Tate Britain

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Tate Britain
Tate Britain (5822081512) (2).jpg
Open street map central london.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within Central London
Established 1897;121 years ago (1897)
Location Millbank
London, SW1
Coordinates 51°29′27″N0°07′38″W / 51.490833°N 0.127222°W / 51.490833; -0.127222
Visitors 1,777,877 (2017) [1]
Director Alex Farquharson [2]
Public transit access Underground no-text.svg Pimlico
Website tate.org.uk/britain
Tate

Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London. It is part of the Tate network of galleries in England, with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. It is the oldest gallery in the network, having opened in 1897. It houses a substantial collection of the art of the United Kingdom since Tudor times, and in particular has large holdings of the works of J. M. W. Turner, who bequeathed all his own collection to the nation. It is one of the largest museums in the country.

Millbank area and road in City of Westminster

Millbank is an area of central London in the City of Westminster. Millbank is located by the River Thames, east of Pimlico and south of Westminster. Millbank is known as the location of major government offices, Burberry headquarters, the Millbank Tower and prominent art institutions such as Tate Britain and the Chelsea College of Art and Design.

City of Westminster City and borough in United Kingdom

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Tate Modern modern art gallery located in Bankside, London, England

Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group. It is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of modern and contemporary art in the world. As with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s second most-visited attraction, behind the British Museum, pulling in approximately 5.5 million visitors annually.

Contents

History

The gallery is situated on Millbank, on the site of the former Millbank Prison. Construction, undertaken by Higgs and Hill, [3] commenced in 1893, and the gallery opened on 21 July 1897 as the National Gallery of British Art. However, from the start it was commonly known as the Tate Gallery, after its founder Sir Henry Tate, and in 1932 it officially adopted that name. [4] Before 2000, the gallery housed and displayed both British and modern collections, but the launch of Tate Modern saw Tate's modern collections move there, while the old Millbank gallery became dedicated to the display of historical and contemporary British art. As a consequence, it was renamed Tate Britain in March 2000.

Millbank Prison former prison in London

Millbank Prison was a prison in Millbank, Westminster, London, originally constructed as the National Penitentiary, and which for part of its history served as a holding facility for convicted prisoners before they were transported to Australia. It was opened in 1816 and closed in 1890.

Higgs and Hill was a major British construction company responsible for construction of many well-known buildings in London.

The front part of the building was designed by Sidney R. J. Smith with a classical portico and dome behind, and the central sculpture gallery was designed by John Russell Pope. Tate Britain includes the Clore Gallery of 1987, designed by James Stirling, which houses work by J. M. W. Turner. The Clore Gallery has been regarded as an important example of Postmodern architecture, especially in the use of contextual irony: each section of the external facade quotes liberally from the building next to it in regard to materials and detailing. [5]

Sidney R. J. Smith (1858-1913) was a Late Victorian English architect, best known for the work he undertook in the 1880s and 1890s for the philanthropist Henry Tate including the original Tate Gallery at Millbank.

Portico Type of porch

A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures.

Dome architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere

A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are also a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may cover an oculus and may itself have another dome.

Crises during its existence include flood damage to work from the River Thames, and bomb damage during World War II. However, most of the collection was in safe storage elsewhere during the war, and a large Stanley Spencer painting, deemed too big to move, had a protective brick wall built in front of it.

River Thames river in southern England

The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.

Stanley Spencer English painter

Sir Stanley Spencer, CBE RA was an English painter. Shortly after leaving the Slade School of Art, Spencer became well known for his paintings depicting Biblical scenes occurring as if in Cookham, the small village beside the River Thames where he was born and spent much of his life. Spencer referred to Cookham as "a village in Heaven" and in his biblical scenes, fellow-villagers are shown as their Gospel counterparts. Spencer was skilled at organising multi-figure compositions such as in his large paintings for the Sandham Memorial Chapel and the Shipbuilding on the Clyde series, the former being a First World War memorial while the latter was a commission for the War Artists' Advisory Committee during the Second World War.

In 1970, the building was given Grade II* listed status. [6]

Listed building Collection of protected architectural creations in the United Kingdom

A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.

