Municipal Corporations Act 1835

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Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Long title An Act to provide for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in England and Wales
Citation 5 & 6 Will.4 c.76
Territorial extentEngland and Wales
Dates
Royal assent 9 September 1835
Commencement 1 January 1836
Other legislation
Repealed by Municipal Corporations Act 1882
Status: Repealed

The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm. IV., c.76), sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales. The legislation was part of the reform programme of the Whigs and followed the Reform Act 1832, which had abolished most of the rotten boroughs for parliamentary purposes.

Contents

Royal commission

The government of Lord Grey, having carried reform out of parliamentary constituencies, turned its attention to local government. In February 1833 a select committee was appointed "to inquire into the state of the Municipal Corporations in England, Wales, and Ireland; and to report if any, and what abuses existed in them, and what measures, in their opinion, it would be most expedient to adopt, with a view to the correction of those abuses". [1] The committee made their report in June 1833, having enquired into a handful of boroughs. The committee found that:

The jurisdiction of the corporations is defective in some case in consequence of the town having been extended beyond the limits of the ancient borough; and in other cases it is objectionable from extending to places that are distant, and more properly falling within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates.

The principle which prevails of a small portion of corporators choosing those who are to be associated with them in power, generally for life, is felt to be a great grievance. The tendency of this principle is to maintain an exclusive system, to uphold local, political and religious party feelings, and is destructive of that confidence which ought always to be reposed in those who are intrusted with control, judicial or otherwise, over their fellow citizens…

The committee are further led to infer that corporations, as now constituted, are not adapted to the present state of society… To make corporations instruments of useful and efficient local government, it seems to be essential that the corporate officers should be more popularly chosen…[and] that their proceedings should be open and subject to control of public opinion. [2]

The committee did not believe that they had sufficient powers to carry out a full review of the existing system. They instead recommended the appointment of a royal commission, and that the country be divided into districts with a commissioner responsible for enquiring into boroughs in each district. [2]

The royal commission was appointed by letters patent passed under the great seal. The commission, which was dominated by Radicals, had eighteen members, with two assigned to each district or circuit: [3] [4]

The commission's secretary was Joseph Parkes.

Report

The commission issued its report in 1835. Altogether 285 towns had been investigated. [5] The main conclusions of the report were: [6]

The Commission concluded its report by stating that:

...the existing Municipal Corporations of England and Wales neither possess nor deserve the confidence or respect of Your Majesty's subjects, and that a thorough reform must be elected, before they can become, what we humbly submit to Your Majesty they ought to be, useful and efficient instruments of local government.

Effects of the Act

The Act established a uniform system of municipal boroughs, to be governed by town councils elected by ratepayers. The reformed boroughs were obliged to publish their financial accounts and were liable to audit. Each borough was to appoint a salaried town clerk and treasurer who were not to be members of the council.

The Act reformed 178 boroughs. The Burgh Reform Act 1833 had already carried similar reforms in Scotland. Similar legislation would not be introduced in Ireland until the Municipal Reform Act 1840. There remained more than 100 unreformed boroughs, which generally either fell into desuetude or were replaced later under the terms of the Act. The last of these was not reformed or abolished until 1886. The Act did not extend to the City of London which remains a sui generis authority.

The Act allowed unincorporated towns to petition for incorporation. The industrial towns of the Midlands and North quickly took advantage of this, with Birmingham and Manchester becoming boroughs as soon as 1838. Altogether, 62 additional boroughs were incorporated under the Act.

The new corporations had annual elections, with a third of the councillors up for election each year. The council also elected aldermen to serve on the council, with a six-year term. Towns were divided into wards. [7]

The Act was repealed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882.

The 178 reformed boroughs

The list shows the style by which the unreformed corporation was known, and the date of its governing charter. In most cases this was the last in a succession of charters granted by a number of monarchs. In a few cases boroughs had no charter, or the charter was lost.

