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|Dukedom of Atholl|
Quarterly: 1st, Paly of six Or and Sable (for Atholl); 2nd, Or a Fess chequy Azure and Argent (for Stewart); 3rd, Argent on a Bend Azure three Stags' Heads cabossed Or (for Stanley); 4th, Gules three Legs in armour Proper garnished and spurred Or flexed and conjoined in triangle at the upper part of the thigh (ensigns of the Isle of Man); over all, an Inescutcheon en surtout Azure three Mullets Argent within a Double tressure flory Or ensigned of a Marquess's coronet (for Chiefship of Murray).
|Peerage||Peerage of Scotland|
|First holder||John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl|
|Present holder||Bruce Murray, 12th Duke|
|Heir apparent||Michael Bruce John Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine|
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
|Subsidiary titles||Marquess of Tullibardine|
Marquess of Atholl
Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle
Earl of Tullibardine
Earl of Atholl
Viscount of Balquhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyn
Viscount of Balquhidder
Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask
Lord Murray, Gask and Balquhidder
Lord Murray of Tullibardine
|Former seat(s)||Dunkheld House|
Duke of Atholl, alternatively Duke of Athole, named after Atholl in Scotland, is a title in the Peerage of Scotland held by the head of Clan Murray. It was created by Queen Anne in 1703 for John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl, with a special remainder to the heir male of his father, the 1st Marquess.
Atholl or Athole is a large historical division in the Scottish Highlands, bordering Marr, Badenoch, Lochaber, Breadalbane, Strathearn, Perth, and Gowrie. Today it forms the northern part of Perth and Kinross, Scotland.
The Peerage of Scotland is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.
Clan Murray is a Highland Scottish clan. The chief of the Clan Murray holds the title of Duke of Atholl. Their ancestors who established the family in Scotland in the 12th century were the Morays of Bothwell. In the 16th century descendants of the Morays of Bothwell, the Murrays of Tullibardine, secured the chiefship of the clan and were created Earls of Tullibardine in 1606. The first Earl of Tullibardine married the heiress to the Stewart earldom of Atholl and Atholl therefore became a Murray earldom in 1626. The Murray Earl of Atholl was created Marquess of Atholl in 1676 and in 1703 it became a dukedom. The marquess of Tullibardine title has continued as a subsidiary title, being bestowed on elder sons of the chief until they succeed him as Duke of Atholl.
As of 2017 [update] , there were twelve subsidiary titles attached to the dukedom: Lord Murray of Tullibardine (1604), Lord Murray, Gask and Balquhidder (1628), Lord Murray, Balvany and Gask (1676), Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask, in the County of Perth (1703), Viscount of Balquhidder (1676), Viscount of Balquhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyon, in the County of Perth (1703), Earl of Atholl (1629), Earl of Tullibardine (1628), Earl of Tullibardine (1676), Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, in the County of Perth (1703), Marquess of Atholl (1676) and Marquess of Tullibardine, in the County of Perth (1703). These titles are also in the Peerage of Scotland. The dukes have also previously held the following titles: Baron Strange (Peerage of England 1628) between 1736 and 1764 and 1805 and 1957; Baron Murray, of Stanley in the County of Gloucester, and Earl Strange (Peerage of Great Britain 1786) between 1786 and 1957, Baron Glenlyon, of Glenlyon in the County of Perth (Peerage of the United Kingdom 1821) between 1846 and 1957 and Baron Percy (Peerage of Great Britain 1722) between 1865 and 1957. From 1786 to 1957 the Dukes of Atholl sat in the House of Lords as Earl Strange.
Baron Strange is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of England. Two creations, one in 1295 and another in 1326, had only one holder each, upon the death of whom they became extinct. Two of the creations are extant. All four baronies of Strange have been created by writ, which means that they can pass through both male and female lines.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain.
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800. It replaced the Peerage of England and the Peerage of Scotland until it was itself replaced by the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801.
The Duke's eldest son and heir apparent uses the courtesy title Marquess of Tullibardine. The heir apparent to Lord Tullibardine uses the courtesy title Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle (usually shortened to Earl of Strathtay). Lord Strathtay's heir apparent uses the courtesy title Viscount Balquhidder. The Duke of Atholl is the hereditary chief of Clan Murray.
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.
A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children of members of the nobility.
The Scottish Gaelic word clann means children. In early times, and possibly even today, Scottish clan members believed themselves to descend from a common ancestor, the founder of the clan, after whom the clan is named. The clan chief is the representative of this founder, and represents the clan. In the Scottish clan system, a chief is greater than a chieftain, a designation applied to heads of branches of a clan. Scottish clans that no longer have a clan chief are referred to as armigerous clans.
The Dukes of Atholl belong to an ancient Scottish family. Sir William Murray of Castleton married Lady Margaret, daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (see Earl of Atholl). Sir William was one of the many Scottish noblemen killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. His son Sir William Murray lived at Tullibardine in Perthshire. The latter's grandson, Sir John Murray, was created Lord Murray of Tullibardine in 1604 and Lord Murray, Gask and Balquhidder and Earl of Tullibardine in 1606. All three titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. He was succeeded by his eldest son, William Murray (1574–1628), the second Earl of Tullibardine. He married as his third wife Lady Dorothea, daughter of John Stewart, 5th and last Earl of Atholl. Charles I agreed to revive the earldom of Atholl in favour of Lord Tullibardine's children by Lady Dorothea. Tullibardine consequently resigned his titles in favour of his younger brother, Patrick Murray, who was created Lord Murray of Gask and Earl of Tullibardine in 1628, with remainder to his heirs male whatsoever and presumably with the precedence of 1606. John Murray, son of the second Earl of Tullibardine by Lady Dorothea Stewart, was created Earl of Atholl in the Peerage of Scotland in 1629. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl of Atholl. In 1670 he succeeded his cousin James Murray, 2nd Earl of Tullibardine, as third (or fifth) Earl of Tullibardine. In 1676 he was created Lord Murray, Balveny and Gask, Viscount of Balquhidder, Earl of Tullibardine and Marquess of Atholl, with remainder to the heirs male of his body. All titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. Lord Atholl married Lady Amelia Anne Sophia, daughter of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby (and 1st Baron Strange).
John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, also known as Sir John Stewart of Balveny, was a Scottish nobleman and ambassador.
The Mormaer or Earl of Atholl was the title of the holder of a medieval comital lordship straddling the highland province of Atholl, now in northern Perthshire. Atholl is a special Mormaerdom, because a King of Atholl is reported from the Pictish period. The only other two Pictish kingdoms to be known from contemporary sources are Fortriu and Circinn. Indeed, the early 13th century document known to modern scholars as the de Situ Albanie repeats the claim that Atholl was an ancient Pictish kingdom. In the 11th century, the famous Crínán of Dunkeld may have performed the role of Mormaer.
The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton was a military combat in the War of the League of Cambrai between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, resulting in an English victory. The battle was fought in Branxton in the county of Northumberland in northern England on 9 September 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV and an English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey. In terms of troop numbers, it was the largest battle fought between the two kingdoms. James IV was killed in the battle, becoming the last monarch from the British Isles to die in battle.
