|Part of a series on|
|House of Lords|
The Peerage of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic : Moraireachd na h-Alba, Scots : Peerage o Scotland) is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.
After the Union, the Peers of the ancient Parliament of Scotland elected 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords. The Peerage Act 1963 granted all Scottish Peers the right to sit in the House of Lords, but this automatic right was revoked, as for all hereditary peerages (except those of the incumbent Earl Marshal and Lord Great Chamberlain), when the House of Lords Act 1999 received royal assent. Had the Scottish people voted "Yes" in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, the eligibility of Peers of Scotland to sit in the House of Lords would have been reviewed.
Unlike most peerages, many Scottish titles have been granted with remainder to pass via female offspring (thus an Italian family has succeeded to and presently holds the earldom of Newburgh), and in the case of daughters only, these titles devolve to the eldest daughter rather than falling into abeyance (as is the case with ancient English baronies by writ of summons). Unlike other British peerage titles, Scots Law permits peerages to be inherited by or through a person who was not legitimate at birth, but was subsequently legitimised by their parents marrying later.
The ranks of the Scottish Peerage are, in ascending order: Lord of Parliament, Viscount, Earl, Marquis and Duke. Scottish Viscounts differ from those of the other Peerages (of England, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom) by using the style of in their title, as in Viscount of Oxfuird. Though this is the theoretical form, most Viscounts drop the "of". The Viscount of Arbuthnott and to a lesser extent the Viscount of Oxfuird still use "of." Scottish Peers were entitled to sit in the ancient Parliament of Scotland.
Scottish Barons rank below Lords of Parliament, and although considered noble, their titles are incorporeal hereditaments. At one time feudal barons did sit in parliament. However, they are considered minor barons and not peers because their titles can be hereditary, or bought and sold.
In the following table of the Peerage of Scotland as it currently stands, each peer's highest ranking title in the other peerages (if any) are also listed. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.
|Title||Creation||Other Dukedom or higher titles|
House of Lords titles
|The Duke of Rothesay||1398||Since 1603, usually Prince of Wales as the heir to the throne|
Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England .
|The Duke of Hamilton||12 September 1643||Sat as Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1963.|
|The Duke of Buccleuch||20 April 1663||Sat as Earl of Doncaster in the Peerage of England from 1743–1963.|
|The Duke of Lennox||1675|| Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England;|
Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
|The Duke of Queensberry||3 February 1684||Held by the Duke of Buccleuch in the Peerage of Scotland since 1810.|
|The Duke of Argyll||23 June 1701||Sat as Lord Sundridge and Hamilton in the Peerage of Great Britain;|
Sat as Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1892–1963.
|The Duke of Atholl||1703|
|The Duke of Montrose||1707||Sat as Earl Graham in the Peerage of Great Britain.|
|The Duke of Roxburghe||1707||Sat as Earl Innes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|Title||Creation||Other Marquisette or higher titles|
|The Marquess of Huntly||1599||Lord Meldrum in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Marquess of Queensberry||1682|
|The Marquess of Tweeddale||1694||Lord Tweeddale in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Marquess of Lothian||1701|| Lord Ker in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
Lord Kerr of Monteviot for Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
|Title||Creation||Other Earldom or higher titles|
|The Earl of Sutherland||1230|
|The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres||1398; 1651|| Lord Wigan in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;|
Lord Balniel in the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
|The Countess of Mar||1114|
|The Earl of Erroll||1452|
|The Earl of Rothes||1457|
|The Earl of Morton||1458|
|The Earl of Buchan||1469||Lord Erskine in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Eglinton||1507||Earl of Winton in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Cassilis||1509||Marquess of Ailsa in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Earl of Caithness||1455|
|The Earl of Mar and Kellie||1565; 1619||Lord Erskine of Alloa Tower in the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Moray||1562||Lord Stuart in the Peerage of Great Britain.|
|The Earl of Home||1605||Lord Douglas in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Perth||1605|
|The Earl of Abercorn||1606|| Duke of Abercorn in the Peerage of Ireland;|
Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain .
|The Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne||1606||Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Haddington||1619|
|The Earl of Galloway||1623|
|The Earl of Lauderdale||1624|
|The Earl of Lindsay||1633|
|The Earl of Loudoun||1633|
|The Earl of Kinnoull||1633||Lord Hay in the Peerage of Great Britain.|
|The Earl of Dumfries and Bute||1633; 1703||Marquess of Bute in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Earl of Elgin and Kincardine||1633; 1647||Lord Elgin in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Southesk||1633||Duke of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Earl of Wemyss and March||1633; 1697||Lord Wemyss in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Dalhousie||1633||Lord Ramsay in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Airlie||1639|
|The Earl of Leven and Melville||1641; 1690|
|The Earl of Dysart||1643|
|The Earl of Selkirk||1646||Presently disclaimed by James Douglas-Hamilton - Lord Selkirk of Douglas in the Peerage of the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Northesk||1647|
|The Earl of Dundee||1660|
|The Earl of Newburgh||1660|
|The Earl of Annandale and Hartfell||1662|
|The Earl of Dundonald||1669|
|The Earl of Kintore||1677||Viscount Stonehaven in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Aberdeen||1682|| Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;|
Viscount Gordon in the Peerage of Great Britain .