NumberBoroughStyle of unreformed corporationGoverning charterCountyPresent governance
1 Aberystwyth Mayor and Burgesses of the Town, Borough, and Liberty of Aberystwith1544 Cardiganshire Aberystwyth Town Council
2 Abingdon Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Abingdon1557 Berkshire Abingdon Town Council
3 Andover Bailiff, approved Men, and Burgesses of the Borough of Andover1599 Hampshire Test Valley Borough Council (charter trustees 1974–1976)
4 Arundel Mayor, Steward and Burgesses of Arundel1586 Sussex Arundel Town Council
5 Banbury Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Banbury in the County of Oxford1554 Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire Banbury Town Council (charter trustees 1974–2000)
6 Barnstaple Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough and Parish of Barnstaple in the County of Devon1610 Devon Barnstaple Town Council
7 Basingstoke Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of Basingstoke1622, confirmed 1641 Hampshire Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council (charter trustees 1974–1978)
8 Bath Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the City of Bath1590 and 1794 Somerset Became district in 1974 as is; merged in 1996 to district of Bath and North East Somerset; charter trustees extant
9 Beaumaris Aldeman, Bailliffs and Burgesses of Beaumaris1562 Anglesey Beaumaris Town Council
10 Beccles Portreeve, Steward and Burgesses of Beccles1584 Suffolk Beccles Town Council
11 Bedford Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Town of Bedford1684/5 Bedfordshire Bedford Borough Council (charter trustees until 1975)
12 Berwick-upon-Tweed (County of Itself)Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Berwick-upon-Tweed1604 Northumberland Berwick-upon-Tweed Borough Council
13 Beverley Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Beverley in the County of York1573 Yorkshire Charter trustees (Beverley Borough Council from 1974 to 1996)
14 Bewdley Bailiffs, Burgesses, and Inhabitants of the Town and Borough of Bewdley1606, 1708 Worcestershire Bewdley Town Council
15 Bideford Mayor, Aldermen, and Capital Burgesses of the Borough, Town, and Manor of Bideford in the County of Devon1573, 1610 Devon Bideford Town Council
16 Blandford Forum Bailiff, Seneschal and Capital Burgesses of Blandford Forum1605 Dorset Blandford Forum Town Council
17 Bodmin Mayor, Aldermen and Councilmen of Bodmin1798

(The previous corporation, under a charter of 1594 had become extinct in 1789)

