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The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain.
English Peeresses obtained their first seats in the House of Lords under the Peerage Act 1963 from which date until the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999 all Peers of England could sit in the House of Lords.
The ranks of the English peerage are, in descending order, Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. While most newer English peerages descend only in the male line, many of the older ones (particularly older baronies) can descend through females. Such peerages follow the old English inheritance law of moieties so all daughters (or granddaughters through the same root) stand as co-heirs, so some such titles are in such a state of abeyance between these.
Baronets, while holders of hereditary titles, as such are not peers and not entitled to stand for internal delegation, that is election, in the House of Lords. Knights, Dames and holders of other non-hereditary orders, decorations and medals are also not peers.
In the following table, each peer is listed only by his or her highest English title (with the exception of the Duke of Norfolk/Earl of Arundel) showing higher or equal titles in the other peerages. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.
|Title||Creation||Other Dukedom or higher titles|
|The Duke of Cornwall||1337||Usually Prince of Wales as the heir to the British throne;|
Duke of Rothesay in the Peerage of Scotland.
|The Duke of Norfolk||1483|
|The Duke of Somerset||1547|
|The Duke of Richmond||1675||Duke of Gordon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; Duke of Lennox in the Peerage of Scotland.|
|The Duke of Grafton||1675|
|The Duke of Beaufort||1682|
|The Duke of St Albans||1684|
|The Duke of Bedford||1694|
|The Duke of Devonshire||1694|
|The Duke of Marlborough||1702|
|The Duke of Rutland||1703|
|Title||Creation||Other Marquisette or higher titles|
|The Marquess of Winchester||1551|
|Title||Creation||Other Earldom or higher titles|
|The Earl of Arundel||1138 |
Oldest Extant Earldom;
Oldest Extant Peerage
| Duke of Norfolk in the Peerage of England;|
|The Earl of Shrewsbury||1442|| Earl Talbot in the Peerage of Great Britain;|
Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland.
|The Earl of Derby||1485|
|The Earl of Huntingdon||1529|
|The Earl of Pembroke||1551||Earl of Montgomery in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Devon||1553|
|The Earl of Lincoln||1572|
|The Earl of Suffolk||1603||Earl of Berkshire in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Exeter||1605||Marquess of Exeter in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Earl of Salisbury||1605||Marquess of Salisbury in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Earl of Montgomery||1605||Held with the Earl of Pembroke in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Northampton||1618||Marquess of Northampton in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Earl of Denbigh||1622?||Earl of Desmond in the Peerage of Ireland.|
|The Earl of Westmorland||1624|
|The Earl of Manchester||1626||Duke of Manchester in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Earl of Berkshire||1626||Held with the Earl of Suffolk in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Lindsey||1626||Earl of Abingdon in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Winchilsea||1628||Earl of Nottingham in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Sandwich||1660|
|The Earl of Essex||1661|
|The Earl of Carlisle||1661|
|The Earl of Doncaster||1663||Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry in the Peerage of Scotland .|
|The Earl of Shaftesbury||1672|
|The Earl of Nottingham||1681||Held with the Earl of Winchilsea in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Abingdon||1682||Held with the Earl of Lindsey in Peerage of England.|
|The Earl of Portland||1689|
|The Earl of Scarbrough||1690|
|The Earl of Albemarle||1697|
|The Earl of Coventry||1697|
|The Earl of Jersey||1697?|
|The Earl of Cholmondeley||1706||Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|Title||Creation||Other Viscountcy or higher titles|
|The Viscount Hereford||1550|
|The Viscount Townshend||1682||Marquess Townshend in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Viscount Weymouth||1682||Marquess of Bath in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|Title||Creation||Other Barony or higher titles|
|The Baron de Ros||1264|
|The Baron le Despencer||1264||Viscount Falmouth in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Mowbray||1283||Baron Segrave and Baron Stourton in Peerage of England.|
|The Baron Hastings||1295|
|The Baron FitzWalter||1295|
|The Baron Segrave||1295||Baron Mowbray and Baron Stourton in Peerage of England.|
|The Baron Clinton||1299|
|The Baron De La Warr||1299||Earl De La Warr in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron de Clifford||1299|
|The Baron Strange||1299|| Viscount St Davids in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
Held with Baron Hungerford and Baron de Moleyns in Peerage of England.
|The Baron Zouche||1308|
|The Baroness Willoughby de Eresby||1313|
|The Baron Strabolgi||1318|
|The Baroness Dacre||1321|
|The Baron Darcy de Knayth||1332|
|The Baron Cromwell||1375|
|The Baron Camoys||1383|
|The Baron Grey of Codnor||1397|
|The Baron Berkeley||1421||Lord Gueterbock for Life in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.|
|The Baron Hungerford||1426|| Viscount St Davids in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
Held with Baron Strange and Baron de Moleyns in Peerage of England.
|The Baron Latymer||1432|
|The Baron Dudley||1440|
|The Baron de Moleyns||1445|| Viscount St Davids in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
Held with Baron Strange and Baron Hungerford in Peerage of England.
