Windsor, Berkshire

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Windsor
Windsor Bridge and Town.jpg
Windsor Bridge, Windsor and Windsor Castle
Berkshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Windsor
Location within Berkshire
Population32,207 (2017 est.)
OS grid reference SU965765
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WINDSOR
Postcode district SL4
Dialling code 01753
Police Thames Valley
Fire Royal Berkshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Berkshire
51°28′45″N0°36′34″W / 51.4791°N 0.6095°W / 51.4791; -0.6095 Coordinates: 51°28′45″N0°36′34″W / 51.4791°N 0.6095°W / 51.4791; -0.6095

Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is widely known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family.

Market town legal term for European settlement that has the right to host markets

Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city. On the European continent, a town may be correctly described as a "market town" or as having "market rights", even if it no longer holds a market, provided the legal right to do so still exists.

In England, an unparished area is an area that is not covered by a civil parish. Most urbanised districts of England are either entirely or partly unparished. Many towns and some cities in otherwise rural districts are also unparished areas and therefore no longer have a town council or city council. Some cities and towns which are unparished areas in larger districts have charter trustees to maintain a historic charter, such as city status or simply the mayoralty of a town.

Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead Place in England

The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead is a Royal Borough of Berkshire, in South East England. Its nearest border to London, being Maidenhead is approx 30 miles. It is home to Windsor Castle, Eton College, Legoland Windsor and Ascot Racecourse. It is one of four boroughs entitled to be prefixed Royal and is one of six unitary authorities in its county which has Historic and Lieutenancy county status.

Contents

The town is situated 21.7 miles (34.9 km) west of Charing Cross, central London, 5.8 miles (9.3 km) southeast of Maidenhead, and 15.8 miles (25.4 km) east of the county town of Reading. It is immediately south of the River Thames, which forms its boundary with its smaller, ancient twin town of Eton. The village of Old Windsor, just over 2 miles (3 km) to the south, predates what is now called Windsor by around 300 years; in the past Windsor was formally referred to as New Windsor to distinguish the two. [lower-alpha 1]

Charing Cross The point from which distances from London are calculated.

Charing Cross is a junction in London, England, where six routes meet. Clockwise from north these are: the east side of Trafalgar Square leading to St Martin's Place and then Charing Cross Road; the Strand; Northumberland Avenue; Whitehall; The Mall leading to Admiralty Arch and Buckingham Palace; and two short roads leading to Pall Mall.

Central London Innermost part of London, England

Central London is the innermost part of London, in the United Kingdom, spanning several boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions have been used to define the scope of central London for statistics, urban planning and local government. Its characteristics are understood to include a high density built environment, high land values, an elevated daytime population and a concentration of regionally, nationally and internationally significant organisations and facilities.

Maidenhead town and unparished area in Berkshire, England

Maidenhead is a large market town in Berkshire, England, on the south-western bank of the River Thames. With an estimated population of 67,441, Maidenhead is the largest town in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead. The town is situated 25.7 miles (41.4 km) west of Charing Cross, London, 11.7 miles (18.8 km) northeast of the county town of Reading, 28.3 miles (45.5 km) southeast of Oxford, 8.0 miles (12.9 km) east-south-east of Henley on Thames and 5.8 miles (9.3 km) northwest of Windsor.

Etymology

Windlesora is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. (The settlement had an earlier name but this is unknown.) The name originates from old English Windles-ore or winch by the riverside. [1] [2] [3] By 1110, meetings of the Great Council, which had previously taken place at Windlesora, were noted as taking place at the Castle – referred to as New Windsor, probably to indicate that it was a two-ward castle/borough complex, similar to other early castle designs, such as Denbigh. By the late 12th century the settlement at Windelsora had been renamed Old Windsor.

<i>Anglo-Saxon Chronicle</i> Set of related medieval English chronicles

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154.

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.

In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, is an assembly that was historically convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.

History

Windsor Castle, viewed from the Long Walk Windsor Castle at Sunset - Nov 2006.jpg
Windsor Castle, viewed from the Long Walk

Norman period

The early history of the site is unknown, although it was almost certainly settled some years before 1070 when William the Conqueror had a timber motte and bailey castle constructed. [3] The focus of royal interest at that time was not the castle, however, but a small riverside settlement about 3 miles (4.8 km) downstream, possibly established from the 7th century. From about the 8th century, high status people started to visit the site occasionally, and possibly this included royalty. From the 11th century the site's link with king Edward the Confessor is documented, but again, information about his use of the place is scant. After the Norman conquest of England, royal use of the site increased, probably because it offered good access to woodlands and opportunities for hunting – a sport which also practised military skills.

William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.

Edward the Confessor 11th-century Anglo-Saxon King of England and saint

Edward the Confessor, also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066.

Norman conquest of England 11th-century invasion and conquest of England by Normans

The Norman Conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish, and French soldiers led by the Duke of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

Windsor Castle is noted in the Domesday Book under the entry for Clewer, the neighbouring manor to Windsor. Although this might seem strange, it occurred because plans for the castle had changed since 1070, and more land had been acquired in Clewer on which to site a castle town. This plan was not actioned until the early 12th century. Henry I – according to one chronicle – had rebuilt it, and this followed the Norman kings' actions at other royal sites, such as Westminster, where larger and more magnificent accommodation was thought necessary for the new dynasty. King Henry married his second wife at Windsor Castle in 1121, after the White Ship disaster.

Domesday Book 11th-century survey of landholding in England as well as the surviving manuscripts of the survey

Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states:

Then, at the midwinter [1085], was the king in Gloucester with his council .... After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire."

<i>White Ship</i>

The White Ship was a vessel that sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur, on 25 November 1120. Only one of those aboard survived. Those who drowned included William Adelin, the only legitimate son and heir of King Henry I of England, his half-sister Matilda, his half-brother Richard and also Richard d'Avranches, 2nd Earl of Chester. William Adelin's death led to a succession crisis and a period of civil war in England known as the Anarchy.

Plantagenet period

The settlement at Old Windsor largely transferred to New Windsor during the 12th century, although substantial planning and setting out of the new town (including the parish church, marketplace, bridge, hermitage and leper hospital) did not take place until c. 1170, under Henry II, following the civil war of Stephen's reign. At about the same time, the present upper ward of the castle was rebuilt in stone. Windsor Bridge is the earliest bridge on the Thames between Staines and Reading, built at a time when bridge building was rare; it was first documented in 1191, but had probably been built, according to the Pipe rolls, in 1173. It played an important part in the national road system, linking London with Reading and Winchester, but also, by diverting traffic into the new town, it underpinned the success of its fledgling economy.

Parish church church which acts as the religious centre of a parish

A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world, especially in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The church building reflects this status, and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented.

Marketplace space in which a market operates

A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado (Spanish), or itinerant tianguis (Mexico), or palengke (Philippines). Some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture, ambient and geographic conditions. The term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, and their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both outdoors and indoors.

Leprosy chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium lepræ and Mycobacterium lepromatosis

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Initially, a person who is infected does not have symptoms and typically remains this way for 5 to 20 years. Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain, which can lead to the loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds. Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present.

The town of New Windsor, as an ancient demesne of the Crown, was a privileged settlement from the start, apparently having the rights of a 'free borough', for which other towns had to pay substantial fees to the king. It had a merchant guild (known by the 14th century as the Fraternity or brotherhood of the Holy Trinity) from the early 13th century and, under royal patronage, was made the chief town of the county in 1277, as part of its grant of royal borough status by Edward I's charter. Somewhat unusually, this charter gave no new rights or privileges to Windsor but probably codified the rights which it had enjoyed for many years. Windsor's position as chief town of Berkshire was short-lived, however, as people found it difficult to reach. Wallingford took over this position in the early 14th century. As a self-governing town Windsor enjoyed a number of freedoms unavailable to other towns, including the right to hold its own borough court, the right of membership (or 'freedom') and some financial independence. The town accounts of the 16th century survive in part, although most of the once substantial borough archive dating back to the 12th century was destroyed, probably in the late 17th century.

