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The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as lord or king of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government. As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until—for what became the Republic of Ireland—the early twentieth century. Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, remains under a monarchical system of government. The Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland ended with the Norman invasion of Ireland, when the kingdom became a fief of the Holy See under the Lordship of the King of England. This lasted until the Parliament of Ireland conferred the crown of Ireland upon King Henry VIII of England during the English Reformation. The monarch of England held the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union. The Union of the Crowns in 1603 expanded the personal union to include Scotland. The personal union between England and Scotland became a political union with the enactments of the Acts of Union 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The crowns of Great Britain and Ireland remained in personal union until it was ended by the Acts of Union 1800, which united Ireland and Great Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from January 1801 until December 1922.
The Lordship of Ireland, sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was the part of Ireland ruled by the King of England and controlled by loyal Anglo-Norman lords between 1177 and 1542. The lordship was created as a Papal possession following the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169–1171. As the lord of Ireland was also the king of England, he was represented locally by a governor, variously known as justiciar, lieutenant, or Lord Deputy.
In the following table, each peer is listed only by his or her highest Irish title, showing higher or equal titles in the other peerages. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.
A handful of titles in the peerage of Ireland date from the Middle Ages. Before 1801, Irish peers had the right to sit in the Irish House of Lords, on the abolition of which by the Union effective in 1801 by an Act of 1800 they regularly elected a small proportion: twenty-eight representative peers of their number to the House of Lords at Westminster.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
The Irish House of Lords was the upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from medieval times until 1800. It was also the final court of appeal of the Kingdom of Ireland.
In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords. Until 1999, all members of the Peerage of England held the right to sit in the House of Lords; they did not elect a limited group of representatives. All peers who were created after 1707 as Peers of Great Britain and after 1801 as Peers of the United Kingdom held the same right to sit in the House of Lords.
Both before and after the Union, Irish peerages were often used as a way of creating peerages which did not grant a seat in the English House of Lords and so allowed the grantee (such as Clive of India) to sit in the House of Commons in London. As a consequence, many Irish peers had little or no connection to Ireland, and indeed the names of some Irish peerages refer to places in Great Britain (for example, the Earldom of Mexborough refers to a place in England and the Earldom of Ranfurly refers to a village in Scotland). Irish peerages continued to be created for almost a century after the Union, although the treaty of Union placed restrictions on their numbers: three needed to become extinct before a new peerage could be granted, until there were only one hundred Irish peers (exclusive of those who held any peerage of Great Britain subsisting at the time of the union, or of the United Kingdom created since the union)– a condition still not achieved. There was a spate of creations of Irish peerages from 1797 onward, mostly peerages of higher ranks for existing Irish peers, as part of the negotiation of the Act of Union; this ended in the first week of January 1801, but the restrictions of the Act were not applied to the last few peers. Irish peerages were created in the early nineteenth century at least as often as the Act permitted, but the pace then slowed.
Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive,, Commander-in-Chief of British-occupied India, was a British military officer and East India Company official who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process, he also turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures setting in motion what would later become British-occupied India. Blocking impending French mastery of India, and eventual British expulsion from the continent, Clive improvised a military expedition that ultimately enabled the East India Company to adopt the French strategy of indirect rule via puppet government. Hired by the company to return a second time to India, Clive conspired to secure the Company's trade interests by overthrowing the Ruler of Bengal, the richest state in India, richer than Britain, at the time. Back in England, he used his success to secure an Irish barony, from the then Whig PM, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, and again a seat for himself in Parliament, via Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Powis, representing the Whigs in Shrewsbury, Shropshire (1761–1774), as he had previously in Mitchell, Cornwall (1754–1755).
The House of Commons, officially the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House.
Earl of Mexborough, of Lifford in the County of Donegal, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created on 11 February 1766 for John Savile, 1st Baron Pollington, Member of Parliament for Hedon and New Shoreham. He had already been created Baron Pollington, of Longford in the County of Longford, on 8 November 1753, and was made Viscount Pollington, of Ferns in the County of Wexford, at the same time as he was given the earldom. These titles are also in the Peerage of Ireland. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented Lincoln in the House of Commons. His son, the third Earl, was Member of Parliament for Pontefract for many years. On his death the titles passed to his son, the fourth Earl. He represented Gatton and Pontefract in Parliament as a Conservative. His son, the fifth Earl, was High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1877. He was succeeded by his half-brother, the sixth Earl. As of 2018 the titles are held by the latter's grandson, the eighth Earl, who succeeded his father in 1980.
