Mausoleum

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The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, a UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal (Edited).jpeg
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A mausoleum without the person's remains is called a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum.

Contents

Overview

The word mausoleum derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (near modern-day Bodrum in Turkey), the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. [1]

Historically, mausolea were, and still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the gentry and nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were often in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for kilometres outside Rome. When Christianity became dominant, mausolea were out of use. [2]

Later, mausolea became particularly popular in Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods. A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure. This contains the body or bodies, probably within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may also act as columbaria (a type of mausoleum for cremated remains) with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located in a cemetery, a churchyard or on private land.

In the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church. The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, California, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called crypts or catacombs.

Notable mausolea

Ming Xiaoling, Hongwu Emperor's mausoleum in Nanjing, China Nanjing Ming Xiaoling 2017.11.11 08-10-27.jpg
Ming Xiaoling, Hongwu Emperor's mausoleum in Nanjing, China
The entrance to Higashi Otani Mausoleum in Kyoto, Japan HO Mausoleum EntranceIn KyotoJapan.jpg
The entrance to Higashi Otani Mausoleum in Kyoto, Japan
Yeongneung, King Sejong's mausoleum in Yeoju, South Korea Sejong tomb 2.jpg
Yeongneung, King Sejong's mausoleum in Yeoju, South Korea
Kumsusan Palace of the Sun, Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il's mausoleum in Pyongyang, North Korea Kumsusan Memorial Palace, Pyongyang.jpg
Kumsusan Palace of the Sun, Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il's mausoleum in Pyongyang, North Korea
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Mausoleum in Karachi, Pakistan Tomb Jinnah.jpg
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Mausoleum in Karachi, Pakistan
The exterior view of the Mausoleum of Emperor Jahangir, located in Punjab, Pakistan Tomb of Jahangir and gardens.jpg
The exterior view of the Mausoleum of Emperor Jahangir, located in Punjab, Pakistan
Habib Bourguiba's mausoleum in Monastir, Tunisia TUNISIE MONASTIR MAUSOLEE BOURGHIBA 03.jpg
Habib Bourguiba's mausoleum in Monastir, Tunisia
The interior of the Spring Valley Mausoleum in Minnesota, listed on the National Register of Historic Places InsideSpringValleyMausoleum.jpg
The interior of the Spring Valley Mausoleum in Minnesota, listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Percival Lowell - Mausoleum 2013 at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona Percival Lowell - Mausoleum 2013.jpg
Percival Lowell - Mausoleum 2013 at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona
The Khazneh at Petra is believed to be Nabataean King Aretas IV's mausoleum. Treasury Petra.jpg
The Khazneh at Petra is believed to be Nabataean King Aretas IV's mausoleum.
Anitkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in Ankara, Turkey Protect Your Republic Protest - 6 (2007-04-14) edit.jpg
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, Turkey
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, mausoleum of Muhammad in Medina, Saudi Arabia Al-Masjid An-Nabawi (Bird's Eye View).jpg
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, mausoleum of Muhammad in Medina, Saudi Arabia
The mausoleum of Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq Karbala City 1.jpg
The mausoleum of Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq
Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae, Iran Twf - panoramio.jpg
Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae, Iran
Mausoleum of Later Abbasid Caliph Ar-Rashid bi-llah Rashed belah tomb.jpg
Mausoleum of Later Abbasid Caliph Ar-Rashid bi-llāh

Africa

Asia, Eastern, Southern, and Southeast

Asia, western

Tomb of Hafez (Hafezieh) in Shiraz, Iran Hafez Fixed.jpg
Tomb of Hafez (Hāfezieh) in Shiraz, Iran

Europe

The Pantheon in Paris, France Paris Pantheon Outside.JPG
The Panthéon in Paris, France
Oplenac in Topola, Serbia Church of St. George in Topola (by Pudelek) 1.JPG
Oplenac in Topola, Serbia
Juselius Mausoleum at the Kappara Cemetery in Pori, Finland Juselius mausoleum.jpg
Jusélius Mausoleum at the Käppärä Cemetery in Pori, Finland

Latin America

The mausoleum of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil and his family in the Cathedral of Sao Pedro de Alcantara in Petropolis, Brazil Petropolis-Cathedral1.jpg
The mausoleum of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil and his family in the Cathedral of São Pedro de Alcântara in Petrópolis, Brazil

Northern America

Canada

United States

Community Mausoleum of All Saints Cemetery, des Plaines, Illinois, United States Community Mausoleum of All Saints Cemetery, Des Plaines, Illinois.jpg
Community Mausoleum of All Saints Cemetery, des Plaines, Illinois, United States

Oceania

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The plurals mausoleums and mausolea are both used in English, although mausoleums is more common.

Footnotes

  1. Toms, J. Mason (Winter 2019). "Arkansas Listings in the National Register of Historic Places: The Community Mausoleums of Cecil E. Bryan". Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 78 (4): 423–431. ISSN   0004-1823.
  2. Paul Veyne, in A History of Private Life: I. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, Veyne, ed. (Harvard University Press) 1987:416.
  3. al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 63.

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Al-Rifa'i Mosque is located in Midan al-Qal'a, adjacent to the Cairo Citadel. Now, it is also the royal mausoleum of Muhammad Ali's family. The building is located opposite the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, which dates from around 1361, and was architecturally conceived as a complement to the older structure. This was part of a vast campaign by the 19th century rulers of Egypt to both associate themselves with the perceived glory of earlier periods in Egypt's Islamic history and modernize the city. The mosque was constructed next to two large public squares and off of several European style boulevards constructed around the same time.

Colon Cemetery, Havana Cemetery in Havana, Cuba

El Cementerio de Cristóbal Colón, also called La Necrópolis de Cristóbal Colón, was founded in 1876 in the Vedado neighbourhood of Havana, Cuba to replace the Espada Cemetery in the Barrio de San Lázaro. Named for Christopher Columbus, the cemetery is noted for its many elaborately sculpted memorials. It is estimated the cemetery has more than 500 major mausoleums. Before the Espada Cemetery and the Colon Cemetery were built, interments took place in crypts at the various churches throughout Havana, for example, at the Havana Cathedral or Church Crypts in Havana Vieja.

Manila North Cemetery

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Magnolia Cemetery (Mobile, Alabama) Historic cemetery

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Panteón Nacional Román Baldorioty de Castro Cemetery Museum in Ponce, Puerto Rico

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Cementerio Católico San Vicente de Paul Cemetery in Ponce, Puerto Rico

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Santa Ifigenia Cemetery

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Cemetery of San Fernando Cemetery in Seville, Andalucia, Spain

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Blickling Park mausoleum Building in Norfolk, England

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