Peerage of Scotland

Last updated

The Peerage of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic : Moraireachd na h-Alba, Scots : Peerage o Scotland) is one the five divisions of peerages in the United Kingdom and for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.

Contents

Scottish Peers were entitled to sit in the ancient Parliament of Scotland. After the Union, the Peers of the old Parliament of Scotland elected 16 representative peers to sit in the House of Lords at Westminster. The Peerage Act 1963 granted all Scottish Peers the right to sit in the House of Lords, but this automatic right was revoked, as for all hereditary peerages (except those of the incumbent Earl Marshal and Lord Great Chamberlain), when the House of Lords Act 1999 received the Royal Assent.

Unlike most peerages, many Scottish titles have been granted with remainder to pass via female offspring (thus an Italian family has succeeded to and presently holds the earldom of Newburgh [1] ), and in the case of daughters only, these titles devolve to the eldest daughter rather than falling into abeyance (as is the case with ancient English baronies by writ of summons). Unlike other British peerage titles, Scots law permits peerages to be inherited by or through a person who was not legitimate at birth, but was subsequently legitimised by their parents marrying later. [2] [3]

The ranks of the Scottish Peerage are, in ascending order: Lord of Parliament, Viscount, Earl, Marquis and Duke. Scottish Viscounts differ from those of the other Peerages (of England, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom) by using the style of in their title, as in Viscount of Oxfuird. Though this is the theoretical form, most Viscounts drop the "of". The Viscount of Arbuthnott and to a lesser extent the Viscount of Oxfuird still use "of".

Scottish Barons rank below Lords of Parliament, and although considered noble, their titles are incorporeal hereditaments. At one time feudal barons did sit in parliament. However, they are considered minor barons and not peers because their titles can be hereditary, or bought and sold.

In the following table of the Peerage of Scotland as it currently stands, each peer's highest ranking title in the other peerages (if any) are also listed. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.

Dukes

TitleCreationOther Dukedom or higher titlesTitle used in the House of Lords
The Duke of Rothesay 1398Since 1603, usually Prince of Wales as the heir to the throne
Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England.
The Duke of Hamilton 12 September 1643Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great BritainDuke of Brandon
The Duke of Buccleuch 20 April 1663 Duke of Queensberry in the Peerage of ScotlandEarl of Doncaster
The Duke of Lennox 1675 Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England;
Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Duke of Queensberry 3 February 1684 Duke of Buccleuch in the Peerage of Scotland
The Duke of Argyll 23 June 1701
Baron Sundridge
Baron Hamilton
Duke of Argyll (Peerage of the United Kingdom)
The Duke of Atholl 1703
The Duke of Montrose 1707Earl Graham
The Duke of Roxburghe 1707Earl Innes

Marquesses

TitleCreationOther Marquessate or higher titles
The Marquess of Huntly 1599
The Marquess of Queensberry 1682
The Marquess of Tweeddale 1694
The Marquess of Lothian 1701

Earls and countesses

TitleCreationOther Earldom or higher titles
The Earl of Sutherland 1230
The Earl of Crawford 1398 Earl of Balcarres in the Peerage of Scotland
The Countess of Mar 1404
The Earl of Erroll 1452
The Earl of Rothes 1457
The Earl of Morton 1458
The Earl of Buchan 1469
The Earl of Eglinton 1507 Earl of Winton in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Cassilis 1509 Marquess of Ailsa in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Caithness 1455
The Earl of Mar 1565 Earl of Kellie in the Peerage of Scotland
The Earl of Moray 1562
The Earl of Home 1605
The Earl of Perth 1605
The Earl of Abercorn 1606 Duke of Abercorn in the Peerage of Ireland
The Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne 1606 Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Haddington 1619
The Earl of Kellie 1619 Earl of Mar (1565) in the Peerage of Scotland
The Earl of Galloway 1623
The Earl of Lauderdale 1624
The Earl of Lindsay 1633
The Earl of Loudoun 1633
The Earl of Kinnoull 1633
The Earl of Dumfries 1633 Marquess of Bute in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Earl of Elgin 1633
The Earl of Southesk 1633 Duke of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Wemyss 1633Earl of March in the Peerage of Scotland
The Earl of Dalhousie 1633
The Earl of Airlie 1639
The Earl of Leven 1641Earl of Melville in the Peerage of Scotland
The Earl of Dysart 1643
The Earl of Selkirk 1646Presently disclaimed by James Douglas-Hamilton - Lord Selkirk of Douglas in the Peerage of the Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Northesk 1647
The Earl of Kincardine 1647
The Earl of Balcarres 1651
The Earl of Dundee 1660
The Earl of Newburgh 1660
The Earl of Annandale and Hartfell 1662
The Earl of Dundonald 1669
The Earl of Kintore 1677
The Earl of Aberdeen 1682 Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Earl of Dunmore 1686
The Earl of Melville 1690 Earl of Leven in the Peerage of Scotland
The Earl of Orkney 1696
The Earl of March 1697Earl of Wemyss in the Peerage of Scotland
The Earl of Seafield 1701
The Earl of Stair 1703
The Earl of Rosebery 1703 Earl of Midlothian in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Glasgow 1703
The Earl of Hopetoun 1703 Marquess of Linlithgow in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Bute 1703 Marquess of Bute in the Peerage of Great Britain

Viscounts

TitleCreationOther Viscountcy or higher titles
The Viscount Falkland 1620
The Viscount of Stormont 1621 Earl of Mansfield in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Viscount of Arbuthnott 1641
The Viscount of Oxfuird 1651