The Last Supper by Franz de Cleyn in the West Gallery of Windsor parish church of St John The Baptist Windsor parish church Last Supper.jpg
The Last Supper by Franz de Cleyn in the West Gallery of Windsor parish church of St John The Baptist

New Windsor was a nationally significant town in the Middle Ages, certainly one of the fifty wealthiest towns in the country by 1332. Its prosperity came from its close association with the royal household. The repeated investment in the castle brought London merchants (goldsmiths, vintners, spicers and mercers) to the town in the late 13th century and provided much employment for townsmen. The development of the castle under Edward III, between 1350–68, was the largest secular building project in England of the Middle Ages, and many Windsor people worked on this project, again bringing great wealth to the town. Although the Black Death in 1348 had reduced some towns' populations by up to 50%, in Windsor the building projects of Edward III brought money to the town, and possibly its population doubled: this was a 'boom' time for the local economy. People came to the town from every part of the country, and from continental Europe. The poet Geoffrey Chaucer held the honorific post of 'Clerk of the Works' at Windsor Castle in 1391.

The development of the castle continued in the late 15th century with the rebuilding of St George's Chapel. With this Windsor became a major pilgrimage destination, particularly for Londoners. Pilgrims came to touch the royal shrine of the murdered Henry VI, the fragment of the True Cross and other important relics. Visits to the chapel were probably combined with a visit to the important nearby Marian shrine and college at Eton, founded by Henry VI in 1440, and dedicated to the Assumption; which is now better known as Eton College. Pilgrims came with substantial sums to spend. From perhaps two or three named inns in the late 15th century, some 30 can be identified a century later. The town again grew in wealth. For London pilgrims, Windsor was probably – but briefly – of greater importance than Canterbury and the shrine of the City's patron Saint Thomas Becket.

Tudor and Stuart periods

The Market Place and Windsor Guildhall Windsorguildhall.jpg
The Market Place and Windsor Guildhall

With the closures of the Reformation, however, Windsor's pilgrim traffic died out, and the town began to stagnate about ten years afterwards. The castle was considered old-fashioned and shrines to the dead were thought to be superstitious. The early modern period formed a stark contrast to the medieval history of the town. Henry VIII was buried in St George's Chapel in 1547, next to Jane Seymour, the mother of his only legitimate son, Edward (Edward VI). Henry, the founder of the Church of England, may have wanted to benefit from the stream of pilgrims coming to the town. His will gives that impression.

Most accounts of Windsor in the 16th and 17th centuries talk of its poverty, badly made streets and poor housing. Shakespeare's play The Merry Wives of Windsor is set in Windsor and contains many references to parts of the town and the surrounding countryside. Shakespeare must have walked the town's streets, near the castle and river, much as people still do. The play may have been written in the Garter Inn, opposite the Castle, but this was destroyed by fire in the late 17th century. The long-standing – and famous – courtesan of king Charles II, Nell Gwyn, was given a house on St Albans Street: Burford House (now part of the Royal Mews). Her residence in this house, as far as it is possible to tell, was brief. Only one of her letters addressed from Burford House survives: it was probably intended as a legacy for her illegitimate son, the Earl of Burford, later the Duke of St Albans.

Windsor was garrisoned by Colonel Venn during the English Civil War. Later it became the home of the New Model Army when Venn had left the castle in 1645. Despite its royal dependence, like many commercial centres, Windsor was a Parliamentarian town. Charles I was buried without ceremony in St George's Chapel after his execution at Whitehall in 1649. The present Guildhall, built in 1680–91, replaced an earlier market house that had been built on the same site around 1580, as well as the old guildhall, which faced the castle and had been built around 1350. The contraction in the number of old public buildings speaks of a town 'clearing the decks', ready for a renewed period of prosperity with Charles II's return to the Castle. But his successors did not use the place, and as the town was short of money, the planned new civic buildings did not appear. The town continued in poverty until the mid 19th century.

In 1652 the largest house in Windsor Great Park was built on land which Oliver Cromwell had appropriated from the Crown. Now known as Cumberland Lodge after the Duke of Cumberland's residence there in the mid-18th century, the house was variously known as Byfield House, New Lodge, Ranger's Lodge, Windsor Lodge and Great Lodge. [5]

Georgian and Victorian periods

Photochrom of Windsor and Windsor Castle looking across the Thames, 1895 Flickr - ...trialsanderrors - Windsor, view of the castle from the river, Berkshire, England, ca. 1895.jpg
Photochrom of Windsor and Windsor Castle looking across the Thames, 1895

In 1778, there was a resumption of the royal presence, with George III at the Queen's Lodge and, from 1804, at the castle. This started a period of new development in Windsor, with the building of two army barracks. However the associated large numbers of soldiers led to a major prostitution problem by 1830, in a town where the number of streets had little changed since 1530. In the 18th c. the town traded with London selling the Windsor Chair which was actually made in Buckinghamshire.