The last two grants of Irish peerages were: the promotion of the Marquess of Abercorn (a peerage of Great Britain) to be Duke of Abercorn in the Irish Peerage when he became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1868 and the granting of the Curzon of Kedleston barony to George Curzon when he became Viceroy of India in 1898. Peers of Ireland have precedence below peers of England, Scotland, and Great Britain of the same rank, and above peers of the United Kingdom of the same rank; but Irish peers created after 1801 yield to United Kingdom peers of earlier creation. Accordingly, the Duke of Abercorn (the junior Duke in the Peerage of Ireland) ranks between the Duke of Sutherland and the Duke of Westminster (both dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom).
The title Duke of Abercorn is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1868 and bestowed upon James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Abercorn. Although the Dukedom is in the Peerage of Ireland, it refers to Abercorn, West Lothian, and the Duke also bears four titles in Peerage of Scotland and two in the Peerage of Great Britain, and is one of only three peers who have titles in those three peerages. The Duke of Abercorn also claims the French title of Duke of Châtellerault, created in 1548.
Duke of Sutherland is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom which was created by William IV in 1833 for George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford. A series of marriages to heiresses by members of the Leveson-Gower family made the Dukes of Sutherland one of the richest landowning families in the United Kingdom. The title remained in the Leveson-Gower family until the death of the 5th Duke of Sutherland in 1963, when it passed to John Egerton, 5th Earl of Ellesmere.
Duke of Westminster is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Hugh Grosvenor, 3rd Marquess of Westminster. It is the most recent dukedom conferred on someone not related to the British royal family.
When one of the Irish representative peers died, the Irish Peerage met to elect his replacement; but the officers required to arrange this were abolished as part of the creation of the Irish Free State. The existing representative peers kept their seats in the House of Lords, but they have not been replaced. Since the death of Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey in 1961, none remains. The right of the Irish Peerage to elect representatives was abolished by the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1971.
The Irish Free State was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and British Crown forces.
Captain Francis Charles Adelbert Henry Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey, styled Viscount Newry until 1915, was a Royal Navy officer and Anglo-Irish peer.
The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Titles in the Peerage of the United Kingdom have also referred to places in Ireland, for example Baron Arklow (created 1801 and 1881) or Baron Killarney (created 1892 and 1920). Since partition, only places in Northern Ireland have been used, although the 1880 title "Baron Mount Temple, of Mount Temple in the County of Sligo", was recreated in 1932 as "Baron Mount Temple, of Lee in the County of Southampton".
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898.
The title Baron Arklow has been created twice in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Arklow is in County Wicklow in Ireland.
Baron Killarney was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom that has been created twice. The first creation came on 24 May 1892 as a substantive title by Queen Victoria for her grandson Prince George, Duke of York. George was also created Duke of York and Earl of Inverness, on the same day. In 1910 upon his ascension as King George V, his titles merged with the crown. The second creation came on 24 May 1920, as a substantive title by King George V for his son Prince Albert, Duke of York. Albert was also created Duke of York and Earl of Inverness, on the same day. Upon King Edward VIII's abdication in 1936, Albert's titles merged with the crown, upon his coronation as King George VI.
In the following table of the Peerage of Ireland as it currently stands,each peer's highest titles in each of the other peerages (if any) are also listed. Irish peers possessed of titles in any of the other peerages (except Scotland, which only got the right to an automatic seat in 1963, with the Peerage Act 1963) had automatic seats in the House of Lords until 1999.