Lords of Parliament

TitleCreationOther titles
The Lord Forbes 1442
The Lord Gray 1445
The Lady Saltoun 1445
The Lord Sinclair 1449
The Lord Borthwick 1452
The Lord Cathcart 1452Earl Cathcart in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Lovat 1464 Baron Lovat in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Lord Sempill 1488
The Lady Herries 1490
The Lord Elphinstone 1510 Baron Elphinstone in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Torphichen 1564
The Lady Kinloss 1602
The Lord Colville of Culross 1604Viscount Colville of Culross in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Balfour of Burleigh 1607
The Lord Dingwall 1609 Baron Lucas in the Peerage of England.
The Lord Napier 1627 Baron Ettrick in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Fairfax of Cameron 1627
The Lord Reay 1628
The Lord Forrester 1633 Baron Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain;
Viscount Grimston in the Peerage of Ireland;
Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Elibank 1643
The Lord Belhaven and Stenton 1647
The Lord Rollo 1651 Baron Dunning in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Ruthven of Freeland 1651 Earl of Carlisle in the Peerage of England.
The Lord Nairne 1681 Viscount Mersey in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Polwarth 1690

See also

Related Research Articles

The peerages in the United Kingdom are a legal system comprising both hereditary and lifetime titles, composed of various noble ranks, and forming a constituent part of the British honours system. The term peerage can be used both collectively to refer to the entire body of nobles, and individually to refer to a specific title. British peerage title holders are termed peers of the Realm. The peerage's fundamental roles are ones of government, peers being eligible to a seat in the House of Lords, and of meritocracy, the receiving of any peerage being the highest of British honours. In the UK, five peerages or peerage divisions co-exist, namely:

The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It is one of the five divisions of Peerages in the United Kingdom. The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount and baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Constitution of Ireland forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and an Irish citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Irish government. This issue has not arisen in respect of the Peerage of Ireland because no creation of titles in it has been made since the constitution came into force.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peerage Act 1963</span> United Kingdom legislation

The Peerage Act 1963 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that permitted women peeresses and all Scottish hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, and which allows newly inherited hereditary peerages to be disclaimed.

The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain. There are five peerages in the United Kingdom in total.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marquess of Huntly</span>

Marquess of Huntly is a title in the Peerage of Scotland created on 17 April 1599 for George Gordon, 6th Earl of Huntly. It is the oldest existing marquessate in Scotland, and the second-oldest in the British Isles, only the English marquessate of Winchester being older. The Marquess holds the following subsidiary titles: Lord Gordon of Strathaven and Glenlivet and Earl of Aboyne, and Baron Meldrum, of Morven in the County of Aberdeen

The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain between the Acts of Union 1707 and the Acts of Union 1800. It replaced the Peerage of England and the Peerage of Scotland, but was itself replaced by the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801.

The Peerage of the United Kingdom is one the five Peerages in the United Kingdom. It comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of Shrewsbury</span> Title in the English peerage

Earl of Shrewsbury is a hereditary title of nobility created twice in the Peerage of England. The second earldom dates to 1442. The holder of the Earldom of Shrewsbury also holds the title of Earl of Waterford (1446) in the Peerage of Ireland and Earl Talbot (1784) in the Peerage of Great Britain. Shrewsbury and Waterford are the oldest earldoms in their peerages held by someone with no higher title, and as such the Earl of Shrewsbury is sometimes described as the premier earl of England and Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Lords Act 1999</span> UK law removing hereditary peerage from the House of Lords

The House of Lords Act 1999 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament. The Act was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats ; the Act removed such a right. However, as part of a compromise, the Act did permit ninety-two hereditary peers to remain in the House on an interim basis. Another ten were created life peers to enable them to remain in the House.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lord of Parliament</span> Lowest rank of Scottish nobility

A Lord of Parliament was the holder of the lowest form of peerage, entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount. A Lord of Parliament is said to hold a Lordship of Parliament.

Earl of Stair

Earl of Stair is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1703 for the lawyer and statesman John Dalrymple, 2nd Viscount of Stair.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl Cathcart</span> Earldom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom

Earl Cathcart is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of September 2022, there are 808 hereditary peers: 29 dukes, 34 marquesses, 191 earls, 111 viscounts, and 443 barons.

The history of the British peerage, a system of nobility found in the United Kingdom, stretches over the last thousand years. The current form of the British peerage has been a process of development. While the ranks of baron and earl predate the British peerage itself, the ranks of duke and marquess were introduced to England in the 14th century. The rank of viscount came later, in the mid-15th century. Peers were summoned to Parliament, forming the House of Lords.

The British Peerage is governed by a body of law that has developed over several centuries.

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.

The British nobility is made up of the peerage and the (landed) gentry. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although now they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights there, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, and the right to an audience with the monarch. More than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry.

Following the enactment of the House of Lords Act 1999, the number of hereditary peers entitled to sit in the House of Lords was reduced to ninety-two. Ninety of the first ninety-two were elected by all the hereditary peers before the passing of the reform. Since November 2002, by-elections have been held to fill vacancies left by deaths, resignations or disqualifications of those peers. Since the passing of the House of Lords Reform Act 2014, by-elections have also been held to fill vacancies left by the retirements of those peers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Boyle, 15th Earl of Cork</span> British hereditary peer and member of the House of Lords (born 1945)

John Richard Boyle, 15th Earl of Cork and 15th Earl of Orrery is a British hereditary peer and a member of the House of Lords, where he sits as a Crossbencher. Boyle was an officer in the Royal Navy and then had a career in the sugar industry before inheriting his titles in 2003.

References

  1. "Representative Peers of Scotland". The Scottish Review. 25: 357. 1895.
  2. "LEGITIMATION (SCOTLAND) BILL [H.L.] (Hansard, 5 December 1967)". hansard.millbanksystems.com.
  3. Lauderdale Peerage Claim, House of Lords, 1884–1885