Cornwall Bodmin Town Council
18 Boston Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Boston1545, 1573 Lincolnshire Boston Borough Council
19 Brecknock Bailiff, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Brecon1556 Breconshire Brecon Town Council
20 Bridgnorth Bailiffs, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Bridgnorth1546 Shropshire Bridgnorth Town Council (rural borough 1967–1974)
21 Bridgwater Mayor, Aldermen, Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Bridgwater1468, 1587, 1628 Somerset Bridgwater Town Council (charter trustees 1974–2003)
22 Bridport Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Bridport1667 Dorset Bridport Town Council
23 Bristol (County of the City)Mayor, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the City of Bristol1664 Gloucestershire and Somerset Bristol City Council
24 Buckingham Bailiff, Principal Burgesses, and Steward of the Borough of Buckingham1553 Buckinghamshire Buckingham Town Council
25 Bury St Edmunds Alderman and Burgesses of Bury St. Edmunds in the County of Suffolk1606 Suffolk St Edmundsbury Borough Council until 2003, when separate Bury St Edmunds Town Council formed
26 Calne Steward and burgesses of the Borough of Calne1668 Wiltshire Calne Town Council
27 Cambridge Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Cambridge1605 Cambridgeshire Cambridge City Council
28 Canterbury (County of the City)Mayor and Commonalty of the City of Canterbury1609 Kent Canterbury City Council
29 Cardiff Bailiffs, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Town of Cardiff1581 and 1608 Glamorgan City of Cardiff 1974–1996, County and City of Cardiff since 1996
30 Cardigan Mayor, Common-Council and Burgesses of the Town and Borough of Cardigan1583 Cardiganshire Cardigan Town Council
31 Carlisle (City)Mayor, Aldermen, Bailiffs, and Citizens of the City of Carlisle1637 Cumberland Carlisle City Council
32 Carmarthen Mayor, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of Carmarthen1604, 1764 Carmarthenshire Carmarthen Town Council
33 Carnarvon Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Town and Borough of Caernarvon1559 Carnarvonshire Caernarfon Royal Town Council
34 Chard Portreeve and Bailiffs of the Borough of Chard1683 Somerset Chard Town Council
35 Chepping Wycombe Mayor, Aldermen, Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Chepping Wycombe1663 Buckinghamshire High Wycombe Charter Trustees
36 Chester (County of the City)Mayor and Citizens of the City of Chester1506 Cheshire Cheshire West and Chester Council (CWAC)
37 Chesterfield Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Chesterfield1662 Derbyshire Chesterfield Borough Council
38 Chichester (City)Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the City of Chichester1685 Sussex Chichester City Council (civil parish)
39 Chippenham Bailiff and Capital Burgesses of the Borough of Chippenham1553 Wiltshire Chippenham Town Council (charter trustees 1974–1980)
40 Chipping Norton Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Chipping Norton1608 Oxfordshire Chipping Norton Town Council
41 Clitheroe Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Clitheroe in the County of Lancaster1604 Lancashire Clitheroe Town Council
42 Colchester Mayor and Commonalty of the Borough of Colchester1818 Essex Colchester Borough Council
43 Congleton Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Congleton in the County of Chester1625 Cheshire Congleton Town Council
44 Coventry (City and County of the City) [lower-alpha 1] Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the City of Coventry1621 Warwickshire Coventry City Council
45 Dartmouth or Clifton-Dartmouth-HardnessMayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Clifton Dartmouth Hardness in the County of Devon1604 Devon Dartmouth Town Council
46 Daventry Bailiff, Burgesses and Commonalty of the Borough of Daventry1674/5 Northamptonshire Daventry Town Council (charter trustees 1974–2003)
47 Deal Mayor, Jurats, and Commonalty of the Town of Deal in the County of Kent1699 [lower-alpha 2] Kent Deal Town Council (charter trustees 1974–1996)
48 Denbigh Aldermen, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Denbigh1662 Denbighshire Denbigh Town Council
49 Derby Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Derby1683 Derbyshire Derby City Council
50 Devizes Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of Devizes1625 Wiltshire Devizes Town Council
51 Doncaster Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Doncaster in the County of York1688 Yorkshire Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council
52 Dorchester Mayor, Bailiffs, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Dorchester in the County of Dorset1629 Dorset Dorchester Town Council
53 Dover Mayor, Jurats, and Commonalty of the Town and Port of Dover1684 Kent Dover Town Council (charter trustees 1974–1996)
54 Droitwich Bailiffs and Burgesses of the borough of Droitwich1625 Worcestershire Droitwich Spa Town Council (originally named Droitwich)
55 Durham (City)Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the City of Durham and Framwelgate1780 (granted by the Bishop of Durham) County Durham Durham City Council
56 East Retford Bailiffs, Aldermen and Commonalty of the Borough of East Retford1607 Nottinghamshire East Retford Charter Trustees
57 Evesham Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Evesham1605 Worcestershire Evesham Town Council
58 Exeter (County of the City)Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the City of Exeter1537, renewed 1770 Devon Exeter City Council
59 Eye Bailiffs, Burgesses and Commonalty of the Borough of Eye1558 and 1574 confirmed 1697 Suffolk Eye Town Council
60 Falmouth Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Town of Falmouth in the County of Cornwall1661 Cornwall Falmouth Town Council
61 Faversham Mayor, Jurats and Freemen of the Town of Faversham1546, regranted 1685 Kent Faversham Town Council
62 Flint Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Flint1360 by Edward, the Black Prince as Earl of Chester Flintshire Flint Town Council
63 Folkestone Mayor, Jurats and Commonalty of the Town of Folkestone1313 and 1668 Kent Folkestone Town Council (charter trustees 1974–2004)
64 Gateshead Boroughholders and Freemen of the Borough of Gateshead1695 County Durham Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council
65 Glastonbury Mayor and Burgesses of the borough of Glastonbury1705 Somerset Glastonbury Town Council
66 Gloucester (County of the City)Mayor and Burgesses of the City of Gloucester in the County of the City of Gloucester1672 Gloucestershire Gloucester City Council
67 Godalming Warden, Bailiff and Assistants of the Borough of Godalming1575 Surrey Godalming Town Council
68 Godmanchester Bailiffs, Assistants and Commonalty of the Borough of Godmanchester1605 Huntingdonshire Godmanchester Town Council (combined with Huntingdon 1961–1982)
69 Grantham Aldermen, Burgesses and Commonalty of the Borough of Grantham1463 Lincolnshire Grantham Charter Trustees
70 Gravesend Mayor, Jurats, and Inhabitants of the Villages and Parishes of Gravesend and Milton in the County of Kent1562, renewed by Charles I Kent Gravesham Borough Council
71 Great Grimsby Mayor and Burgesses of the Town of Grimsby in the County of Lincoln1688 Lincolnshire Great Grimsby Charter Trustees (borough council 1974–1996)
72 Great Torrington Mayor, Aldermen and Chief Burgesses of the Borough of Great Torrington1686 Devon Great Torrington Town Council
73 Great Yarmouth Mayor, Aldermen, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of Great Yarmouth in the County of Norfolk.1703 Norfolk and Suffolk Great Yarmouth Borough Council
74 Guildford Mayor and Burgesses of the Town of Guldeford in the County of Surrey1686 Surrey Guildford Borough Council
75 Harwich Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of Harwich1604 Essex Harwich Town Council
76 Hastings Mayors, Jurats, and Commonalty of the Town and Port of Hastings in the County of Sussex1588, confirmed by Charles II Sussex Hastings Borough Council
77 Haverfordwest (County of the Town)Mayor, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the County of the Town of Haverfordwest, or of the Town and County of the Town of Haverfordwest1610 Pembrokeshire Haverfordwest Town Council
78 Helston Mayor and Aldermen of the Borough of Helston1774 Cornwall Helston Town Council
79 Hereford (City)Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the City of Hereford1697 Herefordshire Hereford City Council (civil parish)
80 Hertford Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the Borough of Hertford1680 Hertfordshire Hertford Town Council
81 Huntingdon The Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Huntingdon1630 Huntingdonshire Huntingdon Town Council (combined with Godmanchester 1961–1982)
82 Hythe The Mayor, Jurats and Commonalty of the Town and Port of Hythe1575 Kent Hythe Town Council
