Duke of Richmond

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Dukedom of Richmond
held with
Dukedom of Lennox
and
Dukedom of Gordon
Coronet of a British Duke.svg
Duke of Richmond CoA.svg
Quarterly: 1st and 4th grand quarters, the Royal Arms of Charles II (viz. quarterly: 1st and 4th, France and England quarterly; 2nd, Scotland; 3rd, Ireland); the whole within a bordure compony argent charged with roses gules barbed and seeded proper and the last; overall an escutcheon gules charged with three buckles or (Dukedom of Aubigny); 2nd grand quarter, argent a saltire engrailed gules between four roses of the second barbed and seeded proper (Lennox); 3rd grand quarter, quarterly, 1st, azure three boars' heads couped or (Gordon); 2nd, or three lions' heads erased gules (Badenoch); 3rd, or three crescents within a double tressure flory counter-flory gules (Seton); 4th, azure three cinquefoils argent (Fraser).
Creation date1675
Monarch Charles II
Peerage Peerage of England
First holder Charles Lennox
Present holder Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond
Heir apparentCharles Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara
Remainder tothe 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titles Earl of March
Earl of Darnley
Earl of Kinrara
Baron Settrington
Lord Torbolton
Duke of Aubigny
Seat(s) Goodwood House
Former seat(s) Gordon Castle

Duke of Richmond is a title in the Peerage of England that has been created four times in British history. It has been held by members of the royal Tudor and Stuart families.

Contents

The current dukedom of Richmond was created in 1675 [lower-alpha 1] for Charles Lennox, the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England and a Breton noblewoman, Louise de Penancoët de Kérouaille; Charles Lennox was also made Duke of Lennox a month later. The Duke of Richmond and Lennox was furthermore created Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1876, meaning that the Duke holds three dukedoms— plus, in pretence, the French Duchy of Aubigny-sur-Nère.

History of the Dukedom

Prior to the creation of the Dukedom the early nobles of England associated with Richmondshire were Lords and Earls of Richmond. At times the honour of Richmond was held without a title. The Dukedom of Richmond emerged under King Henry VIII.

The first creation of a dukedom of Richmond (as Duke of Richmond and Somerset) was made in 1525 for Henry FitzRoy, an illegitimate son of King Henry VIII. His mother was Elizabeth Blount. Upon the Duke's death without children in 1536, his titles became extinct.

The second creation was in 1623 for Ludovic Stuart, 2nd Duke of Lennox (see Lennox (district)) (1574–1624), who also held other titles in the peerage of Scotland. He was created Earl of Richmond and Baron Settrington in 1613 and Duke of Richmond in the peerage of England in 1623 as a member of the Lennox line (not unlike King James himself) in the House of Stuart. These became extinct at his death in 1624, but his Scottish honours devolved on his brother Esmé, Earl of March, who thus became 3rd Duke of Lennox in the peerage of Scotland. Esmé's son James, 4th Duke of Lennox (1612–1655) subsequently received the third creation of the dukedom of Richmond in 1641, when the two dukedoms again became united. In 1672, on the death of James' nephew Charles, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox, both titles again became extinct. [1]

The fourth creation of the dukedom of Richmond was in August 1675, when Charles II granted the title to Charles Lennox, his illegitimate son by Louise de Keroualle, Duchess of Portsmouth. Charles Lennox was further created Duke of Lennox a month later. Charles' son, also Charles, succeeded to the French title Duke of Aubigny (of Aubigny-sur-Nère) on the death of his grandmother in 1734. The 6th Duke of Richmond and Lennox was created Duke of Gordon (See Clan Gordon) in 1876. Thus, the Duke holds three (four, if the French Aubigny claim is accepted) dukedoms, more than any other person in the realm. [1]

The subsidiary titles of the dukedom created in 1675 are Earl of March (created 1675), Earl of Darnley (1675), Earl of Kinrara (1876), Baron Settrington, of Settrington in the County of York (1675), and Lord Torbolton (1675).

The 10th Duke, Charles Gordon-Lennox, by Allan Warren. 10th Duke of Richmond & Gordon & 5th Duke of Lennox colour.jpg
The 10th Duke, Charles Gordon-Lennox, by Allan Warren.
The 11th and current Duke, Charles Gordon-Lennox. Lord March.JPG
The 11th and current Duke, Charles Gordon-Lennox.

The Dukes of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon are normally styled Duke of Richmond and Gordon. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon they were styled Duke of Richmond and Lennox. The titles Earl of March and Baron Settrington were created in the peerage of England along with the Dukedom of Richmond. The titles Earl of Darnley and Lord Torbolton were created in the Peerage of Scotland along with the Dukedom of Lennox. Finally, the title Earl of Kinrara was created in the peerage of the United Kingdom with the Dukedom of Gordon. The eldest son of the Duke uses the courtesy title Earl of March and Kinrara. Before the creation of the Dukedom of Gordon, the courtesy title used was Earl of March.

