Argent semée of cross crosslets fitchy sable, in a chief azure two mullets or pierced gules (Clinton), charged with an inescutcheon quarterly; 1st, Argent, on a fess azure three dexter gauntlets appaumée or (Fane); 2nd, Argent, a chevron between three spindles sable (Trefusis); 3rd, azure, three boar's heads couped argent, muzzled gules, a cross crosslet argent for distinction (Forbes of Pitsligo); 4th, Or, a bend gules surmounted by a fess chequy azure and argent, in chief crescent azure a canton ermine for difference (Stuart)
|Creation date||6 February 1298|
|Peerage||Peerage of England|
|First holder||Sir John de Clinton|
|Present holder||Gerard Fane-Trefusis, 22nd Baron Clinton|
|Heir apparent||Hon. Charles Patrick Rolle Fane-Trefusis|
|Remainder to||Heirs general|
|Seat(s)||Heanton Satchville, Huish|
|Motto||Tout vient de Dieu ("Everything comes from God")|
Baron Clinton is a title in the Peerage of England. Created in 1298 for John de Clinton, it is the seventh-oldest barony in England.
The peerage of Baron Clinton was created in 1298 for Sir John de Clinton, 1st Baron Clinton, a knight who had served in the Scottish and French wars. The peerage was created by writ, which means that it can descend through both male and female lines.It is thus one of the most ancient English titles still in existence.
William, the younger son of the first Baron, was also summoned to parliament by writ on 6 September 1330 as Baron de Clynton, even though his elder brother, the second Baron, was sitting in parliament under the same title.He was created Earl of Huntingdon in 1337.
The second Baron, John, fought with the king's army, which defeated Edward II's cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1321. He was knighted by 1324. The third Baron fought at the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War and was the Constable of Warwick Castle 1390-97. He married at least three times. His first wife, Idonea de Saye, was the daughter of Geoffrey de Saye, 2nd Lord Saye. He was succeeded in the barony by their grandson, son of their son Sir William Clinton ( DVP 25 October 1383).
In 1399, upon the death of fourth Baron's cousin, Elizabeth de Saye de Falvesley Heron, Baroness Saye, the fourth Baron succeeded to the Saye lands and styled himself Lord Saye. He married three times; firstly, to Anne Trivett, daughter of Sir Thomas Trivett; secondly, to Alice or Anne FitzWarin, daughter of 2nd Baron Botreaux and the widow of 6th Lord Fitzwarin; and thirdly to Mary Retford, widow of Sir Henry Retford.
He was succeeded by his son from his second marriage. The fifth Baron fought on the Yorkist side in the Wars of the Roses. He was attainted in 1461 but later restored to his title. The sixth Baron was recognised in 1471 as Lord Clinton and Saye, but was not called to Parliament under either title. He married Elisabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Fiennes, and took Fiennes as an alias, and Clinton and Saye baronies continued to be linked for several generations. The 10th and 11th Barons were called to Parliament as Baron Clinton de Saye.
Edward Clinton, 9th Baron Clinton was created Earl of Lincoln in 1572. The titles remained united until 1692 upon the death of his great-great-great-grandson, Edward de Clinton, fifth Earl of Lincoln and 13th Baron Clinton. The earldom was inherited by the late Earl's cousin, the sixth Earl (see the Earl of Lincoln for later history of this title) while the barony fell into abeyance between the issue of his two aunts, Lady Margaret Clinton (d. 1688) and Lady Arabella Clinton, the daughters of Theophilus de Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln and 12th Baron Clinton, a brother-in-law of Charles I.
The abeyance of 1692 was terminated in 1721 in favour of Hugh Fortescue (d. 1751), fourteenth Baron Clinton, the grandson of Lady Margaret Clinton (d. 1688), the eldest daughter of Theophilus de Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln and 12th Baron Clinton (d. 1667). Lady Margaret had married Hugh Boscawen (1625–1701), MP, of Tregothnan in Cornwall, and their daughter Bridget Boscawen (d. 1708) married Hugh Fortescue (1665–1719) (son of Arthur Fortescue by Barbara Elford) and had issue Sir Hugh Fortescue (d. 1751).In 1746, he was created Baron Fortescue, of Castle Hill in the County of Devon (with remainder to his half-brother Matthew Fortescue) and Earl Clinton, with remainder to the heirs male of his body. The Earl was childless and on his death the earldom of Clinton became extinct but his two baronies continued. He was succeeded in the barony of Fortescue (according to the special remainder) by his half-brother, the second Baron Fortescue (see Earl Fortescue for later history of this title). The barony of Clinton was inherited by his second cousin Margaret Rolle, 15th Baroness Clinton, the granddaughter of Lady Arabella Clinton, the younger daughter of Theophilus de Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln and 12th Baron Clinton (d. 1667). Margaret Rolle was the widow of Robert Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford (d. 1751) and the daughter of Samuel Rolle, the son of Robert Rolle (d. 1660), MP, of Heanton Satchville, Devon, by his wife Lady Arabella Clinton. She was succeeded by her son, George Walpole, third Earl of Orford and 16th Baron Clinton (d. 1791). He was childless and on his death in 1791 the earldom passed to his uncle, the fourth Earl of Orford (see the Earl of Orford for later history of this title), while the barony of Clinton became dormant.
The barony, which had been dormant since 1791, was successfully claimed in 1794 by the late Earl of Orford's cousin Robert George William Trefusis (1764–1797), who became the 17th Baron Clinton. He was the three-times great-grandson of Lady Arabella Clinton, the younger daughter of the fourth Earl of Lincoln. Lady Arabella's daughter Bridget Rolle had married Francis Trefusis of Trefusis in Cornwall, and had issue Samuel Trefusis (1677–1724), whose great-grandson was the 17th Baron Clinton.
The 18th Baron served as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington during the Peninsular War. He was succeeded by his younger brother, who represented Callington in the House of Commons, in which role he was notable.He was succeeded by his son, the 20th Baron Clinton (1834–1904). He served as Under-Secretary of State for India from 1867 to 1868 in the Conservative administrations of the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli and was also Lord Lieutenant of Devonshire. In 1867 Baron Clinton assumed by Royal licence the additional surnames of Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes, which were those of his father-in-law. His son, the 21st Baron, held minor office in the coalition government of David Lloyd George and served as Lord Warden of the Stannaries.
Following the death of the 21st Baron Clinton on 5 July 1957, the barony fell into abeyance between his two daughters: The Hon. Harriet Fane (14 November 1887 – 15 March 1958), who married Maj. Henry Nevile Fane, only son of Sir Edmund Fane (whom she divorced in 1935); and the Hon. Fenella Bowes-Lyon (19 August 1889 – 19 July 1966), an aunt of Queen Elizabeth II through her marriage to John Bowes-Lyon, second son of the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. The abeyance of 1957 was terminated 18 March 1965 in favour of Gerald Neville Mark Fane Trefusis, the 22nd Lord Clinton, who is the great-grandson of the 21st Baron Clinton and grandson of Hon. Harriet Fane. His great-aunt Fenella supported his eight-year legal fight to succeed as baron. Baron Clinton had already in 1958 assumed by deed poll the additional surname of Trefusis and had inherited the 85,000-acre estate in Devon from his great-grandfather.
The family seat is Heanton Satchville, Huish, near Merton in North Devon, which was built in 1782 as "Innis House" by Sir James Innis, Duke of Roxburgh, and was purchased by the 18th Baron Clinton in about 1805, renamed Heanton Satchville, which burned down in 1935 and was rebuilt.
After the death of Hon. Mark Rolle in 1907, Bicton House became the main residence of the 21st Baron Clinton until his death in 1957,where much grand entertaining occurred until the start of World War II and where a herd of 150 deer were kept in the park. The Duke and Duchess of York spent part of their honeymoon there.
The 1st Baron resided at Maxstoke Castle, Warwickshire, the inheritance of his wife. The 5th Baron exchanged it for lands in Northamptonshire. The 9th Baron's chief seat was in Lincolnshire on an estate which was the inheritance of his wife Elizabeth Blount.The seat of the 14th Baron Clinton was Castle Hill, Filleigh, rebuilt by him in the Palladian style. The seat of the 15th Baroness was Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe, the ancient Rolle seat, although she spent the later part of her life on the Continent, having left her first husband, and died in Pisa. Her son the 16th Baron largely abandoned that residence in favour of Houghton Hall in Norfolk. Although he had the legal power to do so, he did not end the tail-male of the Rolle estates, and the estates thus passed to the Trefusis family not to his own heirs male the Lords Cholmondely, heirs to the Walpole estates, who unsuccessfully claimed the Rolle estates from the 18th Baron Clinton in a lengthy court case. Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe became the seat of the 17th Baron only for a short time as it burnt down in 1795 and he died two years later. His son the 18th Baron when he came of age purchased Innes House on the other side of a marshy valley in the parish of Huish and renamed it Heanton Satchville.
The heir apparent is the present holder's son the Hon. Charles Patrick Rolle Fane-Trefusis (b. 1962).
The heir apparent's heir apparent is his son Edward Charles Rolle Fane-Trefusis (b. 1994)
Earl Fortescue is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain that was created in 1789 for Hugh Fortescue, 3rd Baron Fortescue (1753–1841), a Member of Parliament for Beaumaris and Lord-Lieutenant of Devon.
The Office of the Lord Lieutenant was created during the reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547), taking over the military duties of the Sheriffs and control of the military forces of the Crown. From 1569 there was provision for the appointment of Deputy Lieutenants, and in 1662 the Lord-Lieutenant was given entire control of the militia. The Forces Act of 1871 transferred this function back to the Crown, and in 1921, the office lost its power to call upon men of the County to fight in case of need. Since 1711 all the Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Devon.
Charles Henry Rolle Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis, 20th Baron Clinton, styled The Honourable Charles Trefusis between 1832 and 1866, was a British Conservative politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for India from 1867 to 1868.
Callington was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1585 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Reform Act 1832.
Baron Rolle was a title created twice in the Peerage of Great Britain for members of the Rolle family, related as uncle and nephew. This family was established at the manor of Stevenstone in Devon in the 16th century. In the 17th century they acquired additional estates in Devon including Bicton when Sir Henry Rolle (d.1617) married Anne Denys, a co-heiress of Bicton and Holcombe Burnell. In 1748 Henry Rolle, previously Member of Parliament for Devon and Barnstaple, was made Lord Rolle, Baron of Stevenstone, in the County of Devon. The title became extinct on his early death in 1750. His nephew John Rolle inherited the family estates in 1779 and in 1796 was made Baron Rolle, of Stevenstone in the County of Devon. The title became extinct on his death in 1842. He bequeathed his estates, then some 55,000 acres (220 km2), to Hon. Mark Trefusis (d.1907), second son of the 19th Baron Clinton, the nephew of his second wife and widow, who was required by the will to adopt the surname and arms of Rolle, which he did by royal licence in 1852. In 1907 he too died without male progeny when, in accordance with the entail created by the will of Lord Rolle, the Rolle estates descended to his nephew Charles Trefusis, 21st Baron Clinton (1863–1957) of Heanton Satchville, Huish. The Trefusis family had in 1791 inherited the great estates of the Rolle family of Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe, a junior branch of the Rolles of Stevenstone. This was due to the eventual heir of Margaret Rolle, suo jure 15th Baroness Clinton (1709-1781) having been her cousin Robert George William Trefusis (1764–1797), lord of the manor of Trefusis in Cornwall, who in 1794 successfully claimed the title 17th Baron Clinton. Trefusis and Margaret Rolle were both descended from the marriage of Robert Rolle (c.1622-1660) of Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe and Lady Arabella Clinton, the younger daughter of Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln, 12th Baron Clinton (d.1667). The 21st Baron Clinton sold Stevenstone in 1922, and concentrated his remaining still huge Devon estates in two areas, one in mid-Devon comprising the estates of Rolle of Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe, the other in east Devon comprising the Bicton and East Budleigh estates of Rolle of Stevenstone. All the estates are today managed by the Clinton Devon Estates organisation.
