|Alternative names||Millennium Wheel|
|Address||Riverside Building, County Hall, Westminster Bridge Road|
|Height||135 metres (443 ft)|
|Diameter||120 metres (394 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Architecture firm||Marks Barfield|
|Awards and prizes||Institution of Structural Engineers Special Award 2001|
The London Eye, or the Millennium Wheel, is a cantilevered observation wheel on the South Bank of the River Thames in London. It is Europe's tallest cantilevered observation wheel, million visitors annually, and has made many appearances in popular culture.and is the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom with over 3
The structure is 135 metres (443 ft) tall and the wheel has a diameter of 120 metres (394 ft). When it opened to the public in 2000 it was the world's tallest Ferris wheel. Its height was surpassed by the 160-metre (525 ft) Star of Nanchang in 2006, the 165-metre (541 ft) Singapore Flyer in 2008, and the 167-metre-tall (547.9 ft) High Roller (Las Vegas) in 2014. Supported by an A-frame on one side only, unlike the taller Nanchang and Singapore wheels, the Eye is described by its operators as "the world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel".
The London Eye used to offer the highest public viewing point in London 245-metre-high (804 ft) observation deck on the 72nd floor of The Shard, which opened to the public on 1 February 2013.until it was superseded by the
The London Eye adjoins the western end of Jubilee Gardens (previously the site of the former Dome of Discovery), on the South Bank of the River Thames between Westminster Bridge and Hungerford Bridge beside County Hall, in the London Borough of Lambeth.
In March 2020 the London Eye celebrated its 20th birthday by turning its pods into experiences in partnership with its sponsor lastminute.com. The special experiences included a pub in a capsule, a west end theatre pod and a garden party with flower arrangements to represent the eight London Royal parks.
The London Eye was designed by the husband-and-wife team of Julia Barfield and David Marks of Marks Barfield Architects.
Mace was responsible for construction management, with Hollandia as the main steelwork contractor and Tilbury Douglas as the civil contractor. Consulting engineers Tony Gee & Partners designed the foundation works while Beckett Rankine designed the marine works.
Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners assisted The Tussauds Group in obtaining planning and listed building consent to alter the wall on the South Bank of the Thames. They also examined and reported on the implications of a Section 106 agreement attached to the original contract, and also prepared planning and listed building consent applications for the permanent retention of the attraction, which involved the co-ordination of an Environmental Statement and the production of a planning supporting statement detailing the reasons for its retention.
The rim of the Eye is supported by tensioned steel cablesand resembles a huge spoked bicycle wheel. The lighting was re-done with LED lighting from Color Kinetics in December 2006 to allow digital control of the lights as opposed to the manual replacement of gels over fluorescent tubes.
The wheel was constructed in sections which were floated up the Thames on barges and assembled lying flat on piled platforms in the river. Once the wheel was complete it was lifted into an upright position by a strand jack system made by Enerpac. degrees per hour until it reached 65 degrees, then left in that position for a week while engineers prepared for the second phase of the lift. The project was European with major components coming from six countries: the steel was supplied from the UK and fabricated in The Netherlands by the Dutch company Hollandia, the cables came from Italy, the bearings came from Germany (FAG/Schaeffler Group), the spindle and hub were cast in the Czech Republic, the capsules were made by Poma in France (and the glass for these came from Italy), and the electrical components from the UK.It was first raised at 2
The London Eye was formally opened by the Prime Minister Tony Blair on 31 December 1999, but did not open to the paying public until 9 March 2000 because of a capsule clutch problem.
The London Eye was originally intended as a temporary attraction, with a five-year lease. In December 2001, operators submitted an application to Lambeth Council to give the London Eye permanent status, and the application was granted in July 2002.
On 5 June 2008 it was announced that 30 million people had ridden the London Eye since it opened.
The wheel's 32 sealed and air-conditioned ovoidal passenger capsules, designed 10-tonne (11-short-ton) capsules represents one of the London Boroughs, and holds up to 25 people, who are free to walk around inside the capsule, though seating is provided. The wheel rotates at 26 cm (10 in) per second (about 0.9 km/h or 0.6 mph) so that one revolution takes about 30 minutes. It does not usually stop to take on passengers; the rotation rate is slow enough to allow passengers to walk on and off the moving capsules at ground level. It is, however, stopped to allow disabled or elderly passengers time to embark and disembark safely.and supplied by Poma, are attached to the external circumference of the wheel and rotated by electric motors. The capsules are numbered from 1 to 33, excluding number 13 for superstitious reasons. Each of the
In 2009 the first stage of a £12.5 million capsule upgrade began. Each capsule was taken down and floated down the river to Tilbury Docks in Essex.
On 2 June 2013 a passenger capsule was named the Coronation Capsule to mark the sixtieth anniversary of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
Marks Barfield (the lead architects), The Tussauds Group, and British Airways were the original owners of the London Eye.Tussauds bought out British Airways in 2005 and then Marks Barfield in 2006 to become sole owner.