A number of fine houses were built in this period, including Hadleigh House on Sheet Street, which was built in 1793 by the then Mayor of Windsor, William Thomas. In 1811 it was the home of John O'Reilly, the apothecary-surgeon to George III.

Windsor Castle was the westernmost sighting-point for the Anglo-French Survey (1784–1790), which measured the precise distance between the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Paris Observatory by trigonometry. Windsor was used because of its relative proximity to the base-line of the survey at Hounslow Heath.

The substantial redevelopment of the castle in the subsequent decade and Queen Victoria's residence from 1840, as well as the coming of two railways in 1849, signalled the most dramatic changes in the town's history. These events catapulted the town from a sleepy medieval has-been to the centre of empire – many European crowned heads of state came to Windsor to visit the Queen throughout the rest of the 19th century. Unfortunately, excessive redevelopment and 'refurbishment' of Windsor's medieval fabric at this time resulted in widespread destruction of the old town, including the demolition of the old parish church of St John the Baptist in 1820. The original had been built around 1135.

Later periods

Most of the current town's streets date from the mid to late 19th century. [6] However the main street, Peascod Street ( /ˈpɛskɒd/ ) is very ancient, predating the castle by many years, and probably of Saxon origin. It formed part of the 10th-century parish structure in east Berkshire[ citation needed ] and is first referred to as Peascroftstret in c. 1170. The 1,000-year-old royal castle, although the largest and longest-occupied in Europe, is a recent development in comparison. "New Windsor" was officially renamed "Windsor" in 1974.

Religion

St John the Baptist's parish church Parish Church of John the Baptist, Windsor, Berkshire Geograph-3265246-by-John-Salmon.jpg
St John the Baptist's parish church
All Saints' parish church All Saints, Windsor - geograph.org.uk - 1168964.jpg
All Saints' parish church

The original parish church of Windsor is dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and is situated adjacent to the High Street. The church is said to have dated from the time that King Henry I moved the Royal Court from Old Windsor to ‘New Windsor’. The church was clearly established by the time of Henry II in about 1110, as there are references to it by then. [7]

In 1543, Henry Filmer, Robert Testwood and Anthony Pearson, the three Windsor Martyrs, were burnt at the stake in Deanery Gardens, near the church. [7]

The original church building had Saxon arches and Norman work and by the 18th century it was described as ‘a vast building with 10 side altars and several chantries’ and perhaps eight gabled roofs. There was a small spire on top of the main central tower. [7]

In 1818 the high cost of repairs to the old building led to plans for a complete rebuild at a cost of £14,000. Charles Hollis was appointed architect and the new building was erected between 1820 and 1822 with cast iron columns that were floated down the Thames. The ribs that support the roof are also cast iron. The new church, Gothic in style with a pinnacle tower containing the bells, was officially consecrated by the Bishop of Salisbury on 22 June 1822. [7]

Samuel Sanders Teulon added the chancel and the apse in 1880. The chancel screen was added in 1898 to mark the 60-year reign of Queen Victoria. In 1906 the Hunter Organ was installed. The north side gallery was reduced in length to make way for the organ. [7]

The more recent parish church of All Saints' is situated on Frances Road. The incumbent vicar is the Revd Ainsley Swift. [8] The author Thomas Hardy trained as an architect and joined Arthur Blomfield's practice as assistant architect in April 1862. Between 1862 and 1864 he worked with Blomfield on All Saints'. [9] A reredos, possibly designed by Hardy, was discovered behind panelling at All Saints' in August 2016. [10] [11]

Tourism

Entrance to Legoland Windsor Resort Entrance to Legoland Windsor.jpg
Entrance to Legoland Windsor Resort

As a result of the castle, Windsor is a popular tourist destination and has facilities usually found in larger towns: two railway stations, a theatre and several substantial hotels. Various boat trips operate on the River Thames, with connections to Maidenhead and Staines-upon-Thames. In winter, Alexandra Gardens hosts a temporary ice rink. [12]

Near the town is Legoland Windsor, the only Legoland park in the United Kingdom and the largest Legoland park in the world in terms of area. Legoland Windsor was built on the site of the former Windsor Safari Park.