|The Baron Saye and Sele||1447|
|The Baron Stourton||1448||Baron Mowbray and Baron Segrave in Peerage of England.|
|The Baroness Berners||1455|
|The Baron Herbert||1461|
|The Baron Willoughby de Broke||1491|
|The Baron Vaux of Harrowden||1523|
|The Baroness Braye||1529|
|The Baron Windsor||1529||Earl of Plymouth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Baron Burgh||1529|
|The Baron Wharton||1544|
|The Baron Howard of Effingham||1554||Earl of Effingham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Baron St John of Bletso||1559|
|The Baroness Howard de Walden||1597|
|The Baron Petre||1603|
|The Baron Clifton||1608||Earl of Darnley in the Peerage of Ireland .|
|The Baron Dormer||1615|
|The Baron Teynham||1616|
|The Baron Brooke||1621||Earl Brooke and of Warwick in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Craven||1626||Earl of Craven in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Strange||1628|
|The Baron Stafford||1640|
|The Baron Byron||1643|
|The Baron Ward||1644||Earl of Dudley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Baron Lucas||1663||Lord Dingwall in the Peerage of Scotland.|
|The Baroness Arlington||1665|
|The Baron Clifford of Chudleigh||1672|
|The Baron Guilford||1683||Earl of Guilford in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Waldegrave||1683||Earl Waldegrave in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Barnard||1698|
|The Baron Guernsey||1703||Earl of Aylesford in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Gower||1703||Duke of Sutherland in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
|The Baron Conway||1703||Marquess of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain .|
|The Baron Hervey||1703||Marquess of Bristol in the Peerage of the United Kingdom .|
A marquess is a nobleman of high hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in Imperial China and Imperial Japan. The German language equivalent is Margrave.
The peerage in the United Kingdom is a legal system comprising both hereditary and lifetime titles, composed of various noble ranks, and forming a constituent part of the British honours system. The term peerage can be used both collectively to refer to the entire body of nobles, and individually to refer to a specific title. British peerage title holders are termed peers of the Realm. The peerage's fundamental roles are ones of government, peers being eligible to a seat in the House of Lords, and of meritocracy, the receiving of any peerage being the highest of British honours.
The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Constitution of Ireland forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government. As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force.
Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1789 for the 7th Earl of Salisbury. Most of the holders of the title have been prominent in British political life over the last two centuries, particularly the 3rd Marquess, who served three times as Prime Minister in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The order of precedence in the United Kingdom is the sequential hierarchy for Peers of the Realm, officers of state, senior members of the clergy, holders of the various Orders of Chivalry and other persons in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom:
The Peerage of Scotland is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707. Following that year's Treaty of Union, the Kingdom of Scots and the Kingdom of England were combined under the name of Great Britain, and a new Peerage of Great Britain was introduced in which subsequent titles were created.
Marquess of Huntly is a title in the Peerage of Scotland created on 17 April 1599 for George Gordon, 6th Earl of Huntly. It is the oldest existing marquessate in Scotland, and the second-oldest in the British Isles, only the English marquessate of Winchester being older. The Marquess holds the following subsidiary titles: Lord Gordon of Strathaven and Glenlivet and Earl of Aboyne, and Baron Meldrum, of Morven in the County of Aberdeen
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800. It replaced the Peerage of England and the Peerage of Scotland, but was itself replaced by the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801.
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898.
Marquess of Headfort is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1800 for Thomas Taylour, 2nd Earl of Bective.
Marquess of Cholmondeley is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1815 for George Cholmondeley, 4th Earl of Cholmondeley.
A Lord of Parliament was the holder of the lowest form of peerage, entitled as of right to take part in sessions of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. Since that Union in 1707, it has been the lowest rank of the Peerage of Scotland, ranking below a viscount. A Lord of Parliament is said to hold a Lordship of Parliament.
Baron Carrington is a title that has been created three times, once in the Peerage of England, once in the Peerage of Ireland and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1643 in favour of Sir Charles Smyth. Only a few days later he was created Viscount Carrington in the Peerage of Ireland. For more information, see this title.
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2020 there are 814 hereditary peers: 31 dukes, 34 marquesses, 193 earls, 112 viscounts, and 444 barons.
The history of the British peerage, a system of nobility found in the United Kingdom, stretches over the last thousand years. The origins of the British peerage are obscure but while the ranks of baron and earl perhaps predate the British peerage itself, the ranks of duke and marquess were introduced to England in the 14th century. The rank of viscount came later, in the mid-15th century. Peers were summoned to Parliament, forming the House of Lords.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.
This is an index of Welsh peers and baronets whose primary peerage, life peerage, and baronetcy titles include a Welsh place-name origin or its territorial qualification is within the historic counties of Wales.
The British nobility is the peerage of the United Kingdom. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although now they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights there, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, and the right to an audience with the monarch. Still, more than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks.