Peerage of Scotland

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The Peerage of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic : Moraireachd na h-Alba, Scots : Peerage o Scotland) is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.

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After the Union, the Peers of the ancient Parliament of Scotland elected 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords. The Peerage Act 1963 granted all Scottish Peers the right to sit in the House of Lords, but this automatic right was revoked, as for all hereditary peerages (except those of the incumbent Earl Marshal and Lord Great Chamberlain), when the House of Lords Act 1999 received royal assent. Had the Scottish people voted "Yes" in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, the eligibility of Peers of Scotland to sit in the House of Lords would have been reviewed.

Unlike most peerages, many Scottish titles have been granted with remainder to pass via female offspring (thus an Italian family has succeeded to and presently holds the earldom of Newburgh [1] ), and in the case of daughters only, these titles devolve to the eldest daughter rather than falling into abeyance (as is the case with ancient English baronies by writ of summons). Unlike other British peerage titles, Scots Law permits peerages to be inherited by or through a person who was not legitimate at birth, but was subsequently legitimised by their parents marrying later. [2] [3]

The ranks of the Scottish Peerage are, in ascending order: Lord of Parliament, Viscount, Earl, Marquis and Duke. Scottish Viscounts differ from those of the other Peerages (of England, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom) by using the style of in their title, as in Viscount of Oxfuird. Though this is the theoretical form, most Viscounts drop the "of". The Viscount of Arbuthnott and to a lesser extent the Viscount of Oxfuird still use "of." Scottish Peers were entitled to sit in the ancient Parliament of Scotland.

Scottish Barons rank below Lords of Parliament, and although considered noble, their titles are incorporeal hereditaments. At one time feudal barons did sit in parliament. However, they are considered minor barons and not peers because their titles can be hereditary, or bought and sold.

In the following table of the Peerage of Scotland as it currently stands, each peer's highest ranking title in the other peerages (if any) are also listed. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.

Dukes

TitleCreationOther Dukedom or higher titles
House of Lords titles
The Duke of Rothesay 1398Since 1603, usually Prince of Wales as the heir to the throne
Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England
.
The Duke of Hamilton 12 September 1643Sat as Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1963.
The Duke of Buccleuch 20 April 1663Sat as Earl of Doncaster in the Peerage of England from 1743–1963.
The Duke of Lennox 1675 Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England;
Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
.
The Duke of Queensberry 3 February 1684Held by the Duke of Buccleuch in the Peerage of Scotland since 1810.
The Duke of Argyll 23 June 1701Sat as Lord Sundridge and Hamilton in the Peerage of Great Britain;
Sat as Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1892–1963.
The Duke of Atholl 1703
The Duke of Montrose 1707Sat as Earl Graham in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Duke of Roxburghe 1707Sat as Earl Innes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Marquesses

TitleCreationOther Marquisette or higher titles
The Marquess of Huntly 1599 Lord Meldrum in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Marquess of Queensberry 1682
The Marquess of Tweeddale 1694 Lord Tweeddale in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Marquess of Lothian 1701 Lord Ker in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Lord Kerr of Monteviot for Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Earls and countesses

TitleCreationOther Earldom or higher titles
The Earl of Sutherland 1230
The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres 1398; 1651 Lord Wigan in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;
Lord Balniel in the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Countess of Mar 1114
The Earl of Erroll 1452
The Earl of Rothes 1457
The Earl of Morton 1458
The Earl of Buchan 1469 Lord Erskine in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Eglinton 1507 Earl of Winton in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Cassilis 1509 Marquess of Ailsa in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
The Earl of Caithness 1455
The Earl of Mar and Kellie 1565; 1619 Lord Erskine of Alloa Tower in the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Moray 1562 Lord Stuart in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Earl of Home 1605 Lord Douglas in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Perth 1605
The Earl of Abercorn 1606 Duke of Abercorn in the Peerage of Ireland;
Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain
.
The Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne 1606 Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Haddington 1619
The Earl of Galloway 1623
The Earl of Lauderdale 1624
The Earl of Lindsay 1633
The Earl of Loudoun 1633
The Earl of Kinnoull 1633 Lord Hay in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Earl of Dumfries and Bute 1633; 1703 Marquess of Bute in the Peerage of Great Britain .
The Earl of Elgin and Kincardine 1633; 1647 Lord Elgin in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Southesk 1633 Duke of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
The Earl of Wemyss and March 1633; 1697 Lord Wemyss in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Dalhousie 1633 Lord Ramsay in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Airlie 1639
The Earl of Leven and Melville 1641; 1690
The Earl of Dysart 1643
The Earl of Selkirk 1646Presently disclaimed by James Douglas-Hamilton - Lord Selkirk of Douglas in the Peerage of the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Northesk 1647
The Earl of Dundee 1660
The Earl of Newburgh 1660
The Earl of Annandale and Hartfell 1662
The Earl of Dundonald 1669
The Earl of Kintore 1677 Viscount Stonehaven in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Aberdeen 1682 Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;
Viscount Gordon in the Peerage of Great Britain
.
The Earl of Dunmore 1686
The Earl of Orkney 1696
The Earl of Seafield 1701
The Earl of Stair 1703 Lord Oxenfoord in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Rosebery 1703 Earl of Midlothian in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Glasgow 1703 Lord Fairlie in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Hopetoun 1703 Marquess of Linlithgow in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .

Viscounts

TitleCreationOther Viscountcy or higher titles
The Viscount Falkland 1620
The Viscount of Stormont 1621 Earl of Mansfield in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Viscount of Arbuthnott 1641
The Viscount of Oxfuird 1651

Lords of Parliament

TitleCreationOther titles
The Lord Forbes 1442
The Lord Gray 1445
The Lady Saltoun 1445
The Lord Sinclair 1449
The Lord Borthwick 1452
The Lord Cathcart 1452 Earl Cathcart in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
The Lord Lovat 1464 Lord Lovat in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Sempill 1488
The Lady Herries 1490
The Lord Elphinstone 1510 Lord Elphinstone in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Torphichen 1564
The Lady Kinloss 1602
The Lord Colville of Culross 1604 Viscount Colville of Culross in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
The Lord Balfour of Burleigh 1607
The Lord Dingwall 1609 Lord Lucas in the Peerage of England.
The Lord Napier 1627 Lord Ettrick in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Fairfax of Cameron 1627
The Lord Reay 1628
The Lord Forrester 1633 Lord Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain;
Viscount Grimston in the Peerage of Ireland;
Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
.
The Lord Elibank 1643
The Lord Belhaven and Stenton 1647
The Lord Rollo 1651 Lord Dunning in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Ruthven of Freeland 1651 Earl of Carlisle in the Peerage of England .
The Lord Nairne 1681 Viscount Mersey in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .
The Lord Polwarth 1690

See also

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Peerage Act 1963 United Kingdom legislation

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Lord of Parliament

A Lord of Parliament was the holder of the lowest form of peerage entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount. A Lord of Parliament is said to hold a Lordship of Parliament.

Earl of Stair

Earl of Stair is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1703 for the lawyer and statesman John Dalrymple, 2nd Viscount of Stair.

Viscount of Oxfuird

Viscount of Oxfuird is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1651 for Sir James Makgill, 1st Baronet, along with the subsidiary title of Lord Makgill of Cousland, also in the Peerage of Scotland, with remainder to his "heirs male of tailzie and provision whomsoever". He had already been created a Baronet, of Makgill, in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia on 19 July 1625, with remainder to heirs male whatsoever. The remainder to heirs male whatsoever was a Scottish concept that permitted inheritance by persons not descended from the original grantee, but descended in the male line from male-line ancestors of the grantee. However, on the death of the first Viscount's son, the second Viscount, the Lordship and Viscountcy were assumed by his daughter Christian, as heir of tailzie and provision. Her son Robert Maitland Makgill also voted as Viscount of Oxfuird at the election of Scottish Representative Peers in 1733.

Viscount Falkland

Viscount Falkland is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. Referring to the royal burgh of Falkland in Fife, it was created in 1620, by Scottish King James VI, for Sir Henry Cary, although he was actually English and had no connection to Scotland. He was made Lord Cary at the same time, also in the Peerage of Scotland. His son, the second Viscount, was a prominent statesman. The latter's younger son, the fourth Viscount, notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire. His son, the fifth Viscount, represented several constituencies in the House of Commons and held office as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1693 to 1694. The Falkland Islands in the south Atlantic are named after him.

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Lords Temporal

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A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks.

References

  1. "Representative Peers of Scotland". The Scottish Review. 25: 357. 1895.
  2. Earl of Dundee quoted in Hansard: LEGITIMATION (SCOTLAND) BILL [H.L.]
  3. Lauderdale Peerage Claim, House of Lords, 1884–1885