King of Egypt and Sovereign of Nubia, the Sudan, Kurdufan and Darfur [1]
Reign15 March 1922 – 28 April 1936
PredecessorHimself as Sultan of Egypt
Successor Farouk I
Prime Ministers
Sultan of Egypt
Reign9 October 1917 – 15 March 1922
Predecessor Hussein Kamel
SuccessorHimself as King of Egypt
Prime Ministers
Born(1868-03-26)26 March 1868
Giza Palace, Cairo, Khedivate of Egypt, Ottoman Empire
Died28 April 1936(1936-04-28) (aged 68)
Koubbeh Palace, Cairo, Kingdom of Egypt
Burial
Wives Shivakiar Ibrahim
(m. 1895; div. 1898)
Nazli Sabri
(m. 1919)
IssuePrince Isma'il
Princess Fawkia
Farouk I of Egypt
Fawzia, Queen of Iran
Princess Faiza
Princess Faika
Princess Fathia
Full name
Ahmad Fuad
Arabic: أحمد فؤاد
House House of Muhammad Ali or Kavalali
(by birth)
Father Isma'il Pasha
Mother Feriyal Kadinefendi
Religion Sunni Islam

Fuad I (Arabic : فؤاد الأولFu’ād al-Awwal, Turkish : I. Fuad or Ahmed Fuad Paşa; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.

Turkish language Turkic language (possibly Altaic)

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Sultan of Egypt

Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mamluk sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. From 1914, the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922.

King of Egypt Wikimedia list article

King of Egypt was the title used by the ruler of Egypt between 1922 and 1951. When the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt on 28 February 1922, Egypt's Sultan Fouad I issued a decree on 15 March 1922 whereby he adopted the title of King of Egypt. It has been reported that the title change was due not only to Egypt's newly independent status, but also to Fouad I's desire to be accorded the same title as the newly installed rulers of the newly created kingdoms of Hejaz, Syria and Iraq. The only other monarch to be styled King of Egypt was Fouad I's son Farouk I, whose title was changed to King of Egypt and the Sudan in October 1951 following the Wafdist government's unilateral abrogation of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The monarchy was abolished on 18 June 1953 following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the establishment of a republic. The then-king, the infant Fuad II of Egypt, went into exile in Switzerland.

Contents

Early life

Fuad was born in Giza Palace in Cairo, the seventh son of Isma'il the Magnificent. [2] He spent his childhood with his exiled father in Naples. He got his education from the military academy in Turin, Italy. His mother was Farial Kadin. [3]

Cairo City in Egypt

Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.

Ismail Pasha viceroy of Egypt and Sudan

Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent, was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he greatly modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing heavily in industrial and economic development, urbanisation, and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa.

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a major role in the establishment of Cairo University. He became the university's first rector in 1908, and remained in the post until his resignation in 1913. He was succeeded as rector by then-minister of Justice Hussein Rushdi Pasha. In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure the throne of Albania for himself, which had obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire a year earlier. At the time, Egypt and Sudan was ruled by his nephew, Abbas II, and the likelihood of Fuad becoming the monarch in his own country seemed remote. This, and the fact that the Muhammad Ali dynasty was of Albanian descent, encouraged Fuad to seek the Albanian throne. [4] Fuad also served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918. [5]

Cairo University public university with its main campus in Giza, Egypt

Cairo University is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediately across the Nile from Cairo. It was founded on 21 December 1908; however, after being housed in various parts of Cairo, its faculties, beginning with the Faculty of Arts, were established on its current main campus in Giza in October 1929. It is the second oldest institution of higher education in Egypt after Al Azhar University, notwithstanding the pre-existing higher professional schools that later became constituent colleges of the university. It was founded and funded as the Egyptian University by a committee of private citizens with royal patronage in 1908 and became a state institution under King Fuad I in 1925. In 1940, four years following his death, the University was renamed King Fuad I University in his honor. It was renamed a second time after the Egyptian revolution of 1952. The University currently enrolls approximately 155,000 students in 22 faculties. It counts three Nobel Laureates among its graduates and is one of the 50 largest institutions of higher education in the world by enrollment.

Rector (academia) Academic official

A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is often the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is often referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is primarily ceremonial and titular. The term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used widely in universities in Europe. and is very common in Latin American countries. It is also used in Brunei, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Israel and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, and is usually responsible for chairing the University Court.

Albania country in Southeast Europe

Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west.

Reign

Fuad came under consideration as a candidate for the Albanian throne, but he was ultimately bypassed in favour of a Christian ruler. He ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917. In the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt, and recognised it as a sovereign state on 28 February 1922. On 15 March 1922, Fuad issued a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt. In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution and replacing it with a new constitution that limited the role of parliament to advisory status only. Large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935.

Sultanate of Egypt 1914-1922 sultanate in Northeastern Africa

The Sultanate of Egypt was the short-lived protectorate that the United Kingdom imposed over Egypt between 1914 and 1922.

Hussein Kamel of Egypt Sultan of Egypt

Sultan Hussein Kamel was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.

Egyptian Revolution of 1919 1919 Revolution in Egypt

The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan. It was carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of the revolutionary Egyptian Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul, and other members of the Wafd Party in 1919.

The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers. He made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, and parliaments never lasted for their full four-year term but were dissolved by decree. [6]

In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.

