Heraldic visitation

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Frontispiece of the record of the visitation of Dublin, undertaken by Ulster King of Arms Daniel Molyneux in February 1607 Heraldic Visitation.jpg
Frontispiece of the record of the visitation of Dublin, undertaken by Ulster King of Arms Daniel Molyneux in February 1607

Heraldic visitations were tours of inspection undertaken by Kings of Arms (or alternatively by heralds, or junior officers of arms, acting as their deputies) throughout England, Wales and Ireland. Their purpose was to register and regulate the coats of arms of nobility, gentry and boroughs, and to record pedigrees. They took place from 1530 to 1688, and their records (akin to an upper class census) provide important source material for historians and genealogists.

Contents

Visitations in England

Process of visitations

Map showing the number of visitations by the King of Arms to England's counties, taken from Burke's Landed Gentry, 1937 edition English heraldic visitations map.png
Map showing the number of visitations by the King of Arms to England's counties, taken from Burke's Landed Gentry, 1937 edition

By the fifteenth century, the use and abuse of coats of arms was becoming widespread in England. One of the duties conferred on William Bruges (or Brydges), the first Garter Principal King of Arms, was to survey and record the armorial bearings and pedigrees of those using coats of arms and correct irregularities. Officers of arms had made occasional tours of various parts of the kingdom to enquire about armorial matters during the fifteenth century. [1] However, it was not until the sixteenth century that the process began in earnest.

The first provincial visitations were carried out under warrant granted by Henry VIII to Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux King of Arms [2] dated 6 April 1530. [3] He was commissioned to travel throughout his province (i.e. south of the Trent) with authority to enter all homes and churches. Upon entering these premises, he was authorized to "put down or otherwise deface at his discretion... those arms unlawfully used". [4] He was also required to enquire into all those using the titles of knight, esquire, or gentleman and decided if they were being lawfully used.

By this writ, Henry VIII also compelled the sheriffs and mayors of each county or city visited by the officers of arms to give aid and assistance in gathering the needed information. When a King of Arms, or Herald, visited a county, his presence was proclaimed by presenting the King's royal commission to the local gentry and nobility, which required them to provide evidence of their right to use a coat of arms. The Sheriff would collect from the bailiff of each hundred within his county a list of all people using titles or arms.

In the early days, the visiting herald would tour the homes of the gentry and nobility, but from the late 1560s these persons were summoned to attend a central "place of sitting" – usually an inn – at a particular time. [5] They were to bring their arms, and proof of their right to use them, most often by way of detailing their ancestral right to them, which would also be recorded. Where an official grant of arms had been made, this was also recorded. Other ancient arms, many of which predated the establishment of the College of Arms, were confirmed. The officer would record the information clearly and make detailed notes that could be entered into the records of the College of Arms when the party returned to London.

An example of the text of a herald's Visitation writ is the following, issued by Edward Bysshe, then Clarenceux King of Arms, dated 1 July 1664 and addressed to the Constables of the Hundred of Clackclose in Norfolk, giving them notice of two and a half months to muster the local gentry in the Black Swan Inn at Downham Market at 8 am: [6]

These [letters patent] are to require you and in his Majestie's name to charge and comand you, that forthwith upon sight hereof you sumon these Baronets, Knights, Esqrs and Gentlemen, whose names are here under written, personally to appear before me Edward Bisshe, Knight, Clarenceux King of Armes of all the South, East, and West parts of this Realme of England, from the river of Trent Southward, upon Thursday the fifteenth day of September, by eight of the clock in the morning, at the sign of the Black Swan in Downham, where I intend to sit for the Registring of all the Gentry within the said Hundred; and to that end you likewise give them notice, that they bring with them such armes and crests as they use and bear, with such other evidence or matter of record and credit as (if need require) may justifie the same, to the intent that I knowing how they use and challenge their Titles and by what right and authoritye they beare or pretend to bear Armes, I may accordingly make entrance thereof, and register the same in the office of Armes, or else proceed as my commission enjoyneth me in that behalfe, and to disclaim and make infamous such as usurp the title of Esquires or Gentlemen; and to convent all such as shall refuse to conforme themselves unto my said commission before the Lords Commissioners for the office of Earle Marshall of England, there to answer their misdemeanors and contempts. And if there shall be any of the degrees and quallities above mentoned omitted within yor Liberties in these my directions, that you likewise insert their names and warn them accordingly. Hereof charge them not to fayle as they will avoid the perill as may ensue by any of their neglects or contempts herein. Of these particulars your are to make a true and perfect returne, together with this your warrant, and what you have done therein, at the time and place above appointed. Given under my hand and Seale this first day of July, anno Dom. 1664. Edward Bysshe, Clarenceux