83 Ipswich Bailiffs, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Town or Borough of Ipswich.1665 Suffolk Ipswich Borough Council
84 Kendal Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Kirby-in-Kendal in the County of Westmorland1636 Westmorland Kendal Town Council
85 Kidderminster High Bailiff and Commonalty of the Borough of Kidderminster in the County of Worcester1827 Worcestershire Kidderminster Charter Trustees
86 King's Lynn or Lynn RegisMayor and Burgesses of the Borough of Lynn Regis1684 Norfolk King's Lynn and West Norfolk Borough Council
87 Kingston upon Hull (County of the Town)Mayor and Burgesses of the Town or Borough of Kingston-upon-Hull1688 Yorkshire Hull City Council
88 Kingston upon Thames Bailiffs and Freemen of the Borough of Kingston upon Thames1628 Surrey Kingston upon Thames London Borough Council
89 Lancaster Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the Town of Lancaster in the County Palatine of Lancaster1819 Lancashire Lancaster City Council
90 Launceston otherwise DunhevedMayor and Aldermen of Dunheved, otherwise Launceston1555 Cornwall Launceston Town Council
91 Leeds Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Leeds in the County of York1661 Yorkshire City of Leeds City Council
92 Leicester Mayor, Bailiff, and Burgesses of the Borough of Leicester1630 Leicestershire Leicester City Council
93 Leominster Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Leominster1665 Herefordshire Leominster Town Council
94 Lichfield (County of the City)Bailiff and Citizens of the City of Lichfield1664 Staffordshire Lichfield City Council (civil parish) – charter trustees 1974–1980
95 Lincoln (County of the City)Mayor, Sheriffs, Citizens, and Commonalty of the City of Lincoln1628 Lincolnshire Lincoln City Council
96 Liskeard Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of Liskerret otherwise Liskeard in the County of Cornwall1580 Cornwall Liskeard Town Council
97 Liverpool Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Liverpool1207, 1626 Lancashire Liverpool City Council
98 Llandovery Bailiff and Burgesses of the Borough of Llanymtheverye1590 Carmarthenshire Llandovery Town Council
99 Llanidloes Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Llanidloes1449 by John Tiptoft, Lord of Powys Montgomeryshire Llanidloes Town Council
100 Louth Warden and Six Assistants of the Town of Louth and Free School of King Edward the Sixth in Louth1605, 1830 Lincolnshire Louth Town Council
101 Ludlow Bailiffs, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Town and Borough of Ludlow1665 Shropshire Ludlow Town Council (rural borough 1967–1974)
102 Lyme Regis Mayor and Capital Burgesses of the Borough of Lyme Regis William III Dorset Lyme Regis Town Council
103 Lymington Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of LymingtonIncorporated by virtue of charters granted by Earls of Devon, confirmed by judgment given under a writ of quo warranto in 1578 Hampshire Charter trustees until 1979, now split between four parishes
104 Macclesfield Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Macclesfield1684 Cheshire Cheshire East Council
105 Maidenhead Mayor, Bridgemasters, Burgesses and Commonalty of the Town of Maidenhead1685 Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Borough Council
106 Maidstone Mayor, Jurats, and Commonalty of the King's Town and Parish of Maidstone in the County of Kent1748 Kent Maidstone Borough Council
107 Maldon Mayor, Aldermen, and Capital Burgesses and Commonalty of Maldon1810 Essex Maldon Town Council (originally had charter trustees)
108 Marlborough The Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of Marlborough1576 Wiltshire Marlborough Town Council
109 Monmouth Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the Town and Borough of Monmouth1666 Monmouthshire Monmouth Town Council
110 Morpeth Bailiffs and Free Burgesses of the Borough of Morpeth1662 Northumberland Castle Morpeth Borough Council (separate town council subsequently formed)
111 Neath Portreeve, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Neath1685 Glamorgan Neath Town Council
112 New Windsor Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of New Windsor in the County of Berks1664 Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Borough Council
113 Newark Mayor and Aldermen of the Borough of Newark in the County of Nottingham1673 Nottinghamshire Newark-on-Trent Town Council
114 Newbury Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Newbury1596 Berkshire Newbury Town Council (charter trustees 1974–1997)