Creation of the Royal Archives

Fuad was an instrumental force in modern Egyptian historiography. He employed numerous archivists to copy, translate, and arrange eighty-seven volumes of correspondence related to his paternal ancestors from European archives, and later to collect old documents from Egyptian archives into a what became the Royal Archives in the 1930s. Fuad's efforts to portray of his ancestors — especially his great-grandfather Muhammad Ali, his grandfather Ibrahim, and his father — as nationalists and benevolent monarchs would prove to be an enduring influence on Egyptian history. [7]

Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt Ottoman politician and general

Ibrahim Pasha was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. He served as a general in the Egyptian army that his father established during his reign, taking his first command of Egyptian forces when he was merely a teenager. In the final year of his life, he succeeded his still living father as ruler of Egypt and Sudan, due to the latter's ill health. His rule also extended over the other dominions that his father had brought under Egyptian rule, namely Syria, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, and Crete. Ibrahim pre-deceased his father, dying 10 November 1848, only four months after acceding to the throne. Upon his father's death the following year, the Egyptian throne passed to Ibrahim's nephew, Abbas.

Personal life

Fuad married his first wife in Cairo, 30 May 1895 at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo, 14 February 1896, Princess Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947). She was his cousin and the only daughter of Field Marshal Prince Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmad Pasha. They had two children, a son, Ismail Fuad, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Fawkia. Unhappily married, the couple divorced in 1898. During a dispute with the brother of his first wife, Fuad was shot in the throat. He survived, but carried that scar the rest of his life.

Fuad married his second wife at the Bustan Palace in Cairo on 24 May 1919. She was Nazli Sabri (1894–1978), daughter of Abdu'r-Rahim Pasha Sabri, sometime Minister of Agriculture and Governor of Cairo, by his wife, Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Queen Nazli also was a maternal granddaughter of Major-General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, sometime Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, and a great-granddaughter of Suleiman Pasha, a French officer in Napoleon's army who converted to Islam and reorganized the Egyptian army. The couple had five children, the future King Farouk, and four daughters, the Princesses Fawzia (who became Queen Consort of Iran), Faiza, Faika, and Fathiya.

As with his first wife, Fuad's relation with his second wife was also stormy. The couple continually fought, Fuad even forbidding Nazli from leaving the palace. When Fuad died, it was said that the triumphant Nazli sold all of his clothes to a local used-clothes market in revenge. Fuad died at the Qubba Palace in Cairo and was buried at the Khedival Mausoleum in the ar-Rifai Mosque in Cairo.

Nazli Sabri

King Fuad’s wife lived as a widow after his death. She did not have good relations with her son. After Fuad’s death, she left Egypt and went to the United States. She converted to Catholicism in 1950 and changed her name to Mary Elizabeth. She got deprived of her rights and titles in Egypt. Once named the world’s richest and most elegant woman, she possessed one of the largest jewellery collections in the world.

China

The Fuad (Fū’ād) (فؤاد الأول) Muslim Library in China was named after him by the Chinese Muslim Ma Songting. [8] Muḥammad 'Ibrāhīm Fulayfil (محمد إبراهيم فليفل) and Muḥammad ad-Dālī (محمد الدالي) were ordered to Beijing by the King. [9]

Marriages

  1. Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947)
    Children
  2. Nazli Sabri (1894–1978)
    Children

Titles

Honours

King Fuad I in Belgium Fouad1 1927 PI.jpg
King Fuad I in Belgium
Domestic [10]
Foreign [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Fathia Ghali Egyptian princess

Fathia Ghali was the youngest daughter of Fuad I of Egypt and Nazli Sabri, and so the youngest sister of Farouk I.

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The Albanian community in Egypt started by Ottoman rulers and military personnel appointed in the Egyptian province. A substantial community would grow up later by soldiers and mercenaries who settled in the second half of the 18th century and made a name for themselves in the Ottoman struggle to expel French troops in 1798–1801. Muhammad Ali (1769–1849) founded the Albanian dynasty of Egypt which lasted there until 1952. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many other Albanians settled into Egypt for economical and political reasons. With the fedayeen, Muslim Brotherhood, and the culminating Egyptian Revolution of 1952 the Albanian community in Egypt diminished.

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References

General
Specific
  1. Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1980). "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 36. ISBN   978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC   18496936 . Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  2. Royal Ark
  3. Hassan Hassan (2000). In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805–1952. American Univ. in Cairo Press. p. 9. ISBN   978-977-424-554-1 . Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  4. Reid, Donald Malcolm (2002). Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Volume 23 of Cambridge Middle East Library. Cambridge University Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN   978-0-521-89433-3. OCLC   49549849 . Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  5. "The Presidents of the Society". Egyptian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  6. Abdalla, Ahmed (2008). The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt, 1923–1973. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN   978-977-416-199-5 . Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  7. Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009)
  8. Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi, eds. Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN   978-0-415-36835-3 . Retrieved 28 June 2010.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  9. Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 382–. ISBN   978-90-04-14473-6.
  10. 1 2 Royal Ark


Fuad I of Egypt
Born: 26 March 1868 Died: 28 April 1936
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hussein Kamel
Sultan of Egypt
1917–1922
Sultanate becomes
independent kingdom
New title
Kingdom of Egypt established
King of Egypt
1922–1936
Succeeded by
Farouk I
Academic offices
New institution Rector of Cairo University
1908–1913
Succeeded by
Hussein Rushdi Pasha
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by
Onofrio Abbate Pasha
President of the Egyptian Geographic Society
1915–1918
Succeeded by
Isma'il Sidqi Pasha