|City of Westminster|
Trafalgar Square, a major junction in the city
Westminster shown within Greater London
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Created||1 April 1965|
|Admin HQ||City Hall, Victoria Street|
|• Type||London borough council|
|• Body||Westminster City Council|
|• Leadership||Leader & Cabinet (Conservative)|
|• Lord Mayor||Ruth Bush|
|• London Assembly||Tony Devenish (Con) AM for West Central|
|• MPs||Karen Buck (Lab), Nickie Aiken (Con)|
|• Total||8.29 sq mi (21.48 km2)|
|Area rank||309th (of 317)|
|• Rank||63rd (of 317)|
|• Density||32,000/sq mi (12,000/km2)|
|• Ethnicity||35.2% White British |
2.3% White Irish
0% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
24.1% Other White
0.9% White & Black Caribbean
0.9% White & Black African
1.6% White & Asian
1.8% Other Mixed
4.6% Other Asian
4.2% Black African
2% Black Caribbean
1.3% Other Black
|Time zone||UTC (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
The City of Westminster is in London and is an inner borough that holds city status. For centuries, it has been the location of the national government. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is immediately to the west of the older City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.
Aside from numerous large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites commonly associated with London are in the borough, including Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), Westminster Abbey, Whitehall, 10 Downing Street, and Trafalgar Square. The borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster; the shopping areas around Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Bond Street; and the night-time entertainment district of Soho. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local government body is Westminster City Council.
A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs. It also has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea. The borough performs more positively on education, with 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications.
The current Westminster coat of arms was given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964.
Westminster had other arms before, which had a chief identical to the chief in the present arms. The symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St. Marylebone. The original arms had a portcullis as the main charge, which now forms the crest.
After the depopulation of Roman London in the 5th century, an Anglo Saxon agricultural and trade settlement likely developed to its west, associated with the Middle Saxons, sometimes called Lundenwic ('London village' or London port'). Overtime Lundenburh ('London fort'), the former Roman city with its still exiting Roman walls was repopulated and Lundenwic declined, becoming pastoral and partly known as Aldwych (Aldwic - 'old village'), which name lives on for a section of Westminster.
The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, and inevitably drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.
For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields, eventually absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, and gradually creating the vast Greater London that exists today.
Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey. The church was briefly the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which also granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550.The Westminster Court of Burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area, previously under the Abbey's control. The City and Liberties of Westminster were further defined by Letters Patent in 1604, and the court of burgesses and liberty continued in existence until 1900, and the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster.
The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs: St Marylebone, Paddington, and the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which included Soho, Mayfair, St. James's, Strand, Westminster, Pimlico, Belgravia, and Hyde Park. This restructuring took place under the London Government Act 1963, which significantly reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations.
The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O.B.E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928.
In addition to the City and Liberty of Westminster, prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields, Strand District Board of Works, Westminster District Board of Works and the Vestry of Westminster St James.
The boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963.
|Source: A Vision of Britain through time, citing Census population|
The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.
|White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller||76||0.03%|
|Asian or Asian British: Indian||5,665||3.12%||7,213||3.29%|
|Asian or Asian British: Pakistani||1,828||1.01%||2,328||1.06%|
|Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi||5,000||2.76%||6,299||2.87%|
|Asian or Asian British: Chinese||4,077||2.25%||5,917||2.70%|
|Asian or Asian British: Other Asian||3,614||1.99%||10,105||4.61%|
|Asian or Asian British: Total||20,184||11.13%||31,862||14.52%|
|Black or Black British: Caribbean||5,613||3.10%||4,449||2.03%|
|Black or Black British: African||6,678||3.68%||9,141||4.17%|
|Black or Black British: Other Black||1,190||0.66%||2,882||1.31%|
|Black or Black British: Total||13,481||7.44%||16,472||7.51%|
|Mixed: White and Black Caribbean||1,382||0.76%||1,869||0.85%|
|Mixed: White and Black African||1,204||0.66%||1,927||0.89%|
|Mixed: White and Asian||2,436||1.34%||3,584||1.63%|
|Mixed: Other Mixed||2,458||1.36%||4,015||1.83%|
|Other: Any other ethnic group||8,613||3.93%|
|Black, Asian, and minority ethnic: Total||48,571||26.79%||84,066||38.32%|
|Religion not stated||15,877||8.76%||20,519||9.35%|
The city is divided into 20 wards, each electing three councillors. Westminster City Council is currently composed of 41 Conservative Party members and 19 Labour Party members.
