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|Dukedom of York|
|Creation date||23 June 1986|
|Monarch||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Peerage||Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|Present holder||Prince Andrew|
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English (later British) monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively.
Initially granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times. The title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm. The double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the previously separate realms could be included.
The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. The present Duke's marriage produced two daughters only, and he has remained unmarried since his 1996 divorce.
In medieval times, York was the main city of the North of England and the see of the Archbishop of York from AD 735. Yorkshire was England's largest shire in area.
York under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eric Bloodaxe, last king of Jorvik (d. 954), and the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few earls of York.
The title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, and an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II . His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. The title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (who had been executed for plotting against King Henry V). The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown.
The title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death.
The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne. When Henry ultimately became King Henry VIII in 1509, his titles merged into the crown.
The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I. When his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and eventually became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown.
The fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. New York, its capital Albany, and New York City, in what is now the United States, were named for this particular Duke of Albany and York. When his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II of England and King James VII of Scotland, and the title once again merged into the Crown.
During the 18th century the double dukedom of York and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs. The second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who also died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, and was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs.
The sixth creation of the Dukedom of York (without being combined with Albany) was for Prince George of Wales, second son of the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale. The title merged with the Crown when George succeeded his father as King George V.
The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, and younger brother of the future King Edward VIII. Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, and took the name George VI, the Dukedom then merging into the Crown.
The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. As of 2021, [update] he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future (legitimate) sons, the title will again become extinct at his death.
Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs.
In the early 18th century, the eldest son of the overthrown King James II and thus Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender, granted the title "Duke of York" (in the Jacobite Peerage) to his own second son, Henry, using his purported authority as King James III. Henry later became a cardinal in the Catholic church and is thus known as the Cardinal Duke of York. Since James was not recognised as king by English law, the grant is also not recognised as a legitimate creation.
| Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York |
also: Earl of Cambridge (1362)
|5 June 1341|
4th surviving son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault
| Isabella of Castile |
1 August 1402
| Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York |
also: Duke of Aumale (1397–1399), Earl of Cambridge (1362–1414), Earl of Rutland (1390–1402), Earl of Cork (c. 1396)
son of 1st Duke by his first wife Isabella of Castile
| Philippa de Mohun |
|25 October 1415|
Battle of Agincourt
| Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York |
also: Lord Protector of England, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall (1460, see Act of Accord); Earl of Ulster (1264), Earl of March (1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414, restored 1426), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)
|21 September 1411|
Nephew of 2nd Duke and son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (attainted and executed for treason in August 1415) and Anne de Mortimer; restored in blood
| Cecily Neville |
|30 December 1460|
| Edward Plantagenet, 4th Duke of York |
also: Earl of Ulster (1264), Earl of March (1328), Earl of Cambridge (1414), feudal Lord of Clare (bt. 1066–1075), Baron Mortimer of Wigmore (1331)
|28 April 1442|
son of 3rd Duke by his wife Cecily Neville; seized the throne in 1461 as King Edward IV when all his titles merged in the crown
| Elizabeth Woodville |
1 May 1464
|9 April 1483|
| Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York |
also: Duke of Norfolk (1477), Earl of Norfolk (1477), Earl of Nottingham (1476), possibly Earl of Warenne (1477)
|17 August 1473|
Second son and of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville
| Anne de Mowbray |
15 January 1478
|Disappeared in the Tower of London, with his older brother, the "Princes in the Tower". Died without legitimate issue, titles became extinct|
| Henry Tudor |
House of Tudor
also: Prince of Wales (1504), Duke of Cornwall (1337)
|28 June 1491|
Greenwich Palace, London
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York
| Catherine of Aragon |
11 June 1509 – 23 May 1533
25 January 1533 – 17 May 1536
30 May 1536 – 24 October 1537
Anne of Cleves
6 January 1540 – 9 July 1540
28 July 1540 – 23 November 1541
12 July 1543
|28 January 1547|
Whitehall Palace, London
|Prince Henry succeeded as Henry VIII in 1509 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.|
| Charles |
House of Stuart
also: Duke of Albany (1600);
Prince of Wales (1616), Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay (1612)
|19 November 1600|
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of James I and Anne of Denmark
| Henrietta Maria of France |
13 June 1625
|30 January 1649|
Whitehall Palace, London
|Prince Charles succeeded as Charles I in 1625 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.|
| James |
House of Stuart
also: Duke of Albany (1660), Earl of Ulster (1659)
|14 October 1633|
St. James's Palace, London
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
| Anne Hyde |
3 September 1660
Mary of Modena
21 November 1673
|16 September 1701|
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris
|James was styled Duke of York from birth and officially created as such in 1644. He succeeded as James II in 1685 upon his brother's death, and his titles merged with the crown.|
| Cardinal Stuart |
House of Stuart
also: Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church (1747), Dean of the College of Cardinals (1803)
|6 March 1725|
son of "James III and VIII" (Jacobite Pretender) and Maria Clementina Sobieska
|____||13 July 1807|
|The Cardinal Duke of York succeeded to the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland as Henry IX in the Jacobite succession. He was never actually recognized as Duke or King in the British peerage. He was the last surviving member of the Royal House of Stuart.|
| Prince George |
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney (1892);
Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Duke of Rothesay (1901)
|3 June 1865|
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
| Mary of Teck |
6 July 1893
|20 January 1936|
Sandringham House, Sandringham
|Prince George succeeded as George V in 1910 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.|
| Prince Albert |
House of Windsor
also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney (1920)
|14 December 1895|
Sandringham House, Sandringham
son of George V and Mary of Teck
| Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon |
26 April 1923
|6 February 1952|
Sandringham House, Sandringham
|Prince Albert succeeded as George VI in 1936 upon his brother's abdication, and his titles merged with the crown.|
| Prince Andrew |
House of Windsor
also: Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh (1986)
|19 February 1960|
son of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
| Sarah Ferguson |
23 July 1986 – 30 May 1996
now 60 years, 334 days old
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