City of Leeds

Last updated

Leeds
Leeds-2-cropped.jpg
Wetherby Town Hall (11th August 2019) 001.jpg
Otley Market Place clock 7 August 2017.jpg
Morley Town Hall, Queen Street (geograph 6368393).jpg
Rothwell, war memorial - geograph.org.uk - 3974049.jpg
Pudsey Parish Church 01 2 September 2017.jpg
Harewood House, Harewood, Leeds - geograph.org.uk - 5869777.jpg
Motto(s): 
Latin: Pro Rege et Lege, lit. 'For King and the Law'
Leeds UK locator map.svg
Leeds shown within West Yorkshire
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Leeds
Location within England
United Kingdom adm location map.svg
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Leeds
Location within the United Kingdom
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Leeds
Location in Europe
Coordinates: 53°48′03″N1°33′01″W / 53.8007°N 1.5502°W / 53.8007; -1.5502 [1]
OS grid reference SE 2971 3391 [1]
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
City region and ceremonial county West Yorkshire
Historic county West Riding of Yorkshire
Borough Charter1207
Town charter1626
City status1893
Metropolitan borough1974
Named for Leeds
Administrative HQ Leeds Civic Hall
Government
[2]
  Type Metropolitan borough with leader and cabinet
  Body Leeds City Council
   Control Labour
   Leader James Lewis (L)
   Lord Mayor Al Garthwaite
   Chief Executive Tom Riordan
   House of Commons
Area
[3]
  Total213.0 sq mi (551.7 km2)
  Rank 71st
Population
 (2021) [4]
  Total809,036
  Rank 2nd
  Density3,800/sq mi (1,466/km2)
Ethnicity (2021)
[5]
   Ethnic groups
List
Religion (2021)
[5]
   Religion
List
Time zone UTC+0 (GMT)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (BST)
Postcode areas
Dialling codes
  • 0113
  • 01924
  • 01937
  • 01943
  • 01977
ISO 3166 code GB-LDS
GSS code E08000035
ITL code TLE42
GVA 2021 estimate [6]
 Total £27.9 billion
 Per capita£34,487
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate [6]
 Total£30.6 billion
 Per capita£37,764
Website leeds.gov.uk

Leeds, [7] also known as the City of Leeds, is a metropolitan borough with city status in West Yorkshire, England. The metropolitan borough includes the administrative centre of Leeds and the towns of Farsley, Garforth, Guiseley, Horsforth, Morley, Otley, Pudsey, Rothwell, Wetherby and Yeadon. [8] It has a population of 809,036 (2021), making it technically the second largest city in England by population behind Birmingham, since London is not a single local government entity. Local governance sits with Leeds City Council and the city's 32 Parish Councils.

Contents

The current city boundaries were set on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, as part a reform of local government in England. The city is a merger of eleven former local government districts; the unitary City and County Borough of Leeds combined with the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey, the urban districts of Aireborough, Garforth, Horsforth, Otley and Rothwell, and parts of the rural districts of Tadcaster, Wharfedale and Wetherby from the West Riding of Yorkshire.

For its first 12 years the city had a two-tier system of local government; Leeds City Council shared power with West Yorkshire County Council. Since the Local Government Act 1985 Leeds City Council has effectively been a unitary authority, serving as the sole (aside from the 32 Parish Councils) executive, deliberative and legislative body responsible for local policy, setting council tax, and allocating budget in the city, and is a member of the Leeds City Region Partnership.

Although the city's area includes 32 civil parishes, most of Leeds' population currently live in unparished areas. In these areas the Localism Act 2011 makes provision for groups of people from the community, called neighbourhood forums, to formulate Neighbourhood Development Plans and Orders intended to guide and shape development in their own locality. [9]

History

Background

Albion Place Pinnacle, Leeds 12.jpg
Albion Place

The Borough of Leeds was created in 1207, when Maurice Paynel, lord of the manor, granted a charter covering a small area adjacent to a crossing of the River Aire, between the old settlement centred on Leeds Parish Church to the east and the manor house and mills to the west. In 1626 a charter was granted by Charles I, incorporating the entire parish as the Borough of Leeds; it was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. The parish and borough included the chapelries of Chapel Allerton, Armley, Beeston, Bramley, Farnley, Headingley cum Burley, Holbeck, Hunslet, Leeds, Potternewton and Wortley. The borough was located in the West Riding of Yorkshire and gained city status in 1893. When a county council was formed for the riding in 1889, Leeds was excluded from its area of responsibility and formed a county borough. The borough made a significant number of territorial expansions, expanding from 21,593 acres (87.38 km2) in 1911 to 40,612 acres (164.35 km2) in 1961; [10] adding in stages the former area of the Roundhay, Seacroft, Shadwell and Middleton parishes and gaining other parts of adjacent districts.