|The Earl of Dunmore||1686|
|The Earl of Orkney||1696|
|The Earl of Seafield||1701|
|The Earl of Stair||1703||Lord Oxenfoord in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Rosebery||1703||Earl of Midlothian in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Glasgow||1703||Lord Fairlie in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Earl of Hopetoun||1703||Marquess of Linlithgow in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|Title||Creation||Other Viscountcy or higher titles|
|The Viscount Falkland||1620|
|The Viscount of Stormont||1621||Earl of Mansfield in the Peerage of Great Britain|
|The Viscount of Arbuthnott||1641|
|The Viscount of Oxfuird||1651|
|The Lord Forbes||1442|
|The Lord Gray||1445|
|The Lady Saltoun||1445|
|The Lord Sinclair||1449|
|The Lord Borthwick||1452|
|The Lord Cathcart||1452||Earl Cathcart in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Lord Lovat||1464||Lord Lovat in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Lord Sempill||1488|
|The Lady Herries||1490|
|The Lord Elphinstone||1510||Lord Elphinstone in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Lord Torphichen||1564|
|The Lady Kinloss||1602|
|The Lord Colville of Culross||1604||Viscount Colville of Culross in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Lord Balfour of Burleigh||1607|
|The Lord Dingwall||1609||Lord Lucas in the Peerage of England.|
|The Lord Napier||1627||Lord Ettrick in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Lord Fairfax of Cameron||1627|
|The Lord Reay||1628|
|The Lord Forrester||1633|| Lord Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain;|
Viscount Grimston in the Peerage of Ireland;
Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
|The Lord Elibank||1643|
|The Lord Belhaven and Stenton||1647|
|The Lord Rollo||1651||Lord Dunning in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Lord Ruthven of Freeland||1651||Earl of Carlisle in the Peerage of England .|
|The Lord Nairne||1681||Viscount Mersey in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Lord Polwarth||1690|
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers and domestically usually referred to simply as the Lords, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
The peerage in the United Kingdom is a legal system comprising both hereditary and lifetime titles, composed of various noble ranks, and forming a constituent part of the British honours system. The term peerage can be used both collectively to refer to the entire body of nobles, and individually to refer to a specific title. British peerage title holders are termed peers of the Realm.
The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as lord or king of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government. As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force.
The Peerage Act 1963 is the Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that permitted women peeresses and all Scottish hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, and which allows newly inherited hereditary peerages to be disclaimed.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain.
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800. It replaced the Peerage of England and the Peerage of Scotland, but was itself replaced by the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801.
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898.
In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords. Until 1999, all members of the Peerage of England held the right to sit in the House of Lords; they did not elect a limited group of representatives. All peers who were created after 1707 as Peers of Great Britain and after 1801 as Peers of the United Kingdom held the same right to sit in the House of Lords.
A Lord of Parliament was the holder of the lowest form of peerage entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount. A Lord of Parliament is said to hold a Lordship of Parliament.
Earl of Stair is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1703 for the lawyer and statesman John Dalrymple, 2nd Viscount of Stair.
Viscount of Oxfuird is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1651 for Sir James Makgill, 1st Baronet, along with the subsidiary title of Lord Makgill of Cousland, also in the Peerage of Scotland, with remainder to his "heirs male of tailzie and provision whomsoever". He had already been created a Baronet, of Makgill, in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia on 19 July 1625, with remainder to heirs male whatsoever. The remainder to heirs male whatsoever was a Scottish concept that permitted inheritance by persons not descended from the original grantee, but descended in the male line from male-line ancestors of the grantee. However, on the death of the first Viscount's son, the second Viscount, the Lordship and Viscountcy were assumed by his daughter Christian, as heir of tailzie and provision. Her son Robert Maitland Makgill also voted as Viscount of Oxfuird at the election of Scottish Representative Peers in 1733.
Viscount Falkland is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. Referring to the royal burgh of Falkland in Fife, it was created in 1620, by Scottish King James VI, for Sir Henry Cary, although he was actually English and had no connection to Scotland. He was made Lord Cary at the same time, also in the Peerage of Scotland. His son, the second Viscount, was a prominent statesman. The latter's younger son, the fourth Viscount, notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire. His son, the fifth Viscount, represented several constituencies in the House of Commons and held office as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1693 to 1694. The Falkland Islands in the south Atlantic are named after him.
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers: 31 dukes, 34 marquesses, 193 earls, 112 viscounts, and 444 barons.
The history of the British peerage, a system of nobility found in the United Kingdom, stretches over the last thousand years. The origins of the British peerage are obscure but while the ranks of baron and earl perhaps predate the British peerage itself, the ranks of duke and marquess were introduced to England in the 14th century. The rank of viscount came later, in the mid-15th century. Peers were summoned to Parliament, forming the House of Lords.
The British Peerage is governed by a body of law that has developed over several centuries.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.
The Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the British Parliament. The term is used to differentiate these members — who are either life peers or hereditary peers, although the hereditary right to sit in the House of Lords was abolished for all but ninety-two peers during the 1999 reform of the House of Lords — from the Lords Spiritual, who sit in the House as a consequence of being bishops in the Church of England .
The British nobility is the peerage of the United Kingdom. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although in the present day they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights in the House of Lords, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, and the right to an audience with the monarch. Still, more than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry.
Following the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, the number of hereditary peers entitled to sit in the House of Lords was reduced to ninety-two. Ninety of the first ninety-two were elected by all the hereditary peers before the passing of the reform. Since November 2002, by-elections have been held to fill vacancies left by deaths of those peers. Since the passing of the House of Lords Reform Act 2014, by-elections have also been held to fill vacancies left by the resignation of those peers.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peerage of Scotland .|