The resulting volumes now make up the collection of Visitation Books at the College, which contain a wealth of information about all armigerous people from the period. [7] If the officers of arms were not presented with sufficient proof of the right to use a coat of arms, they were also empowered to deface monuments which bore these arms and to force persons bearing such arms to sign a disclaimer that they would cease using them. The visitations were not always popular with members of the landed gentry, who were required to present proof of their gentility.[ citation needed ]

Following the accession of William III in 1689, no further commissions to carry out visitations were commanded. The reasons behind this cessation of the programme have been a matter of debate among historians. Philip Styles, for example, related it to a declining willingness of members of the gentry to attend visitations, which he traced to a growing proportion of "newly risen" families, who lacked long pedigrees and were therefore apathetic about registering them. [8] However, Janet Verasano has challenged this interpretation, finding that (in Staffordshire, at least) gentry enthusiasm for coats of arms as an enhancement to social standing persisted to the end of the 17th century. [9] The end of the visitations did not have much effect on those counties far removed from London, some of which had only been rarely visited over the entire period of the visitations.[ citation needed ]

There was never a systematic visitation of Wales. There were four visitations in the principality, and on 9 June 1551, Fulk ap Hywel, Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary, was given a commission to visit all of Wales. This was not carried out, however, as he was degraded and executed for counterfeiting the seal of Clarenceux King of Arms. This is regrettable, since no visitation of all Wales was ever made by the officers of arms. [10]

Records

Thomas Hawley, Clarenceux King of Arms, wearing a tabard displaying the Royal arms of England; the manuscripts from his first tour of London are the earliest existing records of an English visitation. Thomas Hawley Clarenceux King of Arms.jpg
Thomas Hawley, Clarenceux King of Arms, wearing a tabard displaying the Royal arms of England; the manuscripts from his first tour of London are the earliest existing records of an English visitation.

The principal records to emerge from the visitations were pedigrees, initially recorded on loose sheets of paper, and afterwards bound together as notebooks. In some cases, the sheets would include blank shields which had been drawn in advance (or at a later date printed), to simplify the process of recording coats of arms. [11] [12] The persons whose pedigrees were recorded were required (from about 1570 onwards) to certify them by signature, and where these original draft pedigrees have survived they are known as "originals with signatures". [13] [14] The signed copies were taken back to the College of Arms, where fair copies were made to a higher standard and preserved as the "office copies". [11] Sometimes the signed copies were also retained at the College, but in other cases, no longer considered of official interest, they might pass into private hands: once in general circulation, further copies were often made, which might in turn be revised or augmented. As a result of these processes of transmission, a number of variant manuscript copies of any one visitation record may now survive, possessing varying degrees of accuracy and authority. [15] [16] The Harleian Collection of the British Library is particularly rich in such records. Many visitation records have been published over the years, by the Harleian Society, by county record societies, and a few privately (see listing below). However, because until relatively recently the College of Arms restricted access to its records, many of the older published editions were necessarily based on the unofficial second- or third-generation copies in other collections, and may therefore not always be reliable. [17]

From as early as the 1530s, officers of arms on visitation frequently also compiled what were known as "church notes". These were fieldnotes (usually in the form of sketches) of coats of arms observed on church monuments, in stained glass windows, or on display in private houses. [18] [19] [20] Sometimes, drawings were also made of non-heraldic antiquities, such as medieval architectural features, views of towns, Roman inscriptions and even Stonehenge. [18] [21] [22] [23]

The 17th-century visitations generated a growing number of supplementary papers, including warrants, lists of persons who disclaimed any pretence to arms, lists of persons summoned to appear before the heralds (including those who had not appeared), records of fees paid, and miscellaneous correspondence. [24]

Lists of visitations

Visitations were conducted by or in the name of the two provincial Kings of Arms, Clarenceux and Norroy, within their respective provinces. In the following lists, the Deputies are the officers of arms who actually carried out the visitations. Where no Deputy is named, the visitation can be assumed to have been conducted by the King of Arms in person.

Southern Province

The Southern Province, the jurisdiction of Clarenceux King of Arms, comprised that part of England south of the River Trent, i.e. the counties of Bedford, Berks, Buckingham, Cambridge, Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Essex, Gloucester, Hereford, Hertford, Huntingdon, Kent, Leicester, Lincoln, Middlesex, Monmouth, Norfolk, Northampton, Oxford, Rutland, Salop, Somerset, Southampton, Suffolk, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick, Wilton, Worcester, and the City of London; and South Wales. [25]

YearCounty or area visitedClarenceux King of ArmsDeputy or DeputiesNotes
1530Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, and Staffordshire Thomas Benolt
1530London churches Thomas Benolt Thomas Hawley, Carlisle Herald
1531Somerset, Dorset, Devon and Cornwall Thomas Benolt
early 1530sSussex, Surrey, Kent, Hampshire, Somerset, Isle of Wight, and London Companies Thomas Benolt
early 1530sDevon and Cornwall Thomas Benolt
early 1530sSouth Wales and Herefordshire Thomas Benolt William Fellow, Lancaster Herald
1558Essex William Harvey Of uncertain status: perhaps not completed, or possibly not even begun.
1561Suffolk William Harvey
1563Norfolk William Harvey
1563Warwickshire William Harvey Robert Cooke, Chester Herald
1563–4Leicestershire William Harvey Robert Cooke, Chester Herald
1563–4Lincolnshire William Harvey
1564Northamptonshire William Harvey
1564Huntingdonshire William Harvey
1564Devon William Harvey
1565Wiltshire William Harvey
1565Dorset William Harvey
1566Bedfordshire William Harvey
1566Buckinghamshire William Harvey
1566Oxfordshire William Harvey Robert Cooke, Chester Herald
1566Berkshire William Harvey Robert Cooke, Chester Herald
1568London Robert Cooke
1569Worcestershire Robert Cooke
1569Herefordshire Robert Cooke
1569Gloucestershire Robert Cooke
1569Shropshire Robert Cooke
1570Essex Robert Cooke
1570Sussex Robert Cooke
1571–3Hertfordshire Robert Cooke
1571–3Middlesex Robert Cooke
1572–3Surrey Robert Cooke
1573Cornwall Robert Cooke
1573Somerset Robert Cooke
1574Kent Robert Cooke
1574–5Oxfordshire Robert Cooke Richard Lee, Portcullis Pursuivant
1574–5Buckinghamshire Robert Cooke Richard Lee, Portcullis Pursuivant
1574 Oxford University Robert Cooke Richard Lee, Portcullis Pursuivant
1575Cambridgeshire Robert Cooke
1575–6Hampshire Robert Cooke
1577Suffolk Robert Cooke
1584Shropshire Robert Cooke Richard Lee, Portcullis Pursuivant
1589Norfolk Robert Cooke
1591Somerset Robert Cooke Ralph Brooke, Rouge Croix Pursuivant
1591–2Kent Robert Cooke
1592Lincolnshire Robert Cooke Richard Lee, Richmond Herald
1612Suffolk William Camden John Raven, Richmond Herald
1613Norfolk William Camden John Raven, Richmond Herald
1613Huntingdonshire William Camden Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald
1614Essex William Camden John Raven, Richmond Herald
1618–19Northamptonshire and Rutland William Camden Augustine Vincent, Rouge Rose Pursuivant Extraordinary
1619Warwickshire William Camden Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant, and Augustine Vincent, Rouge Rose Pursuivant Extraordinary
1619Leicestershire William Camden Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant, and Augustine Vincent, Rouge Rose Pursuivant Extraordinary
1619Cambridgeshire William Camden Henry St George, Richmond Herald
1619Kent William Camden John Philipot, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1620Devon William Camden Henry St George, Richmond Herald, and Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1620Cornwall William Camden Henry St George, Richmond Herald, and Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1622–3Hampshire William Camden John Philipot, Somerset Herald
1623Surrey William Camden Samuel Thompson, Windsor Herald, and Augustine Vincent, Rouge Croix Pursuivant
1623Gloucestershire William Camden Henry Chitting, Chester Herald, and John Philipot, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1623Berkshire William Camden Henry Chitting, Chester Herald, and John Philipot, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1623Shropshire William Camden Robert Treswell, Somerset Herald, and Augustine Vincent, Rouge Croix Pursuivant
1623Wiltshire William Camden Henry St George, Richmond Herald, and Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1623Dorset William Camden Henry St George, Richmond Herald, and Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1623Somerset William Camden Henry St George, Richmond Herald, and Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1634HampshireSir Richard St George John Philipot, Somerset Herald
1634EssexSir Richard St George George Owen, York Herald, and Henry Lilly, Rouge Rose Pursuivant Extraordinary
1634LincolnshireSir Richard St George Henry Chitting, Chester Herald, and Thomas Thompson, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1633–5LondonSir Richard St George Sir Henry St George, Richmond Herald
1634 London Companies Sir Richard St George
1634HerefordshireSir Richard St George
1634BuckinghamshireSir Richard St George John Philipot, Somerset Herald, and William Ryley, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1633–4SussexSir Richard St George John Philipot, Somerset Herald, and George Owen, York Herald
1634HertfordshireSir Richard St George
1634MiddlesexSir Richard St George
1634OxfordshireSir Richard St George John Philipot, Somerset Herald, and William Ryley, Bluemantle Pursuivant
1634WorcestershireSir Richard St George George Owen, York Herald, and Henry Lilly, Rouge Rose Pursuivant Extraordinary
1634BedfordshireSir Richard St George George Owen, York Herald, and Henry Lilly, Rouge Rose Pursuivant Extraordinary
1662–4ShropshireSir Edward Bysshe William Dugdale, Norroy King of Arms
1662–8SurreySir Edward Bysshe
1662-8SussexSir Edward Bysshe
1663MiddlesexSir Edward Bysshe William Ryley, Lancaster Herald, and Henry Dethick, Rouge Croix Pursuivant
1663KentSir Edward Bysshe
1664LondonSir Edward Bysshe Francis Sandford, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, and Thomas Holford, Portcullis Pursuivant
1664–6BerkshireSir Edward Bysshe Elias Ashmole, Windsor Herald
1664–8NorfolkSir Edward Bysshe
1664–8EssexSir Edward Bysshe
1664–8SuffolkSir Edward Bysshe
1666LincolnshireSir Edward Bysshe
1669BedfordshireSir Edward Bysshe
1669HertfordshireSir Edward Bysshe
1669–75BuckinghamshireSir Edward Bysshe
1668–75OxfordshireSir Edward Bysshe
1672SomersetSir Edward Bysshe
1677WiltshireSir Edward Bysshe
1677DorsetSir Edward Bysshe
1681–2NorthamptonshireSir Henry St George Francis Burghill, Somerset Herald, Thomas May, Chester Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1681–2RutlandSir Henry St George Francis Burghill, Somerset Herald, Thomas May, Chester Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1681–3LeicestershireSir Henry St George Thomas May, Chester Herald, Henry Dethick, Richmond Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1683WarwickshireSir Henry St George Thomas May, Chester Herald, Henry Dethick, Richmond Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1682–3WorcestershireSir Henry St George Thomas May, Chester Herald, Henry Dethick, Richmond Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1682–3GloucestershireSir Henry St George Thomas May, Chester Herald, Henry Dethick, Richmond Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1683HerefordshireSir Henry St George Henry Dethick, Richmond Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1683MonmouthshireSir Henry St George Henry Dethick, Richmond Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant
1684CambridgeshireSir Henry St George
1684HuntingdonshireSir Henry St George
1686HampshireSir Henry St George
1687–1700LondonSir Henry St George

Northern Province

The Northern Province, the jurisdiction of Norroy King of Arms, comprised that part of England north of the River Trent, i.e. the counties of Chester, Cumberland, Derby, Durham, Lancaster, Northumberland, Nottingham, Stafford, Westmorland and York; and North Wales. The Trent ran through Staffordshire, and the county was therefore technically divided between the two provinces; but for the purposes of visitation it was generally treated (sometimes through a process of deputation) as falling under the jurisdiction of Norroy. [26]

YearCounty or area visitedNorroy King of ArmsDeputy or DeputiesNotes
1530Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Lancashire Thomas Tonge
1532Lancashire and part of Cheshire Thomas Tonge William Fellow, Lancaster Herald
1552Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland and Cumberland William Harvey
1558Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumberland and Cheshire Lawrence Dalton Conducted by Dalton in person, accompanied by William Colbarne, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, probably his nephew. Of uncertain authority, as Dalton had not yet been formally created Norroy
1563Yorkshire William Flower
1566Staffordshire William Flower
1566Cheshire William Flower
1567Lancashire William Flower
1569Derbyshire William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1569Nottinghamshire William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1575County Durham William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1575Yorkshire and Northumberland William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1580Cheshire William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1583Staffordshire William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1584–5Yorkshire William Flower Robert Glover, Somerset Herald Either conducted by Flower in person accompanied by Glover, or by Glover as Flower's deputy
1611DerbyshireSir Richard St George Conducted by St George in person, accompanied by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald, and Henry St George, Rouge Rose Pursuivant-Extraordinary (Sir Richard's son)
1612YorkshireSir Richard St George
1613LancashireSir Richard St George
1614CheshireSir Richard St George Conducted by St George in person, accompanied by Henry St George, Bluemantle Pursuivant, his son
1614NottinghamshireSir Richard St George
1614StaffordshireSir Richard St George
1615County DurhamSir Richard St George
1615NorthumberlandSir Richard St George Conducted by St George in person, accompanied by Henry St George, Bluemantle Pursuivant, his son
1634Derbyshire[Sir William le Neve] Henry Chitting, Chester Herald, and Thomas Thompson, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant Although undertaken during le Neve's kingship, this visitation was conducted under a joint commission granted in 1633 to Sir John Borough, Norroy 1623–33 and Garter King of Arms 1633–43, and Sir Richard St George, Clarenceux King of Arms 1623–35
1662–4Derbyshire William Dugdale
1662–4Nottinghamshire William Dugdale
1662–4[Shropshire] William Dugdale Conducted by Dugdale as deputy to Sir Edward Bysshe, Clarenceux, as the county lay within the Southern Province.
1663–4Staffordshire William Dugdale
1663–4Cheshire William Dugdale
1664–5Westmorland William Dugdale
1664–5Cumberland William Dugdale
1664–5Lancashire William Dugdale
1665–6Yorkshire William Dugdale
1666County Durham William Dugdale
1666Northumberland William Dugdale
1670Flintshire William Dugdale Robert Chaloner, Lancaster Herald, and Francis Sandford, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant Conducted under a deputation to visit North Wales, granted in 1670

Visitations in Ireland

Since the practices of Ulster King of Arms so closely followed those of the English College of Arms, it is hardly surprising that the Irish officers of arms undertook heraldic visitations in their province. The purpose behind these visitations was twofold: to prevent the assumption of arms by unqualified people, and to record the arms of the gentry that were unknown to Ulster office. The first visitation was held by Nicholas Narbon, the second Ulster King of Arms, in 1569. He was authorized to reform practices which were contrary to good armorial practice. He conducted six visitations (Dublin in 15681573, Drogheda and Ardee in 1570, Dublin in 1572, Swords in 1572, Cork in 1574, and Limerick in 1574). One of his successors, Daniel Molyneux had the commission renewed, and mounted several visitations. Although Molyneux's last visitation – of Wexford – was the last proper visitation, two other expeditions occurred after 1618 by subsequent Ulster Kings of Arms. The visitations were not very extensive. The officers would not often be found in the disturbed countryside. Thus the visitations are confined to areas under firm control of the Dublin administration.

Today, the original visitation and related manuscripts are in the custody of the Chief Herald of Ireland. Copies are also deposited at the College of Arms in London.

Published editions

England

Bedfordshire
Berkshire
Buckinghamshire
Cambridgeshire
Cheshire
Cornwall

(see also: Cornish heraldry)

Cumberland
Derbyshire
Devon
Dorset
County Durham
Essex
Gloucestershire
Hampshire
Herefordshire
Hertfordshire
Huntingdonshire
Kent
Lancashire
Leicestershire
Lincolnshire
London
Middlesex
Norfolk
Northamptonshire
Northumberland
Nottinghamshire
Oxfordshire
Rutland
Shropshire
Somerset
Staffordshire
Suffolk
Surrey
Sussex
Warwickshire
Westmorland
Wiltshire
Worcestershire
Yorkshire

Wales

See also

Notes

  1. Stephen Friar, Ed. A Dictionary of Heraldry. (Harmony Books, New York: 1987).
  2. www.oxforddnb.com
  3. Julian Franklyn. Shield and Crest: An Account of the Art and Science of Heraldry. (MacGibbon & Kee, London: 1960), 386.
  4. J.L. Vivian, Ed. The Visitations of Cornwall, Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1530, 1573, & 1620. (William Pollard and Co., Exeter: 1887), 248.
  5. Ailes 2009, p. 18.
  6. Dashwood, G. H., ed. (1878). The Visitation of Norfolk in the year 1563, taken by William Harvey, Clarenceux King of Arms: Volume 1. Norwich, pp.3-4
  7. Wagner 1952, p. 24.
  8. Styles 1953.
  9. Verasano 2001.
  10. Michael Powell Siddons. Visitations by the Heralds in Wales. (The Harleian Society, London: 1996), v.
  11. 1 2 Wagner 1967, p. 167.
  12. Ailes 2014, p. 69.
  13. Wagner 1952, pp. 58–9.
  14. Ailes 2009, p. 21.
  15. Wagner 1952, pp. 24–5, 63.
  16. Ailes 2014, p. 80.
  17. Wagner 1952, pp. 18, 63.
  18. 1 2 Wagner 1952, pp. 61–2.
  19. Wagner 1967, p. 226.
  20. Ailes 2009, p. 20.
  21. Kendrick, T.D. (1950). British Antiquity. London: Methuen. pp. 156–7.
  22. Lankester, Philip J. (1993). "Two lost effigial monuments in Yorkshire and the evidence of church notes". Church Monuments. 8: 25–44.
  23. Ailes 2014.
  24. For examples, see Ireland, George; Squibb, G.D., eds. (1987). Dugdale's Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Visitation Papers. Harleian Society, new ser. Vol. 6. London. ISBN   0-9500207-8-8.
  25. Listings are based on Wagner 1952, pp. 66–77.
  26. Listings are based on Wagner 1952, pp. 77–84.

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