Shopping

Central Station refashioned as a shopping precinct Windsor-central-stn-shops.jpg
Central Station refashioned as a shopping precinct

As a tourist town there are many gift shops around the castle, together with shops and restaurants in Windsor Royal Shopping [13] inside Windsor & Eton Central railway station. The main shopping street, Peascod Street, includes an independent department store, W J Daniel & Co., noted for its large toy department, as well as national chains such as Marks & Spencer, Boots and TK Maxx. King Edward Court, [14] a pedestrian-only shopping centre, has a Waitrose supermarket alongside other stores including H&M, Mr Simms Olde Sweet Shoppe, New Look and Zara.

Transport

Windsor & Eton Riverside railway station Winsor & Eton Riverside station.jpg
Windsor & Eton Riverside railway station

Windsor is accessible from Junction 6 of the M4 and from Slough via a 3-mile (4.8 km) dual carriageway. Bus services in the town are provided by Reading Buses, Courtney Buses, and First Berkshire & The Thames Valley. [15]

Windsor has two railway stations. Windsor & Eton Central railway station has a shuttle service to Slough connecting with express trains to London Paddington and to Reading. Windsor & Eton Riverside station provides a service to London Waterloo. Both stations were built at around the same time in the 19th century, as the two train companies which owned the lines both wanted to carry Queen Victoria to Windsor, with the first line opened gaining the privilege. [16] From 1883 to 1885, the London Underground's District line's westbound service ran as far as Windsor.

Windsor has frequent bus services to/from London Heathrow Airport, Victoria Coach Station in central London and Legoland Windsor Resort. [17]

Windsor is linked to the town of Eton (on the opposite bank of the River Thames) by Windsor Bridge. Originally a fully trafficked road bridge, Windsor Bridge is now for pedestrians and cyclists only. To the south of the town lies Windsor Great Park and the towns of Old Windsor, Egham and Virginia Water.

Windsor lies on National Cycle Route 4 (London – St David's). The main access roads serving the town have adjacent cycle paths or nearby alternative traffic-free cycle routes.

Notable residents

HM Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg
HM Queen Elizabeth II

As well as HM Queen Elizabeth II and other British Royal Family members, Windsor has many other notable residents both former and current.

Full size replica Hurricane at Windsor which was the boyhood home of Sir Sydney Camm HurricaneWindsor-wyrdlight-787901.jpg
Full size replica Hurricane at Windsor which was the boyhood home of Sir Sydney Camm

Sport

Windsor's senior football team is Windsor F.C. The team currently play in the Hellenic League and their home ground is Stag Meadow, granted to the original club by King George V in 1911. The club's president is the famous BBC commentator Barry Davies.

Windsor Cricket Club's clubhouse and pitches are at Home Park in the shadow of Windsor Castle. The club played host to a 2006 Lord's Taverners cricket match. The Windsor 1st team currently play in Division 2A of the Thames Valley League.

Neighbours, Windsor Rugby Club also use the ground and the team currently plays in the Southern Counties – North Division.

Several other local sports clubs are based at Home Park, including: Hockey and archery clubs, and the Datchet Dashers running club.

Royal Windsor Rollergirls were one of the first roller derby leagues to be founded in the UK in 2007, they regularly hold games at Windsor Leisure Centre.

Education

State schools

State-funded schooling in the town is provided system of three-tier schooling. Schools are controlled by either the local authority or academy trusts. The town is served by eleven first schools for children aged up to 9 years old, and three middle schools until the age of 13:

Pupils aged 13–18 are provided for at the town's two single-sex secondary schools:

Independent schools

Several independent schools operate in the town, including:

Politics

Windsor Seal WindsorCOA20040214.png
Windsor Seal

Windsor is part of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead which is administered by an elected unitary authority. The mayor is Cllr Paul Lion (Conservative).