Robert Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford, KB, was a British peer and politician, styled Lord Walpole from 1723 to 1745.
Bicton House, or Bickton House, is a late 18th- or early 19th-century country house, which stands on the campus of Bicton College, Bicton, near Exmouth, East Devon. It is a Grade II* listed building. The park and gardens are Grade I listed in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.
Robert Rolle was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1654 and 1660.
The Trefusis family of Cornwall continue in 2018 as lords of the manor of Trefusis, near Flushing in the parish of Mylor, Cornwall, from which they took their surname at some time before the 13th century.
Huish is a small village, civil parish and former manor in the Torridge district of Devon, England. The eastern boundary of the parish is formed by the River Torridge and the western by the Rivers Mere and Little Mere, and it is surrounded, clockwise from the north, by the parishes of Merton, Dolton, Meeth and Petrockstowe. In 2001 the population of the parish was 49, down from 76 in 1901.
John Trefusis lord of the manor of Trefusis in the parish of Mylor in Cornwall, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1621 to 1622.
Heanton Satchville was a historic manor in the parish of Petrockstowe, North Devon, England. With origins in the Domesday manor of Hantone, it was first recorded as belonging to the Yeo family in the mid-14th century and was then owned successively by the Rolle, Walpole and Trefusis families. The mansion house was destroyed by fire in 1795. In 1812 Lord Clinton purchased the manor and mansion of nearby Huish, renamed it Heanton Satchville, and made it his seat. The nearly-forgotten house was featured in the 2005 edition of Rosemary Lauder's "Vanished Houses of North Devon". A farmhouse now occupies the former stable block with a large tractor shed where the house once stood. The political power-base of the Rolle family of Heanton Satchville was the pocket borough seat of Callington in Cornwall, acquired in 1601 when Robert Rolle purchased the manor of Callington.
Margaret Rolle, 15th Baroness Clintonsuo jure, was a wealthy aristocratic Devonshire heiress, known both for eccentricity and her extramarital affairs.
Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln, KB, styled Lord Clinton until 1619, was an opponent of Charles I during and preceding the English Civil War.
Hudscott is a historic estate within the parish and former manor of Chittlehampton, Devon. From 1700 it became a seat of a junior branch of the influential Rolle family of Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe and in 1779 became a secondary seat of the senior Rolle family of Stevenstone, then the largest landowner in Devon. Hudscott House, classified in 1967 a Grade II* listed building, is situated one mile south-east of the village of Chittlehampton. It was largely rebuilt in the 17th century by the Lovering family and in the late 17th century became a refuge for ejected Presbyterial ministers. In 1737 its then occupant Samuel II Rolle (1703-1747) purchased the manor of Chittlehampton and thus Hudscott House became in effect the manor house of Chittlehampton.
Heanton Satchville, Huish is an estate in the parish of Huish in Devon. It took its name from the nearby former ancient estate of Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe. It is the seat of Baron Clinton who owns the largest private estate in Devon, known as Clinton Devon Estates.
Clinton Devon Estates is a land management and property development company which manages the Devonshire estates belonging to Baron Clinton, the largest private landowner in Devon. Lord Clinton is of the Fane-Trefusis family, and is seated at Heanton Satchville in the parish of Huish, in Devon. The organisation's headquarters are situated on part of the estate at the "Rolle Estate Office" in the Bicton Arena at East Budleigh, near Budleigh Salterton, East Devon.
Robert George William Trefusis, 17th Baron Clinton (1764–1797) of Trefusis in Cornwall and Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe in Devon, was an English peer.
The Manor of Bicton is a former historic manor in the parish of Bicton in east Devon, England.
Hugh Fortescue, 1st Earl Clinton, 14th Baron Clinton (1696–1751) of Castle Hill in the parish of Filleigh, and of Weare Giffard Hall, both in North Devon, and of Ebrington Manor in Gloucestershire, was a landowner and peer. He built the surviving Palladian stately home of Castle Hill.