|Title||Creation||Other Dukedom or higher titles|
House of Lords titles
|The Duke of Leinster||26 November 1766||Viscount Leinster in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999||King George III|
|Lord Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1874–1999.|
|The Duke of Abercorn||10 August 1868||Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.||Queen Victoria|
|Title||Creation||Other Marquisette or higher titles|
House of Lords titles
|The Marquess of Kildare||3 March 1761||Duke of Leinster in Peerage of Ireland.||King George III|
|The Marquess of Waterford||19 August 1789||Lord Tyrone in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.|
|The Marquess of Downshire||20 August 1789||Earl of Hillsborough in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.|
|The Marquess of Donegall||4 July 1791||Lord Fisherwick in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999|
|Lord Templemore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1975–1999.|
|The Marquess of Headfort||29 December 1800||Lord Kenlis in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1831–1999.|
|The Marquess of Sligo||29 December 1800||Lord Monteagle in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1806–1999.|
|The Marquess of Ely||29 December 1800||Lord Loftus in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1801–1999.|
|The Marquess Conyngham||1 January 1816||Lord Minster in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.||The Prince Regent|
|The Marquess of Londonderry||13 January 1816||Earl Vane in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1823–1999.|
|Title||Creation||Other Earldom or higher titles|
House of Lords titles
|The Earl of Waterford||17 July 1446||Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England until 1999|
|The Earl of Cork||26 October 1620||Earl of Orrery in the Peerage of Ireland|
|Lord Boyle of Marston in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.|
|The Earl of Westmeath||4 September 1621|
|The Earl of Meath||16 April 1627||Lord Chaworth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1831–1999.|
|The Earl of Desmond||28 October 1628||Held by the Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England since 1675.|
|The Earl of Cavan||1647|
|The Earl of Orrery||1660||Held with Earl of Cork in the Peerage of Ireland;|
Sat as Lord Boyle of Marston in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999 .
|The Earl of Drogheda||1661||Lord Moore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1954–1999.|
|The Earl of Granard||1684||Lord Granard in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1806–1999.|
|The Earl of Kerry||1722||Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Earl of Darnley||1725||Lord Clifton in the Peerage of England from 1937–1999.|
|The Earl of Bessborough||1739|| Lord Ponsonby in the Peerage of Great Britain from 1749–1999;|
Lord Duncannon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
|The Earl of Carrick||1748||Sat as Lord Butler in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1912–1999.|
|The Earl of Shelburne||1753||Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Earl of Shannon||1756||Lord Carleton in the Peerage of Great Britain from 1786–1999.|
|The Earl of Mornington||1760||Duke of Wellington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|The Earl of Arran||1762||Sat as Lord Sudley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1884–1999.|
|The Earl of Courtown||1762||Sat as Lord Saltersford in the Peerage of Great Britain from 1796–1999.|
|The Earl of Mexborough||1766|
|The Earl Winterton||1766|
|The Earl of Kingston||1768|
|The Earl of Roden||1771|
|The Earl of Lisburne||1776|
|The Earl of Clanwilliam||1776||Sat as Lord Clanwilliam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1828–1999.|
|The Earl of Antrim||1785|
|The Earl of Longford||1785||Sat as Lord Silchester in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999;|
Sat as Lord Pakenham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1961–1999.
|The Earl of Portarlington||1785|
|The Earl of Mayo||1785|
|The Earl Annesley||1789|
|The Earl of Enniskillen||1789||Sat as Lord Grinstead in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1815–1999.|
|The Earl Erne||1789||Sat as Lord Fermanagh in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1876–1999.|
|The Earl of Lucan||1795||Sat as Lord Bingham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1934–1974/1999.|
|The Earl Belmore||1797|
|The Earl Castle Stewart||1800|
|The Earl of Donoughmore||1800||Sat as Viscount Hutchinson in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.|
|The Earl of Caledon||1800|
|The Earl of Limerick||1803||Sat as Lord Foxford in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1815–1999.|
|The Earl of Clancarty||1803||Sat as Viscount Clancarty in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1823–1999.|
|The Earl of Gosford||1806||Sat as Lord Worlingham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1835–1999;|
Sat as Lord Acheson in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1847–1999.
|The Earl of Rosse||1806|
|The Earl of Normanton||1806||Sat as Lord Mendip in the Peerage of Great Britain from 1974–1999;|
Sat as Lord Somerton in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1873–1999.