115 Newcastle-under-Lyme Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of Newcastle-under-Lyne in the County of Stafford1590 Staffordshire Newcastle-under-Lyme Borough Council
116 Newcastle upon Tyne (County of the City)Mayor and Burgesses of the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne in the County of the Town of Newcastle upon Tyne1604 Northumberland Newcastle upon Tyne City Council
117 Newport Mayor, Aldermen, and Chief Burgesses of the Borough of Newport in the Isle of Wight in the County of Southampton1637 Hampshire (Isle of Wight)extinguished; Medina Borough Council from 1974 to 1995
118 Newport Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Newport1685 Monmouthshire Newport City Council
119 Northampton Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of Northampton1797 Northamptonshire Northampton Borough Council
120 Norwich (County of the City)Mayor, Sheriffs, Citizens, and Commonalty of the City of Norwich1683 Norfolk Norwich City Council
121 Nottingham (County of the Town)Mayor and Burgesses of the Town of Nottingham1449 Nottinghamshire Nottingham City Council
122 Oswestry Mayor, Aldermen, Common Councilmen, and Burgesses of Oswestry1674 Shropshire Oswestry Borough Council (rural borough 1967–1974)
123 Oxford (City)Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the City of Oxford in the County of Oxford1635 Oxfordshire Oxford City Council
124 Pembroke Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Town and Borough of Pembroke1485 Pembrokeshire Pembroke Town Council
125 Penryn Mayor, Aldermen and Councillors of the Borough of Penryn1621 Cornwall Penryn Town Council
126 Penzance Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the Town of Penzance in the County of Cornwall1614 Cornwall Penzance Town Council (charter trustees 1974–1980)
127 Plymouth Mayor and Commonalty of the Borough of Plymouth1572 Devon Plymouth City Council
128 Pontefract Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough or Town of Pontefract1607 Yorkshire Wakefield City Council
129 Poole (County of the Town)Mayor, Bailiffs, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Town of Poole1568 Dorset Poole Borough Council
130 Portsmouth Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Portsmouth in the County of Southampton1627 Hampshire Portsmouth City Council
131 Preston Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Preston in the County Palatine of Lancaster1685 Lancashire Preston City Council
132 Pwllheli Mayor, Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Pwllheli Elizabeth I Carnarvonshire Pwllheli Town Council
133 Reading Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Reading in the County of Berks1638 Berkshire Reading Borough Council
134 Richmond Mayor and Aldermen of the Borough of Richmond in the County of York1668 Yorkshire Richmond Town Council
135 Ripon Mayor, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of Ripon in the County of York1604 Yorkshire Ripon City Council (civil parish)
136 Rochester (City)Mayor and Citizens of the City of Rochester in the County of Kent1629 Kent Medway Borough Council
137 Romsey Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Town of Romsey Infra in the County of Southampton1607, 1692 Hampshire Romsey Town Council
138 Ruthin Aldermen, Common Councilmen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Ruthin1284, 1508 Denbighshire Ruthin Town Council
139 Rye Mayor, Jurats and Freemen of the Town of RyeNo charter separate from Cinque Ports Sussex Rye Town Council
140 Saffron Walden Mayor and Aldermen of the Town of Saffron Walden in the County of Essex1694 Essex Saffron Walden Town Council
141 Salisbury or New Sarum (City)Mayor and Commonalty of the City of New Sarum in the County of Wilts1611 Wiltshire Salisbury City Council
142 Sandwich Mayor, Jurats and Commonalty of the Town of Sandwich1684 Kent Sandwich Town Council
143 Scarborough Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Town of Scarborough1684 Yorkshire Scarborough Borough Council
144 Shaftesbury Mayor and Capital Burgesses of the Borough of Shaftesbury1604, 1665 Dorset Shaftesbury Town Council
145 Shrewsbury Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Town of Shrewsbury in the County of Salop1685 Shropshire Shrewsbury and Atcham Borough Council
146 South Molton Mayor, Capital Burgesses and Commonalty of the Borough of South Molton1684 Devon South Molton Town Council