The current Member of Parliament for the Windsor constituency (which includes surrounding small towns and villages, such as Eton and Datchet) is Adam Afriyie (Conservative), who was elected at the 2005 General Election. Afriyie is notable for being the first black Conservative in the House of Commons.

In 2012 the council reintroduced the role of town crier to the Borough. The previous town crier had retired in 1892 and for 110 years the post remained vacant. [20]

In 2018 the belongings of homeless people were controversially removed and stored for reasons of security. [21] . A bus intended to shelter the Windsor homeless during the period of the wedding was impounded by police. [22]

Twin towns

Windsor is twinned with:

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Windsor and Maidenhead was a county constituency in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Cheapside, Berkshire village in Windsor and Maidenhead, Berkshire, England

Cheapside is describes a close triangle of roads in the civil parish of Sunninghill and Ascot and ecclesiastical parish of Sunninghill in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England which includes a school and had a Methodist chapel. It is a cluster of houses, bungalows and cottages with small gardens for the county which contrasts with large houses with large gardens and small farms covering most of the rest of Sunninghill. With no formal definition, it is marked on maps as the area north and east of or including Silwood Park and south of Sunninghill Park; Harewood Lodge followed by Titness House to its immediate east are of similar 18th century construction and have sometimes been recorded as in the Cheapside locality.

Slough is a town and unitary authority in the English county of Berkshire, just to the west of Greater London. Until 1974 the town was in Buckinghamshire.

Datchet Bridge

Datchet Bridge, also known as The Divided Bridge, was a road bridge which crossed the River Thames at Datchet from 1706 until it was demolished in 1848. It was situated on the reach between Old Windsor Lock and Romney Lock and linked Windsor on the Berkshire bank to Datchet on the Buckinghamshire side. The bridge replaced a ferry service which had operated at the site since at least the middle of the 13th century.

Eton and Castle electoral ward in Berkshire, England comprising the town of Eton and Windsor Castle

Eton and Castle is an electoral ward of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead. As its name suggests, it comprises the town of Eton and Windsor Castle. It is currently represented by George Fussey of the Liberal Democrats. Nationally, the ward forms part of the UK Parliamentary constituency of Windsor and is currently represented by Adam Afriyie of the Conservative Party.

References

  1. Local government legislation in the 1970s referred to the borough as "New Windsor"[ citation needed ]
  1. "The Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  2. "A Brief History of Windsor". Thamesweb.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  3. 1 2 South S.R., The Book of Windsor, Barracuda Books, 1977. ISBN   0-86023-038-4
  4. "The Parish Church of St. John The Baptist, Windsor. A History". Thamesweb.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  5. Cumberland Lodge: A History Archived 21 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Stoughton, John (1862). Windsor: A History and Description of the Castle and the Town. Ward. pp. 176–.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "St John the Baptist Windsor - History". Official website. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  8. "New Windsor: All Saints, Windsor". A Church Near You.
  9. Jedrzejewski, J. (18 December 1995). "Thomas Hardy and the Church". Springer via Google Books.
  10. Flood, Alison (16 August 2016). "Thomas Hardy altarpiece discovered in Windsor church". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  11. "Legendary author Thomas Hardy's lost contribution to Windsor church uncovered". Royal Borough Observer.
  12. Windsor On Ice 2012 | Home. Windsoronice.com. Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
  13. Windsor Royal Shopping windsorroyalshopping.co.uk
  14. King Edward Court windsor-shopping.co.uk
  15. "CONFIRMED: Two bus companies step up to save axed services in Slough and Windsor". Royal Borough Observer. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  16. "The Railways at Windsor - The Royal Windsor Web Site History Zone". www.thamesweb.co.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  17. "National Public Transport Information - from traveline SE & anglia". www.travelinesoutheast.org.uk.
  18. "Bruce Almighty".
  19. "Windsor Hurricane". Sir Sydney Camm Commemorative Society.
  20. Windsor and Maidenhead Town Crier Town Crier Windsor and Maidenhead – Chris Brown. Windsortowncrier.com. Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
  21. "Homeless people in Windsor have belongings removed to be stored ahead of the Royal Wedding". iNews. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  22. "Homeless refuge bus seized by police in Windsor ahead of Royal wedding". Evening Standard. Retrieved 18 May 2018.