|The Earl of Kilmorey||1822|
|The Earl of Listowel||1822||Sat as Lord Hare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1869–1999.|
|The Earl of Norbury||1827|
|The Earl of Ranfurly||1831||Sat as Lord Ranfurly in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1826–1999.|
|Title||Creation||Other Viscountcy or higher titles|
House of Lords titles
|The Viscount Gormanston||1478||Sat as Lord Gormanston in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1868–1999.|
|The Viscount Mountgarret||1550||Sat as Lord Mountgarret in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1911–1999.|
|The Viscount Grandison||1620||Earl of Jersey in the Peerage of England .|
|The Viscount Valentia||1622|
|The Viscount Dillon||1622|
|The Viscount Lumley||1628||Earl of Scarbrough in the Peerage of England .|
|The Viscount Massereene||1660||Held by with Viscount Ferrard in the Peerage of Ireland.|
Sat as Lord Oriel in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.
|The Viscount Cholmondeley||1661|| Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;|
Earl of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of England;
Lord Newburgh in the Peerage of Great Britain .
|The Viscount Charlemont||1665|
|The Viscount Downe||1681||Sat as Lord Dawnay in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1897–1999.|
|The Viscount Molesworth||1716|
|The Viscount Chetwynd||1717|
|The Viscount Midleton||1717||Sat as Lord Brodrick in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1796–1999.|
|The Viscount Boyne||1717||Lord Brancepeth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1866–1999.|
|The Viscount Grimston||1719|| Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;|
Lord Forrester in the Peerage of Scotland;
Lord Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain .
|The Viscount Gage||1720||Sat as Lord Gage in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1790–1999.|
|The Viscount Galway||1727|
|The Viscount Powerscourt||1743||Sat as Lord Powerscourt in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1885–1999.|
|The Viscount Ashbrook||1751|
|The Viscount Southwell||1776|
|The Viscount de Vesci||1776|
|The Viscount Lifford||1781|
|The Viscount Bangor||1781|
|The Viscount Doneraile||1785|
|The Viscount Harberton||1791|
|The Viscount Hawarden||1793|
|The Viscount Ferrard||1797||Held by with Viscount Massereene in the Peerage of Ireland.|
Sat as Lord Oriel in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.
|The Viscount Monck||1801||Sat as Lord Monck in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1866–1999.|
|The Viscount Gort||1816|
In Ireland, barony may also refer to an obsolete political subdivision of a county. There is no connection between such a barony and the noble title of baron.
|Title||Creation||Other Barony or higher titles|
House of Lords titles
|The Lord Kingsale||1397|
|The Lord Dunsany||1439|
|The Lord Trimlestown||1461|
|The Lord Dunboyne||1541|
|The Lord Louth||1541|
|The Lord Inchiquin||1543|
|The Lord Digby||1620||Sat as Lord Digby in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1765–1999.|
|The Lord Conway and Killultagh||1712|| Marquess of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain;|
Lord Conway in the Peerage of England .
|The Lord Newborough||1715||Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Lord Carbery||1715|
|The Lord Aylmer||1718|
|The Lord Farnham||1756|
|The Lord Lisle||1758|
|The Lord Clive||1762|| Earl of Powis in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;|
Lord Clive in the Peerage of Great Britain .
|The Lord Mulgrave||1767||Marquess of Normanby in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Lord Newborough||1776|
|The Lord Macdonald||1776|
|The Lord Kensington||1776||Lord Kensington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1886–1999.|
|The Lord Westcote||1776||Viscount Cobham in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Lord Massy||1776|
|The Lord Muskerry||1781|
|The Lord Hood||1782||Viscount Hood in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Lord Sheffield||1783||Sat as Lord Stanley of Alderley in Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1903–1999;|
Sat as Lord Eddisbury in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1903–1999.