147 Southampton (County of the Town)Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Town of Southampton Hampshire Southampton City Council
148 Southwold Bailiffs and Commonalty of the Borough of Southwold1689 Suffolk Southwold Town Council
149 St Albans Mayor and Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Saint Albans in the County of Hertford1685 Hertfordshire St Albans City Council
150 St Ives Mayor and Burgesses of the Borough of St Ives1685 Cornwall St Ives Town Council
151 Stafford Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Stafford1827 Staffordshire Stafford Borough Council
152 Stamford Mayor, Aldermen, and Capital Burgesses of the Town or Borough of Stamford in the County of Lincoln1685 Lincolnshire Stamford Town Council
153 Stockport Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of StockportNo charter, corporation appointed by Court Leet Cheshire and Lancashire Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council
154 Stockton-on-Tees Mayor, Aldermen, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of StocktonNo charter extant, borough by prescription [lower-alpha 3] County Durham Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council
155 Stratford-on-Avon Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Stratford on Avon1674 Warwickshire Stratford-upon-Avon Town council
156 Sudbury Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Sudbury Charles II Suffolk and Essex Sudbury Town Council
157 Sunderland Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the Borough of Sunderland1634 (granted by the Bishop of Durham) County Durham Sunderland City Council
158 Swansea Portreeve, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of SwanseaBorough by prescription [lower-alpha 3] (charter of 1685 not adopted) Glamorgan City and County of Swansea
159 Tamworth Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Tamworth1663 Staffordshire and Warwickshire Tamworth Borough Council
160 Tenby Mayor, Bailiffs, and Burgesses of the Borough of Tenby1631 Pembrokeshire Tenby Town Council
161 Tenterden The Mayor, Jurats and Commons of the Town and Hundred of Tenterden1600 Kent Tenterden Town Council
162 Tewkesbury Bailiffs, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of Tewkesbury in the County of Gloucester1698 Gloucestershire Tewkesbury Borough Council (although a separate Town Council also exists)
163 Thetford Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the Borough of Thetford1573 Norfolk and Suffolk Thetford Town Council
164 Tiverton Mayor and Burgesses of the Town and Parish of Tiverton in the County of Devon1723 Devon Tiverton Town Council
165 Totnes Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Totness1596 Devon Totnes Town Council
166 Truro Mayor, Aldermen, and Capital Burgesses of the Borough of Truro1589 Cornwall Truro City Council (civil parish)
167 Wallingford Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of the Borough of Wallingford1663 Berkshire Wallingford Town Council
168 Walsall Mayor and Commonalty of the Borough and Foreign of Walsall in the County of Stafford1627, confirmed 1661 Staffordshire Walsall Metropolitan Borough Council
169 Warwick Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Warwick1693, Warwickshire Warwick Town Council
170 Wells (City)Mayor, Masters, and Burgesses of the City or Borough of Wells in the County of Somerset1589 Somerset Wells City Council (civil parish)
171 Welshpool Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Borough of Poole in the County of Montgomery1615 Montgomeryshire Welshpool Town Council
172 Wenlock Burgesses of the Borough of Wenlock1631 Shropshire Much Wenlock Town Council (rural borough 1966–1974)
173 Weymouth and Melcombe Regis Mayor, Aldermen, Bailiffs, Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough and Town of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis in the County of Dorset1803 Dorset Weymouth and Portland Borough Council
174 Wigan Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Wigan1662 Lancashire Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council
175 Winchester (City)Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the City of Winchester1588 Hampshire Winchester City Council
176 Wisbech Burgesses of the Borough of Wisbech1646 Cambridgeshire Wisbech Town Council
177 Worcester Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the City of Worcester1621 Worcestershire Worcester City Council
178 York (County of the City)Mayor and Commonalty of the City of York1679 Yorkshire City of York Council (unitary)

See also

Notes

  1. In 1842 the County of the City of Coventry was joined to Warwickshire
  2. Prior to this charter, Deal was governed a deputy and assistants appointed by the Corporation of Sandwich
  3. 1 2 "Boroughs by prescription" existed by custom from time immemorial without a charter or other formal document of incorporation. [8]

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The County Borough of Leeds, and its predecessor, the Municipal Borough of Leeds, was a local government district in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, from 1835 to 1974. Its origin was the ancient borough of Leeds, which was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. In 1889, when West Riding County Council was formed, Leeds became a county borough outside the administrative county of the West Riding; and in 1893 the borough gained city status. The borough was extended a number of times, expanding from 21,593 acres (8,738 ha) in 1911 to 40,612 acres (16,435 ha) in 1961; adding in stages the former area of Roundhay, Seacroft, Shadwell and Middleton parishes and gaining other parts of adjacent districts. In 1971 Leeds was the fifth largest county borough by population in England. The county borough was abolished in 1974 and replaced with the larger City of Leeds, a metropolitan district of West Yorkshire.

Borough status in the United Kingdom is granted by royal charter to local government districts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The status is purely honorary, and does not give any additional powers to the council or inhabitants of the district. In Scotland, similarly chartered communities were known as royal burghs, although the status is no longer granted.

History of local government in England

The history of local government in England is one of gradual change and evolution since the Middle Ages. England has never possessed a formal written constitution, with the result that modern administration is based on precedent, and is derived from administrative powers granted to older systems, such as that of the shires.

Ancient borough historic unit of lower-tier local government in England and Wales

The ancient boroughs were a historic unit of lower-tier local government in England and Wales. The ancient boroughs covered only important towns and were established by charters granted at different times by the monarchy. Their history is largely concerned with the origin of such towns and how they gained the right of self-government. Ancient boroughs were reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which introduced directly elected corporations and allowed the incorporation of new industrial towns. Municipal boroughs ceased to be used for the purposes of local government in 1974, with borough status retained as an honorific title granted by the Crown.

Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French soverain, which is ultimately derived from the Latin word superānus, meaning "above".

The Belfast Borough Police was the police force for Belfast from 1800 to 1865, when it was abolished and replaced by the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC). Its members, nicknamed the Bulkies, had authority within the Belfast Police District.

Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885 United Kingdom legislation

The Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave the councils of municipal boroughs in England and Wales the power to award the title of honorary freeman to "persons of distinction and any persons who have rendered emininent services to the borough".

The Royal Commission on the Corporation of the City of London was a Royal Commission, established in 1853, which considered the local government arrangements of the City of London and the surrounding metropolitan area.

County Borough of Carlisle

Carlisle was, from 1835 to 1974, a local government district in the northwest of England, coterminate with Carlisle. In 1835, following the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, Carlisle was constituted a municipal borough of Cumberland, but was promoted to county borough status in 1914, within its boundaries taking over the functions of Cumberland County Council. The district was abolished on 31 March 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972.

The Ipswich Corporation was a municipal corporation that owned property and government in the Borough of Ipswich. The corporation kept highly detailed accounts of their operation, a great deal of which survives to this day. After a successful period of four centuries, surviving plague and many other challenges governance of the borough descended into chaos after the restoration in 1660. This lasted until new structures were imposed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 which created the municipal borough of Ipswich. Since the Local Government Act 1972 Ipswich has been a non-metropolitan district with borough status.

City status in Ireland

In Ireland, the term city has somewhat differing meanings in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

Dungarvan Town Council, previously known as Dungarvan Urban District Council, was responsible for administration and some public services in Dungarvan, County Waterford. It was abolished in 2014 as part of reforms under the Local Government Reform Act 2014.

References

  1. "Corporations". Hansard 1803-2005. Parliament of the United Kingdom. 14 February 1833. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
  2. 1 2 "Municipal Corporations". The Times . 24 June 1833. p. 3.
  3. "Corporations' Commission". The Times . 16 September 1833. p. 3.
  4. Finlayson, G. B. A. M. (October 1966). "The Politics of Municipal Reform, 1835". The English Historical Review. 81 (321): 673–692. doi:10.1093/ehr/LXXXI.CCCXXI.673. JSTOR   562019.
  5. "Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Municipal Corporations in England and Wales, First Report". Parliamentary Papers (XXIII). 1835.
  6. Marjie Bloy (11 October 2002). "Defects in Constitutions of Municipal Corporations". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
  7. "Local elections - proposals for reform" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
  8. Ballard, Adolphus (1914). The English Borough in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge University Press. p.  27.

Further reading