Barbican Centre

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Barbican Centre
Barbican Centre logo.svg
The Barbican.jpg
Address Silk Street
London, EC2
United Kingdom
Coordinates 51°31′13″N0°05′42″W / 51.5202°N 0.0950°W / 51.5202; -0.0950 Coordinates: 51°31′13″N0°05′42″W / 51.5202°N 0.0950°W / 51.5202; -0.0950
Public transit Underground no-text.svg Barbican
Underground no-text.svg National Rail logo.svg Moorgate
Owner City of London Corporation
Designation Grade II
Type performing arts centre
Capacity Barbican Hall: 1,943
Barbican Theatre: 1,156
The Pit: 200
Construction
Opened1982;37 years ago (1982)
Architect Chamberlin, Powell and Bon
Website
www.barbican.org.uk

The Barbican Centre is a performing arts centre in the Barbican Estate of the City of London and the largest of its kind in Europe. [1] The Centre hosts classical and contemporary music concerts, theatre performances, film screenings and art exhibitions. It also houses a library, three restaurants, and a conservatory. The Barbican Centre is member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.

Performing arts center multi-use performance space

Performing arts center/centre, often abbreviated as PAC, is used to refer to:

Barbican Estate residential estate in the City of London

The Barbican Estate is a residential estate that was built during the 1960s and the 1980s within the City of London in Central London, in an area once devastated by World War II bombings and today densely populated by financial institutions. It contains, or is adjacent to, the Barbican Arts Centre, the Museum of London, the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, the Barbican public library, the City of London School for Girls and a YMCA, forming the Barbican Complex.

City of London City and county in United Kingdom

The City of London is a city and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London; however, the City of London is not a London borough, a status reserved for the other 32 districts. It is also a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom.

Contents

The London Symphony Orchestra and the BBC Symphony Orchestra are based in the Centre's Concert Hall. In 2013, it once again became the London-based venue of the Royal Shakespeare Company following the company's departure in 2001. [2]

London Symphony Orchestra oldest symphony orchestra in London

The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is a British Orchestra and the oldest of London's symphony orchestras. It was set up by a group of players who left Henry Wood's Queen's Hall Orchestra because of a new rule requiring players to give the orchestra their exclusive services. The LSO itself later introduced a similar rule for its members. From the outset the LSO was organised on co-operative lines, with all players sharing the profits at the end of each season. This practice continued for the orchestra's first four decades.

BBC Symphony Orchestra British orchestra based in London

The BBC Symphony Orchestra(BBC SO) is a British orchestra based in London. Founded in 1930, it was the first permanent salaried orchestra in London, and is the only one of the city's five major symphony orchestras not to be self-governing. The BBC SO is the principal broadcast orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

Royal Shakespeare Company British theatre company

The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. The company employs over 1,000 staff and produces around 20 productions a year. The RSC plays regularly in London, Newcastle upon Tyne, and on tour across the UK and internationally.

The Barbican Centre is owned, funded, and managed by the City of London Corporation, the third-largest arts funder in the United Kingdom. It was built as The City's gift to the nation at a cost of £161 million (equivalent to £480 million in 2014) and was officially opened to the public by Queen Elizabeth II on 3 March 1982. The Barbican Centre is also known for its brutalist architecture. [3]

City of London Corporation municipal corporation of City of London

The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingdom's financial sector.

Brutalist architecture 20th century style of architecture

Brutalist architecture, or Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged in the mid-20th century and gained popularity in the late 1950s and 1960s. It descended from the modernist architectural movement of the late 19th century and of the first half of 20th century. It is characterized by simple, block-like structures that often feature bare building materials. Exposed concrete is favored in construction, however some examples are primarily made of brick. Though beginning in Europe, Brutalist architecture can now be found around the world. The style has been most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings such as libraries, courts, public housing and city halls.

Performance halls and facilities

Seating capacity number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law

Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000.

The second-floor library is one of the five City of London libraries. It is one of the largest public libraries in London and has a separate arts library, a large music library and a children's library which regularly conducts free events. The Barbican Library houses the 'London Collection' of historical books and resources, some of which date back 300 years, all being available on loan. The library presents regular literary events [6] and has an art exhibition space for hire. The music library has two free practice pianos for public use.

History and design

The Barbican Centre had a long development period, only opening long after the surrounding Barbican Estate housing complex had been built. It is situated in an area which was badly bombed during World War II.

The Barbican Centre, designed by Peter Chamberlin, Geoffry Powell and Christoph Bon of Chamberlin, Powell and Bon in the Brutalist style, has a complex multi-level layout with numerous entrances. Lines painted on the ground help would-be audience members avoid getting lost on the walkways of the Barbican Housing Estate on the way to the centre. The Barbican Centre's design – a concrete ziggurat – has always been controversial and divides opinion. It was voted "London's ugliest building" in a Grey London poll in September 2003. [7]

In September 2001, arts minister Tessa Blackstone announced that the Barbican Centre complex was to be a Grade II listed building. It has been designated a site of special architectural interest for its scale, its cohesion and the ambition of the project. [8] The same architectural practice also designed the Barbican Housing Estate and the nearby Golden Lane Estate. Project architect John Honer later worked on the British Library at St Pancras – a red brick ziggurat.

Barbican Centre, London, United Kingdom Barbican Silk Street - geograph.org.uk - 978.jpg
Barbican Centre, London, United Kingdom

In the mid-1990s, a cosmetic improvement scheme by Theo Crosby, of the Pentagram design studio, added statues and decorative features reminiscent of the Arts and Crafts movement. In 2005–2006, the centre underwent a more significant refurbishment, designed by architects Allford Hall Monaghan Morris and Roger Westman, which improved circulation and introduced bold signage in a style in keeping with the centre's original 1970s Brutalist architecture. That improvement scheme added an internal bridge linking the Silk Street foyer area with the lakeside foyer area. The centre's Silk Street entrance, previously dominated by an access for vehicles, was modified to give better pedestrian access. The scheme included removing most of the mid-1990s embellishments.

Outside, the main focal point of the centre is the lake and its neighbouring terrace. The theatre's fly tower has been surrounded by glass and made into a high-level conservatory. The Barbican Hall's acoustic has also been controversial: some praised it as attractively warm, but others found it too dry for large-scale orchestral performance.

In 1994, Chicago acoustician Larry Kirkegaard oversaw a £500,000 acoustic re-engineering of the hall "producing a perceptible improvement in echo control and sound absorption", music critic Norman Lebrecht wrote in October 2000 [9] – and returned in 2001 to rip out the stage canopy and drop adjustable acoustic reflectors, designed by Caruso St John, from the ceiling, as part of a £7.5 mn refurbishment of the hall. Art music magazine Gramophone still complained about "the relative dryness of the Barbican acoustic" in August 2007. [10]

The theatre was built as the London home of the Royal Shakespeare Company, which was involved in the design, but decided not to renew its contract in 2002 after claiming a lack of performing space, plus the artistic director, Adrian Noble, wanting to develop the company's touring performances. [11] The theatre's response was to extend its existing six-month season of international productions, "Barbican International Theatre Event", to the whole year. [12] On 23 January 2013 Greg Doran, RSC artistic director, announced the Company's return to the Barbican Centre in a three-year season of Shakespeare's history plays. [13]

The Guildhall School of Music and Drama, where the Barbican Centre theatrical performances are occasionally staged, [14] and the City of London's Barbican Library, neither part of the centre, are also on the site. The Museum of London is nearby at Aldersgate, and is also within the Barbican Estate.

The Barbican Centre in literature

The Barbican Centre features in Michael Paraskos's novel In Search of Sixpence as the home of the lead character, Geroud, and also a bar called "The Gin Bar" loosely based on the Gin Joint bar at the Barbican Centre. [15]

Nearby railway stations

See also

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References

  1. ""About Barbican", from the Barbican's website". Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
  2. 1 2 Mark Brown. "Royal Shakespeare Company to return to Barbican Centre | Stage". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  3. Mark Callaghan, "Beauty in the Beast: In Defence of Brutalism", Architect Weekly, 14 November 2013 on architectweekly.com
  4. "Venue list: Hall" on barbican.org.uk
  5. "Venue list: Theatre" on barbican.org.uk
  6. See City of London libraries Archived 23 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Barbican tops ugly buildings poll", BBC News, 22 September 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2007
  8. Listing of the Barbican complex Archived 8 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine on cityoflondon.gov.uk. Retrieved 11 January 2007
  9. "Concert-Hall Blues – Oh for an Acceptable Symphonic Environment", Lebrecht Weekly, 11 October 2000 on scena.org. Retrieved 16 August 2007
  10. August 2007 Gramophone quoted at LSO CD Reviews, on the London Symphony Orchestra's website, undated. Retrieved 16 August 2007
  11. "RSC ends Barbican era". BBC News. 12 May 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  12. Shenton, Mark (22 October 2005). "Barbican box office upsurge follows identity make-over". The Stage. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  13. "The Barbican and RSC announce three-year collaboration" (Press release). 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  14. "Silk Street Theatre". Barbican visitor information. Barbican Centre. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  15. Michael Paraskos, In Search of Sixpence (London: Friction Fiction, 2015) ISBN   9780992924782