|The Lord Kilmaine||1789|
|The Lord Auckland||1789||Sat as Lord Auckland in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1793–1999.|
|The Lord Waterpark||1792|
|The Lord Bridport||1794||Viscount Bridport in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Lord Graves||1794|
|The Lord Huntingfield||1796|
|The Lord Carrington||1796||Sat as Lord Carrington in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1797–1999.|
|The Lord Rossmore||1796||Sat as Lord Rossmore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1838–1999.|
|The Lord Hotham||1797|
|The Lord Crofton||1797|
|The Lord ffrench||1798|
|The Lord Henley||1799||Sat as Lord Northington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1885–1999.|
|The Lord Langford||1800|
|The Lord Dufferin and Claneboye||1800|
|The Lord Henniker||1800||Sat as Lord Hartismere in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1866–1999.|
|The Lord Ventry||1800|
|The Lord Dunalley||1800|
|The Lord Clanmorris||1800|
|The Lord Ashtown||1800|
|The Lord Rendlesham||1806|
|The Lord Castlemaine||1812|
|The Lord Decies||1812|
|The Lord Garvagh||1818|
|The Lord Talbot of Malahide||1831|
|The Lord Carew||1834||Sat as Lord Carew in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1838–1999.|
|The Lord Oranmore and Browne||1836||Sat as Lord Mereworth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1926–1999.|
|The Lord Bellew||1848|
|The Lord Fermoy||1865|
|The Lord Rathdonnell||1868|
The peerage in the United Kingdom is a legal system comprising both hereditary and lifetime titles, composed of various noble ranks, and forming a constituent part of the British honours system. The term peerage can be used both collectively to refer to the entire body of nobles, and individually to refer to a specific title. British peerage title holders are termed peers of the Realm.
The Peerage of Scotland is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain.
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800. It replaced the Peerage of England and the Peerage of Scotland until it was itself replaced by the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801.
Marquess of Sligo is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1800 for John Browne, 3rd Earl of Altamont. The Marquess holds the subsidiary titles of Baron Mount Eagle, of Westport in the County of Mayo, Viscount Westport, of Westport in the County of Mayo, Earl of Altamont, in the County of Mayo, Earl of Clanricarde and Baron Monteagle, of Westport in the County of Mayo. All these titles are in the Peerage of Ireland, except the Barony of Monteagle, which is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The latter peerage entitled the Marquesses to a seat in the House of Lords prior to the House of Lords Act 1999. The Earldom of Clanricarde was inherited by the sixth Marquess in 1916 according to a special remainder in the letters patent.
Earl of Arran is a title in both the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland. The two titles refer to different places: the Isle of Arran in Scotland, and the Aran Islands in Ireland. The Scottish earldom is a subsidiary title of the Duke of Hamilton, whereas the Irish earldom is a separate title held by the Gore family.
Baron Inchiquin is one of the older titles in the Peerage of Ireland. It was one of two titles created on 1 July 1543 for Murrough O'Brien, Prince of Thomond, who was descended from the great high king Brian Boru. The grant of the English titles was conditional upon the abandonment of native titles, the adoption of English customs and laws, pledging of allegiance to the English crown, apostasy from the Catholic Church, and conversion to the Anglican Church. Murrough was made both Earl of Thomond in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to his nephew Donough O'Brien and Baron Inchiquin, with remainder to his male heirs.
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers: 31 dukes, 34 marquesses, 193 earls, 112 viscounts, and 444 barons.
The history of the British peerage, a system of nobility found in the United Kingdom, stretches over the last thousand years. The origins of the British peerage are obscure but while the ranks of baron and earl perhaps predate the British peerage itself, the ranks of duke and marquess were introduced to England in the 14th century. The rank of viscount came later, in the mid-15th century. Peers were summoned to Parliament, forming the House of Lords.
The British Peerage is governed by a body of law that has developed over several centuries.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.
A writ in acceleration, commonly called a writ of acceleration, was a type of writ of summons that enabled the eldest son and heir apparent of a peer with multiple peerage titles to attend the British or Irish House of Lords, using one of his father's subsidiary titles. This procedure could be used to lower the average age of the house, and increase the number of capable members in a house that drew on a very small pool of talent, without increasing the effective size of the peerage and thereby diluting the exclusivity of noble titles.
The title of Baron Herbert of Chirbury was created five times, twice in the Peerage of England, twice in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The British nobility is the peerage of the United Kingdom. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although in the present day they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights in the House of Lords, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, and the right to an audience with the monarch. Still, more than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry.
Marquess is a rank of nobility in the peerages of the United Kingdom.