A lord mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of mayors of Westminster for a list of former mayors (1900–1965) and lord mayors (1965 to date).
|Evolution of Parliamentary representation|
|St Marylebone||Westminster North||Regent's Park and Kensington North||Westminster North|
|Paddington South||Cities of London and Westminster|
|Westminster St George's||Cities of London and Westminster||Cities of London and Westminster|
|City of London|
The City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London:
The City of Westminster is home to a large number of companies. Many leading global corporations have chosen to establish their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St. James's within the City of Westminster also have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds. The West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of media and creative companies. Oxford Street is one of the leading shopping destinations in the world.[ citation needed ] The list of companies includes
The Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office, London is in Westminster.
Companies that previously had their head offices in the City of Westminster include Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), British Aircraft Corporation,British Midland (Portland House), British United Airways, British Mediterranean Airways, Cadbury, Diageo, BAA Limited, Lloyd International Airways, and P&O Princess Cruises. In addition, Iran Air previously had its Piccadilly main sales office in the city.
The City of Westminster contains the some of the most famous sites in London, including Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, the Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) and Big Ben.
These include Green Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park and St. James's Park. In addition to parks and open spaces within the borough, the City owns and maintains East Finchley Cemetery and crematorium in the London Borough of Barnet.
Four National Rail stations serve the City of Westminster:
|London Charing Cross||South Eastern Main Line||South East London and Kent including London Bridge, Lewisham, Dartford, Orpington, Sevenoaks and Tunbridge Wells. Services operated by Southeastern.|
|London Marylebone||Chiltern Main Line||North West London, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Midlands including Wembley Stadium, Harrow, Aylesbury, Oxford and Birmingham Moor Street. Services operated by Chiltern Railways.|
|London Paddington||Great Western Main Line|| West London, South West England and South Wales including Ealing Broadway, Reading, Bristol, Cardiff, Exeter, Oxford, Plymouth and Worcester. Services operated by Great Western Railway and TfL Rail (|
|London Victoria||Brighton and Chatham Main Lines||South East London and Kent including Peckham Rye, Dartford, Gravesend, Dover Priory and Ashford International. Services operated by Southeastern. |
Services operated by Gatwick Express.
The City of Westminster is served by 27 London Underground stations and 10 lines.
By 2009 Westminster City Council had electric vehicle charging points in 15 locations through the city (13 car parks and two on-street points). Users pay an annual fee to cover administration costs to register and use the points.By 2018 there were 60 electric vehicle charging locations.
In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.3%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.3%; driving a car or van, 6.0%; work mainly at or from home, 5.5%; bicycle, 3.1%; train, 3.0%.
Westminster Children's Services administers many primary and secondary schools. In addition, there are several state-funded faith schools, primarily Church of England (CE), and Roman Catholic (RC), but Christian non-denominational (ND) schools are also in the borough,and there are several non-profit-making junior and senior independent schools.
The London Library, an independent lending library, is at 14 St. James Square.
The city operates two reference libraries; Westminster Reference Library and Marylebone Information Service.Westminster Reference Library holds several special collections: of which the Sherlock Holmes, Arts and Business collections are the most comprehensive. In addition to the collections in Westminster Reference Library the city has two specialist libraries: the Westminster Music Library, the largest music library in the UK and the Westminster Chinese Library in the Charing Cross Library.
Free City of Westminster operated public lending libraries in Westminster include:
In terms of tenure, the borough ranks highest on one standard criteria in analysing housing supply and demand, the proportion of private rented accommodation relative to other types of housing in England. This is indicative of a high density of development and higher investment demand relative to other districts in England and most of the 15 highest-ranking local authorities are boroughs of Greater London. Tourism also increases the proportion of willing third-party landlords, as the two authorities which are outside London in the list are England's largest south coast holiday resorts.
|Highest-ranked local authorities by proportion of Social Housing (2011 Census)|
|Local Authority||Privately rented||Socially rented||Shared ownership|
|City of Westminster London Borough||37.6||11.9||0.8|
|Kensington and Chelsea London Borough||34||9.2||0.9|
|City of London London Borough||33.1||10.4||0.3|
|Newham London Borough||32.6||18.3||1.8|
|Tower Hamlets London Borough||30.8||17.3||2.4|
|Camden London Borough||30.5||23||0.7|
|Haringey London Borough||30.3||17||1.5|
|Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough||30||15.7||1.6|
|Wandsworth London Borough||30||12.8||1.5|
|Brent London Borough||28.8||9.7||1.5|
|Bournemouth Unitary Authority||28.2||5.9||0.7|
|Brighton and Hove Unitary Authority||28||9.8||0.9|
|Lambeth London Borough||27.7||19.6||1.5|
|Hackney London Borough||27.6||23.8||2.3|
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Westminster.