Formation

A review of local government arrangements completed in 1969 proposed the creation of a new large district centred on Leeds, occupying 317,000 acres (1,280 km2) and including 840,000 people. The proposed area was significantly reduced in a 1971 white paper; and within a year every local authority to be incorporated into it protested or demonstrated. [11] The final proposal reduced the area further and following the enactment of the Local Government Act 1972, the county borough was abolished on 1 April 1974 and its former area was combined with that of the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey; the urban districts of Aireborough, Horsforth, Otley, Garforth and Rothwell; and parts of the rural districts of Tadcaster, Wetherby and Wharfedale. The new district gained both borough and city status, as had been held by the county borough; and forms part of the county of West Yorkshire.

Formation of the metropolitan district in 1974
The former county borough is shaded in grey. Other areas:
  1. Municipal Borough of Morley
  2. Municipal Borough of Pudsey
  3. Aireborough Urban District
  4. Horsforth Urban District
  5. Otley Urban District
  6. Garforth Urban District
  7. Rothwell Urban District
  8. 8a. Tadcaster Rural District (part)
  9. Wetherby Rural District (part)
  10. Wharfedale Rural District (part)
Leeds1974.png

Geography

Pudsey, which is one of the boroughs towns also forms part of the conurbation of nearby Bradford Pudsey Town Hall 02 2 September 2017.jpg
Pudsey, which is one of the boroughs towns also forms part of the conurbation of nearby Bradford

The district and its settlements are situated in the eastern foothills of the Pennines astride the River Aire whose valley, the Aire Gap, provides a road and rail corridor that facilitates communications with cities to the west of the Pennines. The district extends 15 miles (24 km) from east to west and 13 miles (21 km) from north to south; with over 65% covered with green belt land. The highest point, at 1,115 feet (340 m), is at its north western extremity on the eastern slopes of Rombalds Moor, better known as Ilkley Moor, on the boundary with the City of Bradford. The lowest points are at around 33 feet (10 m), in the east: where River Wharfe crosses the boundary with North Yorkshire south of Thorp Arch Trading Estate and where the River Aire (at this point forming the City of Wakefield boundary) meets the North Yorkshire boundary near Fairburn Ings. To the north and east Leeds is bordered by the North Yorkshire districts of Harrogate to the north and Selby district to the east. The remaining borders are with other districts of West Yorkshire: Wakefield to the south, Kirklees to the south-west, and Bradford to the west. [12]

Governance

Morley town hall, one of the towns forming the borough TownHall-Morley-West Yorkshire-2.jpg
Morley town hall, one of the towns forming the borough
Leeds Civic Hall on Millennium Square, meeting place of Leeds City Council Leeds Civic Hall 11 Sep 2016.jpg
Leeds Civic Hall on Millennium Square, meeting place of Leeds City Council

Leeds City Council is the local authority of the district. The council is composed of 99 councillors, three for each of the city's 33 wards. Elections are held three years out of four, on the first Thursday of May. One third of the councillors are elected, for a four-year term, in each election. 2004 saw all seats up for election due to boundary changes. It is currently run by a Labour administration. Before the 2011 election, the council had been under no overall control since 2004. The Chief Executive of Leeds City Council is Tom Riordan, and the Leader of the Council is Councillor James Lewis of the Labour Party. As a metropolitan county, West Yorkshire does not have a county council, so Leeds City Council is the primary provider of local government services. The district forms part of the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England.

Most of the district is an unparished area, comprising Leeds itself (the area of the former county borough), Pudsey, Garforth, Rothwell and the area of the former urban district of Aireborough. In the unparished area there is no lower tier of government. Outside the unparished area there are 31 civil parishes, represented by parish councils. These form the lowest tier of local government [13] and absorb some limited functions from Leeds City Council in their areas. The councils of the civil parishes of Horsforth, Morley, Otley and Wetherby are town councils. [14] The 34 other civil parishes are: [15]

The district is represented by eight MPs, for the constituencies of Elmet and Rothwell (Alec Shelbrooke, Conservative); Leeds Central (Hilary Benn, Labour); Leeds East (Richard Burgon, Labour); Leeds North East (Fabian Hamilton, Labour); Leeds North West (Alex Sobel, Labour); Leeds West (Rachel Reeves, Labour); Morley and Outwood (constituency shared with City of Wakefield) (Andrea Jenkyns, Conservative); and Pudsey (Stuart Andrew, Conservative).

Demography

Leeds compared
2001 UK Census [16] City of Leeds
metropolitan district
Yorkshire
and the Humber
England
Population715,4024,964,83349,138,831
White91.8%93.5%90.9%
Asian4.5%4.5%4.6%
Black1.4%0.7%2.3%
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1801 94,421    
1811 108,459+14.9%
1821 137,476+26.8%
1831 183,015+33.1%
1841 222,189+21.4%
1851 249,992+12.5%
1861 311,197+24.5%
1871 372,402+19.7%
1881 433,607+16.4%
1891 503,493+16.1%
1901 552,479+9.7%
1911 606,250+9.7%
1921 625,854+3.2%
1931 646,119+3.2%
1941 668,667+3.5%
1951 692,003+3.5%
1961 715,260+3.4%
1971 739,401+3.4%
1981 696,732−5.8%
1991 716,760+2.9%
2001 715,404−0.2%
Source: Vision of Britain [17]

At the 2001 UK census, the district had a total population of 715,402. [16] Of the 301,614 households in Leeds, 33.3% were married couples living together, 31.6% were one-person households, 9.0% were co-habiting couples and 9.8% were lone parents, following a similar trend to the rest of England. [18] The population density was 1,967/km2 (5,090/sq mi) [18] and for every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. Of those aged 16–74, 30.9% had no academic qualifications, higher than the 28.9% in all of England. [19] Of the residents, 6.6% were born outside the United Kingdom, lower than the England average of 9.2%. [20]

Leeds Minster St Peters Kirkgate Leeds - geograph.org.uk - 408165.jpg
Leeds Minster

The majority of people in Leeds identify themselves as Christian. [21] The proportion of Muslims is around National average. [21] Leeds has the third-largest Jewish community in the United Kingdom, after those of London and Manchester. The areas of Alwoodley and Moortown contain sizeable Jewish populations. [22] 16.8% of Leeds residents in the 2001 census declared themselves as having "no religion", which is broadly in line with the figure for the whole of the UK (also 8.1% "religion not stated").

The crime rate in Leeds is well above the national average, like many other cities in England. [23] [24] In July 2006, the think tank Reform calculated rates of crime for different offences and has related this to populations of major urban areas (defined as towns over 100,000 population). Leeds was 11th in this rating (excluding London boroughs, 23rd including London boroughs). [25]

Economy

Leeds City Centre Leeds City Centre.JPG
Leeds City Centre

Leeds has a diverse economy with the service sector now dominating over the traditional manufacturing industries. It is the location of one of the largest financial centres in England outside London. New tertiary industries such as retail, call centres, offices and media have contributed to a high rate of economic growth. This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Leeds at current basic prices with figures in millions of pounds. [26]

YearRegional Gross
Value Added 4
Agriculture 1 Industry 2 Services 3
19958,713432,6526,018
200011,681322,7718,878
200313,637363,01810,583

Education

Education Leeds, a non-profit company owned by Leeds City Council, provided educational services between 2001 and 2011. In April 2011 Leeds City Council disbanded Education Leeds and has consolidated educational services into the Children's Services Department of the council itself. [27]

Transport

Leeds railway station, the city's busiest station Main entrance, Leeds City railway station (4th March 2020).jpg
Leeds railway station, the city's busiest station

Leeds city centre is connected to the National Rail network at Leeds railway station. Public transport in West Yorkshire is coordinated by West Yorkshire Metro, under the control of a joint-board of local authorities in the county, including Leeds City Council.

Public services

There are 24 cemeteries in Leeds operated by the city council. The oldest ones, in Beckett Street and Hunslet, were both opened in 1845; the newest ones, in Kippax and Whinmoor, opened in 2013. [28]

Twin cities

The City has several twinning or partnership arrangements:

Notes

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rothwell, West Yorkshire</span> Market Town in West Yorkshire, England

Rothwell is a town in the south-east of the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. It is situated between Leeds and Wakefield.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pudsey</span> Town in West Yorkshire, England

Pudsey is a market town in the City of Leeds Borough in West Yorkshire, England. It is located midway between Bradford city centre and Leeds city centre. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it has a population of 22,408.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Horsforth</span> Town and civil parish in West Yorkshire, England

Horsforth is a town and civil parish in the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, five miles north-west of Leeds city centre. Historically a village within the West Riding of Yorkshire, it had a population of 18,895 at the 2011 Census. It became part of the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in 1974. In 1999, a civil parish was created for the area, and the parish council voted to rename itself a town council. The area is within the Horsforth ward of Leeds City Council, which also includes the southern part of Rawdon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Civil parishes in West Yorkshire</span>

A civil parish is a subnational entity, forming the lowest unit of local government in England. There are 101 civil parishes in the ceremonial county of West Yorkshire, most of the county being unparished. At the 2001 census, there were 557,369 people living in the parishes, accounting for 26.8 per cent of the county's population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Garforth</span> Town in West Yorkshire, England