The family seat is Goodwood House near Chichester, West Sussex.

Dukes of Richmond and Somerset (1525)

Created by Henry VIII of England
#NamePeriodDuchessNotesOther titles
1 Henry FitzRoy
1519-1536
1525–1536 Lady Mary Howard Extramarital son of King Henry VIII Earl of Nottingham

Dukes of Richmond (1623)

Created by James I of England
#NamePeriodDuchessNotesOther titles
1 Ludovic Stewart
1574–1624
1623–1624 Lady Frances Howard Second cousin and favourite of James I Duke of Lennox
Earl of Lennox
Earl of Richmond

Dukes of Richmond (1641)

Created by Charles I of England
#NamePeriodDuchessNotesOther titles
1 James Stewart
1612–1655
1641–1655 Lady Mary Villiers Nephew of Ludovic Stewart,
1st Duke of Richmond
Duke of Lennox
Earl of Lennox
Earl of March
Baron Stuart of Leighton Bromswold
2 Esmé Stewart
1649–1660
1655–1660unmarriedSon of the preceding
3 Charles Stewart
1639–1672
1660–1672Lady Elizabeth Rogers
Lady Margaret Banaster
Lady Frances Stewart
Cousin of the preceding Duke of Lennox
Earl of Lennox
Earl of March
Earl of Lichfield
Baron Stuart of Leighton Bromswold
Baron Clifton

Dukes of Richmond (1675)

Created by Charles II of England
#NamePeriodDuchessNotesOther titles
1 Charles Lennox
1672–1723
1675–1723Lady Anne BrudenellExtramarital son of Charles II Duke of Lennox
Earl of March
Earl of Darnley
Baron of Settrington
Lord of Torboulton
2 Charles Lennox
1701–1750
1723–1750 Lady Sarah Cadogan Son of the preceding
3 Charles Lennox
1735–1806
1750–1806Lady Mary BruceSon of the preceding
4 Charles Lennox
1764–1819
1806–1819 Lady Charlotte Gordon Nephew of the preceding
5 Charles Gordon-Lennox
1791–1860
1819–1860Lady Caroline PagetSon of the preceding
6 Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox
1818–1903
1860–1903Frances GrevilleSon of the preceding Duke of Lennox
Duke of Gordon
Earl of March
Earl of Darnley
Earl of Kinrara
Baron of Settrington
Lord of Torboulton
7 Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox
1845–1928
1903–1928widowedSon of the preceding
8 Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox
1870–1935
1928–1935 Hilda Brassey Son of the preceding
9 Frederick Charles Gordon-Lennox
1904–1989
1935–1989Elizabeth HudsonSon of the preceding
10 Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox
1929–2017
1989–2017Susan Grenville-GreySon of the preceding
11 Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox
b. 1955
since 2017The Honourable Janet Elizabeth AstorSon of the preceding

The heir apparent is Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara (b. 1994), eldest son of the 11th Duke.

Line of succession

Coat of arms (full achievement)

Coat of arms of Charles Gordon-Lennox, Duke of Richmond
Coat of arms of the duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon.png
Adopted
1876
Coronet
Coronet of a Duke
Crest
1st, a Bull's Head erased Sable horned Or; 2nd, on a Chapeau Gules turned up Ermine a Lion statant guardant Or crowned with a Ducal Coronet Gules and gorged with a Collar company of four pieces Argent charged with eight Roses Gules and the last; 3rd, out of a Ducal Coronet a Stag's Head affrontée proper attired with ten Tynes Or
Helm
Open barred helmet
Escutcheon
Quarterly: 1st and 4th grand quarters, the Royal Arms of Charles II (viz. quarterly: 1st and 4th, France and England quarterly; 2nd, Scotland; 3rd, Ireland); the whole within a bordure company argent charged with roses gules barbed and seeded proper and the last; overall an escutcheon gules charged with three buckles or (Dukedom of Aubigny); 2nd grand quarter, argent a saltire engrailed gules between four roses of the second barbed and seeded proper (Lennox); 3rd grand quarter, quarterly, 1st, azure three boars' heads couped or (Gordon); 2nd, or three lions' heads erased gules (Badenoch); 3rd, or three crescents within a double tressure flory counter-flory gules (Seton); 4th, azure three cinquefoils argent (Fraser).
Motto
1st crest: Avant Darnlie (referring to Stuart dynasty) [2]
2nd crest: En La Rose Je Fleuris (Anglo-Norman: "I flourish in the rose")
3rd crest: Bydand (war cry of Clan Gordon) [2]
Coat of arms from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant; c. 1773 - 1776 Arms of Duke of Richmond 02817.jpg
Coat of arms from A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant; c. 1773 - 1776

The earlier dukes (creations of 1623 and 1641) bore: Quarterly 1 and 4 azure three fleurs-de-lis and a bordure engrailed Or; 2 and 3 Or a fess chequy azure and argent, a bordure gules semy of buckles Or (Stewart of Bonkyl); overall an inescutcheon of Lennox.

Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset (creation of 1525), bore the Tudor royal arms (quarterly France and England) with a border quarterly ermine (for Brittany) and compony azure and argent (for Somerset), a baton sinister argent for bastardy, and overall an escutcheon of Nottingham.

Family tree

Tudor, Stewart & Lennox Family Tree: Dukes of Richmond
King Edward III
(1312–r.1327–1377)
EARL OF RICHMOND, 1342
John of Gaunt,
1st Earl of Richmond,
1st Duke of Lancaster

(1340–1399)
John Beaufort,
1st Earl of Somerset

(1373–1410)
John Beaufort,
1st Duke of Somerset

(c.1403–1444)
James I
King of Scots
1394-1437
r.1406–1437
Joan Beaufort
(c.1404–1445)
James Stewart
the Black Knight of Lorn

~1399–~1451
EARL OF RICHMOND, 1452
Lady Margaret Beaufort
(1443–1509)
King James II of Scotland
(1430–r.1437–1460)
John Stewart,
1st Earl of Atholl

(c.1440–1512)
Henry Tudor,
2nd Earl of Richmond
King Henry VII

(1457–r.1485–1509)
King James III of Scotland
(1451–r.1460–1488)
Mary Stewart
(1453–1488)
James
Lord Hamilton
1415-1479
r.1445–1479
King Henry VIII
(1491–r.1509–1547)
James IV
King of Scots
1473-1513
r.1488–1513
Margaret Tudor
(1489–1541)
Archibald Douglas
Earl of Angus
1489-1557
r.1514–1557
Elizabeth Hamilton Matthew Stewart,
2nd Earl of Lennox

1460–1513
DUKE OF RICHMOND
& SOMERSET, 1525
Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of
Richmond and Somerset

illegitimate
(1519–1536)
King James V of Scotland
(1512–r.1513–1542)
John Stewart,
3rd Earl of Lennox

(c.1490–1526)
{{{ELS}}}
Margaret Douglas
(1515–1578)
Matthew Stewart,
4th Earl of Lennox

(1516–1571)
John Stewart,
5th Seigneur d'Aubigny
(c.1519–1567)
Mary, Queen of Scots
(1542–1587, r.1542–1567)
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
(1545–1567)
Duke of Lennox
Esmé Stewart,
1st Duke of Lennox

(1542–1583)
DUKE OF RICHMOND, 1623
James VI & I
1566–1625
r.1567–1625 (Sc)
r.1603–1625 (En)
Esmé Stewart,
3rd Duke of Lennox

(1579–1624)
Ludovic Stewart,
2nd Duke of Lennox,
1st Duke of Richmond

(1574–1623)
DUKE OF RICHMOND, 1641
King Charles I
(1600–r.1625–1649)
James Stewart,
4th Duke of Lennox,
1st Duke of Richmond

(1612–1655)
George Stewart,
9th Seigneur d'Aubigny

(1619–1642)
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
Esmé Stewart,
5th Duke of Lennox,
2nd Duke of Richmond

(1649–1660)
Charles Stewart,
6th Duke of Lennox,
3rd Duke of Richmond

(1639–1672)
DUKE OF RICHMOND, 1675
DUKE OF LENNOX, 1675
Charles Lennox,
1st Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox

illegitimate
(1672–1723)
Charles Lennox,
2nd Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox

(1701–1750)
Lennox sisters
Charles Lennox,
3rd Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox

(1735–1806)
Lord George Lennox
(1737–1805)
Charles Lennox,
4th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox

(1764–1819)
Charles Gordon-Lennox,
5th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox

(1791–1860)
DUKE OF GORDON, 1876
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
6th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox,
1st Duke of Gordon

(1818–1903)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
7th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox,
2nd Duke of Gordon

(1845–1928)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
8th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox,
3rd Duke of Gordon

(1870–1935)
Charles Henry
Gordon-Lennox,
Lord Stettrington
(1899–1919)
Frederick Charles Gordon-Lennox,
9th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox,
4th Duke of Gordon

(1904–1989)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
10th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox,
5th Duke of Gordon

(1929–2017)
Charles Gordon-Lennox,
11th Duke of
Richmond
& Lennox,
6th Duke of Gordon

(b. 1955)
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,
Earl of March and Kinrara

(b. 1994)

See also

Notes

  1. Lennox's mother was a Breton noble, and it is thought that the Richmond title was chosen to allude to the extinct Earldom of Richmond which was held between 1136 and 1384 by members of the ducal family of Brittany.

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References

  1. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Richmond, Earls and Dukes of"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 306–307.
  2. 1 2 "His Grace's Coat of Arms". The History Guide. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2021.

Further reading