On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the second Marquess. He had already been created Lord Murray, Viscount Glenalmond and Earl of Tullibardine for life in the peerage of Scotland in 1696. In 1703 he was made Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask, in the County of Perth, Viscount of Balwhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyon, in the County of Perth, Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, in the County of Perth, Marquess of Tullibardine, in the County of Perth, and Duke of Atholl, with remainder failing heirs male of his own to the heirs male of his father. All five titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. His eldest surviving son and heir apparent, William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715. He was charged with high treason and attainted by Act of Parliament. An Act of Parliament was also passed to remove him from the succession to his father's titles. William was, on 1 February 1717, created Duke of Rannoch, Marquis of Blair, Earl of Glen Tilt, Viscount of Glenshie, and Lord Strathbran in the Jacobite Peerage. The first Duke was consequently succeeded by his third son, James, the second Duke. In 1736 he also succeeded his kinsman James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby as 7th Baron Strange and as Lord of Mann. On the death of his brother William in 1746, he succeeded to the Jacobite titles, such as they were. The Duke's two sons both died in infancy. His eldest daughter Lady Charlotte succeeded him in the barony of Strange and the lordship of Mann. Atholl died in 1764 and was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his nephew, John, the third Duke. He was the eldest son of Lt-Gen Lord George Murray, sixth son of the first Duke (who had been attainted for his participation in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715), the same year he succeeded the House of Lords decided that he should be allowed to succeed in the titles despite his father's attainder. He married his first cousin, the aforementioned Charlotte Murray, Baroness Strange. They sold their sovereignty over the Isle of Man to the British Crown for £70,000.
The Jacobite rising of 1715, was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart.
After the deposition by the English parliament in February 1689 of King James II and VII from the thrones of England and Ireland, he and his successors continued to create peers and baronets, which they believed was their right. These creations were not recognised by James's de facto successors or British law, but the titles were used in Jacobite circles in Continental Europe and recognised by France, Spain and the Papacy. The following tables list the peerages and baronetcies created by the Stuart claimants in exile. The tables present the situation from the Jacobite perspective, and so titles granted after 1689 by King James II & VII's de facto successors to the throne, whose authority was not recognised by Jacobites, are represented in inverted commas.
James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby, styled The Honourable until 1702, was a British peer and politician.
The Duke and Duchess were both succeeded by their eldest son John, the fourth Duke. In 1786 he was created Baron Murray, of Stanley in the County of Gloucester, and Earl Strange in the Peerage of Great Britain. These titles gave him a seat in the House of Lords. Atholl sold his remaining properties and privileges in the Isle of Man to the British Crown for £409,000. He was succeeded on his death in 1829 by his eldest son, John, the fifth Duke. He had already in 1798 been declared to have been of an "unsound mind". The fifth Duke never married and was succeeded by his nephew, George Murray, 2nd Baron Glenlyon, the eldest son of James Murray, 1st Baron Glenlyon, second son of the fourth Duke, who had been created Baron Glenlyon, of Glenlyon in the County of Perth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1821. Lord Glenlyon married Lady Emily Frances Percy, daughter of Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland and 3rd Baron Percy.
Stanley Pontlarge is a hamlet in Gloucestershire, within the civil parish of Prescott and the ecclesiastical parish of Winchcombe. Stanley Pontlarge lies on the steep northern escarpment of the Cotswolds. The steep hillsides can appear bleak, but offer a superb view northwards to the Vale of Evesham. The Gloucestershire Warwickshire Railway is a prominent feature of the landscape.
George Augustus Frederick John Murray, 6th Duke of Atholl, was a Scottish peer and freemason.
Lieutenant-General James Murray, 1st Baron Glenlyon, styled as Lord James Murray until 1821, was a British Army officer, Member of Parliament and peer.
The sixth Duke was succeeded by his only child, John, the seventh Duke. In 1865 he succeeded as sixth Baron Percy through his grandmother aforesaid. The same year he registered the additional surname of Stewart at the Lyon Court. In 1893 he resumed the original spelling of the title, "Atholl" instead of "Athole". He was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, John, the eighth Duke. He died childless in 1942 and was succeeded by his youngest brother, James, the ninth Duke. He never married and on his death in 1957 the baronies of Murray and Glenlyon and earldom of Strange became extinct, the barony of Percy was passed on to his kinsman Hugh Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland, while the barony of Strange fell into abeyance (see Baron Strange).