Garforth is a town in the metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elmet (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1983–2010

Elmet was a county constituency in West Yorkshire represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pudsey (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Pudsey is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Stuart Andrew, a Conservative.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kippax, West Yorkshire</span> Human settlement in England

Kippax is a village and civil parish in the City of Leeds metropolitan borough, West Yorkshire, England. It is situated to the east of the city, near to Garforth and Great Preston. The Kippax and Methley ward of Leeds City Council was part of the former UK Parliament constituency of Elmet, which became Elmet and Rothwell at the 2010 UK general election. The population of Kippax parish at the 2011 Census was 9,785. Kippax was a separate civil parish, in Tadcaster Rural District, until 1939, when it was annexed to Garforth. It re-acquired civil parish status and a parish council on 1 April 2004.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leeds City Council</span> Local government body in England

Leeds City Council is the local authority of the City of Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. It is a metropolitan district council, one of five in West Yorkshire and one of 36 in the metropolitan counties of England, and provides the majority of local government services in Leeds. It has the second-largest population of any council in the United Kingdom with approximately 800,000 inhabitants living within its area; only Birmingham City Council has more. Since 1 April 2014, it has been a constituent council of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Yorkshire Built-up Area</span> Conurbation in England

The West Yorkshire Built-up Area, previously known as the West Yorkshire Urban Area, is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based on the cities of Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and the large towns of Huddersfield and Halifax. It is the 4th largest urban area in the United Kingdom. However, it excludes other towns and villages such as Featherstone, Normanton, Castleford, Pontefract, Hemsworth, Todmorden, Hebden Bridge, Knottingley, Wetherby and Garforth which, though part of the county of West Yorkshire, are considered independently. There are substantial areas of agricultural land within the designated area – more than in any other official urban area in England – many of the towns and cities are only just connected with one another by narrow outlying strips of development.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Elmet and Rothwell (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Elmet and Rothwell is a constituency in West Yorkshire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since its creation in 2010 by Alec Shelbrooke, a Conservative. In the 2017 general election, Elmet and Rothwell recorded the largest turnout of any seat in West or South Yorkshire, with almost 60,000 electors casting a vote.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">County Borough of Leeds</span> Administrative division of Yorkshire, England until 1974

The County Borough of Leeds, and its predecessor, the Municipal Borough of Leeds, was a local government district in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, from 1835 to 1974. Its origin was the ancient borough of Leeds, which was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. In 1889, when West Riding County Council was formed, Leeds became a county borough outside the administrative county of the West Riding; and in 1893 the borough gained city status. The borough was extended a number of times, expanding from 21,593 acres (8,738 ha) in 1911 to 40,612 acres (16,435 ha) in 1961; adding in stages the former area of Roundhay, Seacroft, Shadwell and Middleton parishes and gaining other parts of adjacent districts. In 1971 Leeds was the fifth largest county borough by population in England. The county borough was abolished in 1974 and replaced with the larger City of Leeds, a metropolitan district of West Yorkshire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leeds</span> City in West Yorkshire, England

Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. It is the largest settlement in Yorkshire and the administrative centre of the City of Leeds Metropolitan Borough, which is the second most populous district in the United Kingdom. It is built around the River Aire and is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines. The city was a small manorial borough in the 13th century and a market town in the 16th century. It expanded by becoming a major production centre, including of carbonated water where it was invented in the 1760s, and trading centre for the 17th and 18th centuries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thorp Arch</span> Village and civil parish in West Yorkshire, England

Thorp Arch is a village and civil parish near Wetherby, West Yorkshire, England in the City of Leeds metropolitan borough.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leeds Country Way</span> Long-distance footpath in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England

The Leeds Country Way is a circular long-distance footpath of 62 miles (99 km) around Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It is never more than 7 miles (11 km) from City Square, Leeds, but is mainly rural with extensive views in the outlying areas of the Leeds metropolitan district. It follows public Rights of Way including footpaths, bridleways and minor lanes, with a few short sections along roads.

The first elections to the newly created Leeds City Council were held on 10 May 1973, with the entirety of the 96 seat council – three seats for each of the 32 wards – up for vote. The Local Government Act 1972 stipulated that the elected members were to shadow and eventually take over from the predecessor corporation on 1 April 1974. The order in which the councillors were elected dictated their term serving, with third-place candidates serving two years and up for re-election in 1975, second-placed three years expiring in 1976 and 1st-placed five years until 1978.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1980 Leeds City Council election</span>

The 1980 Leeds City Council election took place on 1 May 1980 to elect members of Leeds City Council in England.

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Bibliography

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