Westminster is a district in central London; part of the wider City of Westminster, north of the River Thames. It is home to one of the highest concentrations of visitor attractions and historic landmarks in London, including: the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an Inner London borough with royal status. It is the smallest borough in London and the second smallest district in England; it is one of the most densely populated administrative regions in the United Kingdom. It includes affluent areas such as Notting Hill, Kensington, South Kensington, Chelsea, and Knightsbridge.
Knightsbridge is a residential and retail district in central London, south of Hyde Park. It is identified in the London Plan as one of two international retail centres in London, alongside the West End.
Notting Hill is an affluent district of West London, England, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Notting Hill is known for being a cosmopolitan and multicultural neighbourhood, hosting the annual Notting Hill Carnival and Portobello Road Market. From around 1870, Notting Hill had an association with artists.
Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London, located in the West End of London. First a medieval parish then a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965. Three important landmarks of the district are Paddington station, designed by the celebrated engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel and opened in 1847; St Mary's Hospital; and the former Paddington Green Police Station.
The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham is a London borough partly in West London and partly in Southwest London (Fulham); it forms part of Inner London.
The W postcode area, also known as the London W postcode area is a group of postcode districts covering part of central and part of West London, England. The area originates from the Western (W1) and Paddington (W2-14) districts of the London postal district. This area covers 35 postcode districts and around 18,554 live postcodes.
Paddington was a civil parish and metropolitan borough in London, England. It was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, governed by an administrative vestry. The parish was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855 and became part of the County of London in 1889. The parish of Paddington became a metropolitan borough in 1900, following the London Government Act 1899, with the parish vestry replaced by a borough council. In 1965 the borough was abolished and its former area became part of the City of Westminster in Greater London.
The Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone was a metropolitan borough of the County of London from 1900 to 1965. It was based directly on the previously existing civil parish of St Marylebone, which was incorporated into the Metropolitan Board of Works area in 1855, retaining a parish vestry, and then became part of the County of London in 1889.
Central London is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions have been used to define the scope of Central London for statistics, urban planning and local government. Its characteristics are understood to include a high density built environment, high land values, an elevated daytime population and a concentration of regionally, nationally and internationally significant organisations and facilities.
Westminster City Council is the local authority for the City of Westminster in Greater London, England. It is a London borough council and is entitled to be known as a city council, which is a rare distinction in the United Kingdom. The city is divided into 20 wards, each electing three councillors. The council is currently composed of 41 Conservative Party members and 19 Labour Party members. The council was created by the London Government Act 1963 and replaced three local authorities: Paddington Metropolitan Borough Council, St Marylebone Metropolitan Borough Council and Westminster Borough Council. The present-day city council provides some shared services with Hammersmith and Fulham, and with Kensington and Chelsea.
Cities of London and Westminster is a constituency returning a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons in the United Kingdom Parliament. It is a borough constituency for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer. As with all constituencies, the election is decided using the first past the post system of election. Since its creation at the 1950 general election, the constituency has, thus far, always elected the candidate nominated by the Conservative Party. This constituency is known for being the one in which the British Parliament, Buckingham Palace, Downing Street, and Whitehall are located.
Lisson Grove is a street and district in Marylebone, City of Westminster, London. It contains a number of important cultural landmarks, including the world-famous Lisson Gallery, Alfies Antique Market, Red Bus Recording Studios, and the Seashell of Lisson Grove. The heart of the community is Church Street market, which runs between Lisson Grove itself and Edgware Road. The area was initially built on the edge of London in the late 18th century, and some fine Georgian terraces remain. Early residents included artists such as Benjamin Haydon and Charles Rossi, whose former cottage still stands at 116 Lisson Grove. Lord’s Cricket Club was located on Lisson Grove in the early nineteenth century before moving to its current location a short distance away. The area is bounded by St John’s Wood Road to the north, Regent’s Park to the east, Edgware Road to the west and Marylebone Road to the south. Church Street ward covers approximately the same area. Lisson Grove is predominantly residential, with a high population density.
The SW postcode area, also known as the London SW postcode area, is a group of 29 postcode districts of a broad radial swathe of southwest London, England covering around 19.890 live postcodes as far as Mortlake, Streatham and Raynes Park. The area straightforwardly succeeds a shorter-lived South Western (SW1–SW10) and Battersea (SW11–SW20) split between its components of the London post town.
The A40 is a major trunk road connecting London to Fishguard, Wales. The A40 in London passes through seven London Boroughs: the City of London, Camden, Westminster, Kensington & Chelsea, Hammersmith & Fulham, Ealing and Hillingdon, to meet the M40 motorway junction 1 at Denham, Buckinghamshire.
Marylebone is an area in the West End of London, in the City of Westminster. Oxford Street, Europe's busiest shopping street, forms its southern boundary.
West London is a popularly, but informally and inexactly defined part of London, England.
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