In May 2007, the Blackstone Group purchased The Tussauds Group which was then the owner of the Eye; Tussauds was merged with Blackstone's Merlin Entertainments and disappeared as an entity.British Airways continued its brand association, but from the beginning of 2008 the name British Airways was dropped from the logo.
On 12 August 2009, the London Eye saw another rebrand, this time being called "The Merlin Entertainments London Eye" to showcase Merlin Entertainments' ownership. A new logo was designed for the attraction—this time taking the form of an eye made out of London's famous landmarks. This coincided with the launch of Merlin Entertainments 4D Experience preflight show underneath the ticket centre in County Hall. The refurbished ticket hall and 4D cinema experience were designed by architect Kay Elliott working with Merlin Studios project designer Craig Sciba. Merlin Studios later appointed Simex-Iwerks as the 4D theatre hardware specialists. The film was written and directed by 3D director Julian Napier and 3D produced by Phil Streather.
In January 2011, a lighting-up ceremony marked the start of a three-year deal between EDF Energy and Merlin Entertainments. [ citation needed ]On 1 August 2014 the logo was reverted to the previous "The Merlin Entertainments London Eye" version, with the name becoming simply "The London Eye".
Coca-Cola began to sponsor the London Eye from January 2015. On the day the sponsorship was announced the London Eye was lit in red.
On 14 November 2019 it was announced that lastminute.com would be the sponsor starting in February 2020, replacing Coca-Cola and that the wheel would be lit in the lastminute.com hot pink brand corporate colours for three years.To mark the start of the partnership, lastminute.com invited Grammy Award-winning singer Meghan Trainor to perform at a launch party on a boat on the Thames overlooking the London Eye.
In March 2020, lastminute.com and the London Eye announced that the wheel would turn blue every Thursday at 8pm in support of the NHS as part of the ‘Clap for our Carers’ campaign created during the 2020 coronavirus outbreak.
On 20 May 2005, there were reports of a leaked letter showing that the South Bank Centre (SBC)—owners of part of the land on which the struts of the Eye are located—had served a notice to quit on the attraction along with a demand for an increase in rent from £64,000 per year to £2.5 million, which the operators rejected as unaffordable.
On 25 May 2005, London mayor Ken Livingstone vowed that the landmark would remain in London. He also pledged that if the dispute was not resolved he would use his powers to ask the London Development Agency to issue a compulsory purchase order.The land in question is a small part of the Jubilee Gardens, which was given to the SBC for £1 when the Greater London Council was broken up.
The South Bank Centre and the British Airways London Eye agreed on a 25-year lease on 8 February 2006 after a judicial review over the rent dispute. The lease agreement meant that the South Bank Centre, a publicly funded charity, would receive at least £500,000 a year from the attraction, the status of which is secured for the foreseeable future. million by mid-2005 and had been charging an interest rate of 25% per annum.Tussauds also announced the acquisition of the entire one-third interests of British Airways and Marks Barfield in the Eye as well as the outstanding debt to BA. These agreements gave Tussauds 100% ownership and resolved the debt from the Eye's construction loan from British Airways, which stood at more than £150
Sir Richard Rogers, winner of the 2007 Pritzker Architecture Prize, wrote of the London Eye in a book about the project:
The Eye has done for London what the Eiffel Tower did for Paris, which is to give it a symbol and to let people climb above the city and look back down on it. Not just specialists or rich people, but everybody. That's the beauty of it: it is public and accessible, and it is in a great position at the heart of London.
Big City Review wrote that:
If you're an amateur or professional photographer, the London Eye delivers the chance to get breathtaking photos of the city of London. The ride moves so slow which enables one to have ample opportunity to shoot photos and video from all angles. When your done shooting your photos, the ride's slow speed lets you just sit back and take in the incredible views of London. From the time your carriage reaches the highest point your breath will have been take away. That is why the London Eye is worth visiting.
The nearest London Underground station is Waterloo, although Charing Cross, Embankment, and Westminster are also within easy walking distance.
Connection with National Rail services is made at London Waterloo station and London Waterloo East station.
London River Services operated by Thames Clippers and City Cruises stop at the London Eye Pier.
Madame Tussauds is a wax museum in London; it has smaller museums in a number of other major cities. It was founded by wax sculptor Marie Tussaud in 1835. It used to be spelled as "Madame Tussaud's"; the apostrophe is no longer used. Madame Tussauds is a major tourist attraction in London, displaying the waxworks of famous and historical figures, as well as popular film and television characters from famous actors.
A Ferris wheel is an amusement ride consisting of a rotating upright wheel with multiple passenger-carrying components attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, they are kept upright, usually by gravity. Some of the largest modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, with electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright. These wheels are sometimes referred to as observation wheels and their cars referred to as capsules. However, these alternative names are also used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.
Thorpe Park Resort, commonly known as Thorpe Park, is an amusement park located between the towns of Chertsey and Staines-upon-Thames in Surrey, England. It is operated and owned by Merlin Entertainments and includes rides, a themed hotel, live events and Stealth, the UK's fastest rollercoaster.