In 2012, Tate Britain announced that it had raised the £45 million [7] required to complete a major renovation, largely thanks to a £4.9 million grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund and £1 million given by Tate Members. [8] The museum stayed open throughout the three phases [9] of renovation. [7] Completed in 2013, the newly designed sections were conceived by the architects Caruso St John and included a total of nine new galleries, with reinforced flooring to accommodate heavy sculptures. A second part was unveiled later that year, the centrepiece being the reopening of the building's Thames-facing entrance as well as a new spiral staircase beneath its rotunda. [9] The circular balcony of the rotunda's domed atrium, closed to visitors since the 1920s, was reopened. The gallery also now has a dedicated schools' entrance and reception beneath its entrance steps on Millbank and a new archive gallery for the presentation of temporary displays. [10]

Caruso St John

Caruso St John is an architectural firm established in 1990 by Adam Caruso and Peter St John.

Facilities

Millbank Millennium Pier outside Tate Britain, which is linked by a high-speed boat to Tate Modern Millbank Pier, London.JPG
Millbank Millennium Pier outside Tate Britain, which is linked by a high-speed boat to Tate Modern

The front entrance is accessible by steps. A side entrance at a lower level has a ramp for wheelchair access. The gallery provides a restaurant and a café, as well as a Friends room, open only to members of the Tate. This membership is open to the public on payment of an annual subscription. As well as administration offices the building complex houses the Prints and Drawings Rooms (in the Clore galleries), [11] as well as the Library [12] and Archive [13] in the Hyman Kreitman Reading Rooms. [14] The restaurant features a mural by Rex Whistler.

Tate Britain and Tate Modern are now connected by a high speed boat along the River Thames, which runs from Millbank Millennium Pier immediately outside Tate Britain. The boat is decorated with spots, based on paintings of similar appearance by Damien Hirst. The lighting artwork incorporated in the pier's structure is by Angela Bulloch. [15]

Displays

The main display spaces show the permanent collection of historic British art, as well as contemporary work. It has rooms dedicated to works by one artist, such as: Tracey Emin, John Latham, Douglas Gordon, Sam Taylor-Wood, Tacita Dean, Marcus Gheeraerts II, though these, like the rest of the collection, are subject to rotation.

The gallery also organises career retrospectives of British artists and temporary major exhibitions of British Art. Every three years the gallery stages a Triennial exhibition in which a guest curator provides an overview of contemporary British Art. The 2003 Tate Triennial was called Days Like These. [16] Art Now is a small changing show of a contemporary artist's work in a dedicated room.

Tate Britain is the home of the annual and usually controversial Turner Prize exhibition, featuring four artists selected by a jury chaired by the director of Tate Britain. This is spread out over the year with the four nominees announced in May, the show of their work opened in October and the prize itself given in December. Each stage of the prize generates media coverage, and there have also been a number of demonstrations against the prize, notably since 2000 an annual picket by Stuckist artists. In recent years the exhibition and award ceremony have taken place at locations other than in Tate Britain: for example in Liverpool (2007), Derry-Londonderry (2013), Glasgow (2015) and Hull (2017).

Tate Britain has attempted to reach out to a different and younger audience with Late at Tate Britain on the first Friday of every month, with half-price admission to exhibitions, live music and performance art. [17] Other public involvement has included the display of visitors', as opposed to curators', interpretation of certain artworks.

Regular free tours operate on the hour, and at 1.15 pm on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday short 15-minute talks are given on paintings, artists and artistic styles. [18]

Permanent collection

Tate Britain is the national gallery of British art from 1500 to the present day. As such, it is the most comprehensive collection of its kind in the world (only the Yale Center for British Art can claim similar expansiveness, but with less depth). More recent artists include David Hockney, Peter Blake and Francis Bacon. Works in the permanent Tate collection, which may be on display at Tate Britain include:

John Constable,
Flatford Mill (Scene on a Navigable River) Flatford Mill (Scene on a Navigable River) by John Constable, Tate Britain.JPG
John Constable,
Flatford Mill (Scene on a Navigable River)
John Constable,
Flatford Mill (Scene on a Navigable River) 
William Blake,
Satan Smiting Job with Sore Boils William Blake - Satan Smiting Job with Sore Boils - Google Art Project.jpg
William Blake,
Satan Smiting Job with Sore Boils
William Blake,
Satan Smiting Job with Sore Boils 
J. M. W. Turner,
Snow Storm - Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth Joseph Mallord William Turner - Snow Storm - Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth - WGA23178.jpg
J. M. W. Turner,
Snow Storm – Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth
J. M. W. Turner,
Snow Storm – Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth 
Sir John Everett Millais,
Ophelia John Everett Millais - Ophelia - Google Art Project.jpg
Sir John Everett Millais,
Ophelia
Sir John Everett Millais,
Ophelia 
Anna Lea Merritt, Love Locked Out Anna Lea Merritt-Love locked out.jpg
Anna Lea Merritt, Love Locked Out
Anna Lea Merritt, Love Locked Out  
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Gold - Old Battersea Bridge Whistler James Nocturne in Blue and Green.jpg
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Old Battersea Bridge
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Gold – Old Battersea Bridge 
David Bomberg,
The Mud Bath Bomberg, The Mud Bath.jpg
David Bomberg,
The Mud Bath
David Bomberg,
The Mud Bath 

Statue of Millais

Statue of John Everett Millais by Thomas Brock at Tate Britain Millais statue 1.jpg
Statue of John Everett Millais by Thomas Brock at Tate Britain

When the Pre-Raphaelite painter and President of the Royal Academy, John Everett Millais, died in 1896, the Prince of Wales (later to become King Edward VII) chaired a memorial committee, which commissioned a statue of the artist. [19] This was installed at the front of the gallery in the garden on the east side in 1905. On 23 November that year, The Pall Mall Gazette called it "a breezy statue, representing the man in the characteristic attitude in which we all knew him". [19]

In 1953, Tate Director, Sir Norman Reid, attempted to have it replaced by Rodin's John the Baptist, and in 1962 again proposed its removal, calling its presence "positively harmful". His efforts were frustrated by the statue's owner, the Ministry of Works. Ownership was transferred from the Ministry to English Heritage in 1996, and by them in turn to the Tate. [19] In 2000 the statue was removed to the rear of the building. [19]

Transport connections

ServiceStation/StopLines/Routes servedDistance
from Tate Britain
London Buses London Buses square.png Tate Britain Wheelchair symbol.svg 87
London Underground Underground no-text.svg Pimlico Victoria line flag box.svg 0.4-mile walk [20]
National Rail National Rail logo.svg Vauxhall South Western Railway 0.5-mile walk [21]
London River Services BSicon BOOT.svg Millbank Millennium Pier Wheelchair symbol.svg Tate to Tate 0.2-mile walk [22]

Notes and references

  1. "2017 Visitor Figures". Association of Leading Visitor Attractions. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  2. Press Release: New Director of Tate Britain Appointed, Tate online, 29 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  3. 'General introduction', Survey of London: volume 26: Lambeth: Southern area (1956), pp. 1–17. Date accessed: 27 March 2010.
  4. Tate: History of Tate – The gallery at Millbank, London Linked 15 May 2013
  5. "British Architecture", Architectural Design, London, 1982, p.78.
  6. Historic England. "Tate Gallery (1222913)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  7. 1 2 Sulcas, Roslyn (18 November 2013). "Tate Britain Completes Renovation". New York Times . Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  8. "Tate Britain hits £45m renovation target". BBC News. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  9. 1 2 Merrick, Jay (18 November 2013). "Tate Britain's redesign: It may not be cool but it's restrained, and elegant, and it works". The Independent . Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  10. "'Transformed' Tate Britain unveiled". BBC News. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  11. "Prints and Drawings Rooms". Tate. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  12. "Research services: library", Tate online.
  13. "Research services:archive", Tate online.
  14. "Research services: Hyman Kreitman Reading Rooms", Tate online.
  15. "Millbank Pier web site". Millbankpier.co.uk. 22 May 2003. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  16. "Days Like These", Tate online.
  17. "events education", Tate online.
  18. Tate Britain Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine ., LondonBoard.co.uk, Accessed 8 February 2012.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Birchall, Heather. "Sir Thomas Brock 1847–1922", Tate online, February 2002. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  20. "Walking directions to '''Tate Britain''' from '''Pimlico tube station'''". Maps.google.co.uk. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  21. "Walking directions to '''Tate Britain''' from '''Vauxhall station'''". Maps.google.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  22. "Walking directions to '''Tate Britain''' from '''Millbank Millenium Pier'''". Maps.google.co.uk. Retrieved 8 April 2011.

Coordinates: 51°29′27″N0°07′38″W / 51.490833°N 0.127222°W / 51.490833; -0.127222

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