The dukedom and remaining titles were passed on to the late Duke's fourth cousin twice removed, Iain Murray, the tenth Duke of Atholl. He was the grandson of Sir Evelyn Murray, son of Sir George Murray, grandson of Dr George Murray, Bishop of Rochester, son of Bishop Lord George Murray, second son of the third Duke. As all the English titles had become extinct on the ninth Duke's death, the tenth Duke was not entitled to an automatic seat in the House of Lords, gaining in 1957 the then unfortunate distinction of being the highest ranking peer without a seat in the upper chamber of parliament. However, already in 1958 Atholl was elected a Scottish Representative Peer and was able to take a seat in the House of Lords. Through the Peerage Act 1963 all hereditary Scottish peers gained the right to sit in the House of Lords. The tenth Duke was unmarried and was succeeded in 1996 by his second cousin once removed, John Murray, 11th Duke of Atholl. He was the grandson of the Rev. Douglas Stuart Murray, brother of the aforementioned Sir George Murray, great-grandfather of the tenth Duke. On his death in 2012, the eleventh Duke was succeeded by his eldest son, Bruce Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl.
Mungo Murray, second son of the first Earl of Tullibardine of the first creation, succeeded as second Viscount of Stormont according to a special remainder in 1631, but died childless in 1642. Lord Charles Murray, second son of the first Marquess, was created Earl of Dunmore in 1686. Lord James Murray, third son of the first Marquess, was Member of Parliament for Perthshire. Lord William Murray, fourth son of the first Marquess, succeeded his father-in-law as Lord Nairne in 1683 but was attainted for taking part in the Jacobite Rising of 1715. Lord George Murray, fifth son of the first Duke and father of the third Duke, was a prominent Jacobite general. He was also the father of James Murray, a soldier and politician, and George Murray, a naval commander and politician. Lord John Murray, eighth son of the first Duke (and the eldest by his second wife), was a soldier and politician. Lord George Murray, second son of the third Duke, was Bishop of St David's. His eldest son George Murray was Bishop of Rochester. His fourth son Sir Herbert Harley Murray was Governor of Newfoundland. The actor Stephen Murray and diplomat Sir Ralph Murray were the grandsons of the Rev. Francis William Murray, son of George Murray, Bishop of Rochester. Comedian and prospective parliamentary candidate Al Murray is the grandson of former British Ambassador Sir Ralph Hay Murray.
James Arthur Murray (1790–1860), only son of Lord William Murray, third son of the third Duke, was a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy. Lord Charles Murray-Aynsley, fifth son of the third Duke, was a clergyman. His son John Murray-Aynsley was the father of 1) Charles Murray-Aynsley (1821–1901), a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy; 2) George Herbert Murray-Aynsley (1826–1887), a Major-General in the Madras Army, and 3) Hugh Murray-Aynsley, a New Zealand politician. Sir George Murray, son of the Rev. George Edward Murray, son of George Murray, Bishop of Rochester, was a civil servant. His son Sir Evelyn Murray was Secretary to the General Post Office between 1914 and 1934. Lord James Murray, second son of the fourth Duke, was a soldier and politician and was created Baron Glenlyon in 1821. Anne, Duchess of Atholl, VA, wife of the sixth Duke, was Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. Dame Kitty Stewart-Murray, DBE, MP, wife of the eighth Duke, was Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education from 1924 to 1929, the first woman to serve in a Conservative and Unionist government.
The Dukes of Atholl's traditional residence is Blair Castle, though the family has owned several other residences and castles in the past, notably Huntingtower Castle, Balvenie Castle, Tullibardine Castle and Dunkeld House (the latter two demolished).
The traditional burial place of the Dukes of Atholl is the Family Burial Ground (photo) next to the ruins of St Bride's Kirk in the grounds of Blair Castle. The ruin stands on a mound a little to the north-east of the castle, where a church has existed since at least 1134.St Bride's was the village church of Old Blair but fell into disuse after 1823 when the estate village was relocated to its current location.