The Tussauds Group is an entertainment company that's now a part of Merlin Entertainments. It is based in Poole, Dorset from where it manages a portfolio of brands and over 50 attractions including the Madame Tussauds waxworks, Legoland Theme Parks, Legoland Discovery Centres, Sea Life Centres, PortAventura Park in Spain, Gardaland in Italy, Heide Park Resort in Germany, The Dungeons, The London Eye, The Blackpool Tower attractions, The Orlando Eye, Warwick Castle, Alton Towers, Thorpe Park, and Chessington World of Adventures.
The Sea Life London Aquarium is located on the ground floor of County Hall on the South Bank of the River Thames in central London, near the London Eye. It opened in March 1997 as the London Aquarium and hosts about one million visitors each year.
The Singapore Flyer is a giant observation wheel at Downtown Core, Singapore. It opened in 2008, with construction having taken about 2½ years. It carried its first paying passengers on 11 February, had a soft opening to the public on 1 March, and was then officially opened on 15 April. It has 28 air-conditioned capsules, each able to accommodate 28 passengers, and incorporates a three-story terminal building.
London is one of the world's leading tourism destinations, and the city is home to an array of famous tourist attractions. The city attracted 20.42 million international visitors in 2018, making it one of the world's most visited in terms of international visits. It welcomed an additional 27.8 million overnighting domestic tourists in 2017, and had 280 million daytrippers in 2015.
British Airways i360 is a 162 m (531 ft) observation tower on the seafront of Brighton, East Sussex, England at the landward end of the former West Pier. The tower opened on 4 August 2016. From the fully enclosed viewing pod, visitors experience 360-degree views across Brighton, the South Downs and the English Channel.
Merlin Entertainments Ltd is a British-based entertainments company headquartered in Poole, Dorset (England). It was listed on the London Stock Exchange until it was acquired by a consortium of Kirkbi A/S in November 2019.
Sea Life is a chain of commercial sea life-themed aquarium attractions. As of April 2017 there are 53 Sea Life attractions around the world. The chain is owned by the British company, Merlin Entertainments.
Nicholas "Nick" Varney is a British businessman who was the chief executive officer of attractions operator Merlin Entertainments. He rose to his position in 1998 after a background in marketing.
High Roller is a 550-foot tall (167.6 m), 520-foot (158.5 m) diameter giant Ferris wheel on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, United States of America. Owned and operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation, it opened to the public on March 31, 2014 and is currently the world's tallest Ferris wheel. It is 9 ft (2.7 m) taller than its predecessor, the 541-foot (165 m) Singapore Flyer, which had held the record since 2008.
Kolkata Eye was the proposed name for a giant Ferris wheel which it was hoped would be constructed in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It was announced in 2011, and in May 2014 Mamata Banerjee, Chief Minister of West Bengal, stated "[it] is expected to be ready in a year's time", but it was never built.
Bluewaters Island is an artificial island 500 metres (1,600 ft) off the Jumeirah Beach Residence coastline, near Dubai Marina, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Joseph Baratta is Global Head of Private Equity at Blackstone, a New York-based global asset management giant.
Marks Barfield Architects is a London-based architectural firm founded by husband and wife David Marks and Julia Barfield. Their work has included the London Eye, the treetop walkway in Kew Gardens and the i360 observation tower in Brighton, England.
The Wheel at ICON Park Orlando is a 400 ft (122 m) tall giant observation wheel in Orlando, Florida, United States. Opening under the name Orlando Eye, it carried its first passenger on April 29, 2015. On July 28, 2016, it was re-branded to be known as the Coca-Cola Orlando Eye. On March 11, 2018, another name change took place, making it the ICON Orlando. On April 4, 2019, the name was changed once again, to The Wheel at ICON Park Orlando. This included a re-branding of the property to become ICON Park.
Madame Tussauds San Francisco is a wax museum located in Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco in California. The attraction opened on June 26, 2014 and became the 17th Madame Tussauds museum to open worldwide. The attraction features wax figures of famous figures from movies, music, politics, popular culture and sport. It also celebrates “The Spirit of San Francisco” with wax figures of local artists, musicians and activists from the city's past.
The Wheel of Liverpool is a transportable Ferris wheel installation on the Keel Wharf waterfront of the River Mersey in Liverpool. The wheel is in close proximity to M&S Bank Arena Liverpool, and was opened on 25 March 2010. The structure is 196 feet (60 m) tall, weighs 365 tonnes and has 42 fully enclosed capsules attached. The wheel had been planned for three years by the company Great City Attractions. They submitted a planning application which explained that it would increase tourism in Liverpool. A smaller observation wheel had been operational in the city, which was located at the Liverpool One leisure complex. This was dismantled because of the plans to open the Wheel of Liverpool. Construction was completed on 11 February 2010 at a cost of £6 million.
David Joseph Marks, was a British architect, and the designer of the London Eye, the British Airways i360 observation tower in Brighton, and the Treetop Walkway at Kew Gardens, London.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to London Eye .|
| World's tallest Ferris wheel |
Star of Nanchang