The holder of the dukedom of Atholl also commands the only legal private army in Europe, the Atholl Highlanders, which is headquartered at Blair Castle.
The heir apparent is the present holder's elder son, Michael Bruce John Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine (born 1985).
see above for further succession
Duke of Marlborough is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650–1722), the noted military leader. In historical texts, it is often to him that an unqualified use of the title refers. The name of the dukedom refers to Marlborough in Wiltshire.
The title Duke of Abercorn is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1868 and bestowed upon James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Abercorn. Although the Dukedom is in the Peerage of Ireland, it refers to Abercorn, West Lothian, and the Duke also bears four titles in Peerage of Scotland and two in the Peerage of Great Britain, and is one of only three peers who have titles in those three peerages. The Duke of Abercorn also claims the French title of Duke of Châtellerault, created in 1548.
Duke of Bedford is a title that has been created six times in the Peerage of England. The first and second creations came in 1414 in favour of Henry IV's third son, John, who later served as regent of France. He was made Earl of Kendal at the same time and was made Earl of Richmond later the same year. The titles became extinct on his death in 1435. The third creation came in 1470 in favour of George Neville, nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker. He was deprived of the title by Act of Parliament in 1478. The fourth creation came 1478 in favour of George, the third son of Edward IV. He died the following year at the age of two. The fifth creation came in 1485 in favour of Jasper Tudor, half-brother of Henry VI and uncle of Henry VII. He had already been created Earl of Pembroke in 1452. However, as he was a Lancastrian, his title was forfeited between 1461 and 1485 during the predominance of the House of York. He regained the earldom in 1485 when his nephew Henry VII came to the throne and was elevated to the dukedom the same year. He had no legitimate children and the titles became extinct on his death in 1495.
Duke of Northumberland is a noble title that has been created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The current holder of this title is Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland.
John Murray, 1st Duke of Atholl, KT, PC was a Scottish nobleman, politician, and soldier. He served in numerous positions during his life, and fought in the Glorious Revolution for William III and Mary II.
John Murray, 1st Marquess of Atholl, KT was a leading Scottish royalist and defender of the Stuarts during the English Civil War of the 1640s, until after the rise to power of William and Mary in 1689. He succeeded as 2nd Earl of Atholl on his father's demise in June 1642 and as 3rd Earl of Tullibardine after the death of his first cousin the 2nd Earl in 1670.
John James Hugh Henry Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of Atholl, KT, styled Marquess of Tullibardine between 1846 and 1864, was a Scottish peer.
James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl, styled Marquess of Tullibardine between 1715 and 1746, was a Scottish peer, and Lord Privy Seal.
John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl, KT, PC, FRS, styled Marquess of Tullibardine from 1764 to 1774, was a Scottish peer.
John Murray, 5th Duke of Atholl (1778–1846) was a Duke in the Peerage of Scotland, a British Army officer and a major landowner in Scotland. Declared insane at the age of twenty, he never sat in the House of Lords.
Clan Stewart is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan is recognised by Court of the Lord Lyon; however, it does not have a Clan Chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because the clan has no chief it can be considered an armigerous clan; however, the Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the principal branch of this clan, and the crest and motto of The Earls of Galloway's arms are used in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court of the Lord Lyon recognises two other 'Stewart' clans, Clan Stuart of Bute and Clan Stewart of Appin. Clan Stuart of Bute is the only 'Stewart' clan at present which has a recognised chief.
Bruce George Ronald Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl is a South African-born hereditary peer in the Peerage of Scotland and Chief of Clan Murray. As Duke of Atholl, he has the right to raise Europe's only legal private army, named the Atholl Highlanders.
William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine was a Scottish nobleman and Jacobite who took part in the rebellions of 1715, 1719, and 1745.
William Murray, 2nd Lord Nairne was a Scottish peer and Jacobite who fought in the Rising of 1715, after which he was attainted and condemned to death for treason, but in 1717 he was indemnified and released.