Duke of Albany

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Dukedom of Albany
Coat of Arms of Leopold, Duke of Albany.svg
Creation date24 May 1881
CreationSixth
Monarch Queen Victoria
Peerage Peerage of the United Kingdom
First holder Prince Leopold
Last holder Prince Charles Edward
Remainder tothe 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titles Earl of Clarence
Baron Arklow
StatusSuspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 on 28 March 1919
Arms of the Albany Stewarts Blason Robert Stuart d'Albany.svg
Arms of the Albany Stewarts

Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor.

Contents

History

The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth, roughly the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title (along with the Dukedom of Rothesay) was the first Dukedom created in Scotland. It passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, and was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch.

The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483. His son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old. The fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son, later James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death. That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns.

The title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown. The cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; she died in 1789.

The title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings.

HRH Prince Charles Edward, the last person to hold the title, was deprived thereof in 1919. Carl Eduard Sachsen Coburg und Gotha.jpg
HRH Prince Charles Edward, the last person to hold the title, was deprived thereof in 1919.

The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria. [1] Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward (who had succeeded as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1900), was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. [1] His grandson, Ernst Leopold (1935–1996), only son of Charles Edward's eldest son Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1906–1972), sometimes used the title "Duke of Albany", [1] although the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 stipulates that any successor of a suspended peer shall be restored to the peerage only by direction of the sovereign, the successor's petition for restoration having been submitted for and obtained a satisfactory review of the appropriate Privy Council committee. [2]

Dukes of Albany

First creation, 1398

Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374–1406), Earl of Atholl (1403–1406)
Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of Menteith (bef 1189), Earl of Fife (1371), Earl of Buchan (1374)

Second creation, 1458

Other titles (1st Duke): Earl of March (1455), Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch (1482)
Other titles (2nd Duke): Earl of March (1455)

Only styled, 1541

DukePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Arthur Stewart
House of Stuart
1541–1541
no portrait12 April 1541
Falkland Palace, Falkland
son of King James V and Queen Mary
not married20 April 1541
Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh
aged 8 days

Third creation, 1565

DukePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Henry Stuart
House of Stuart
1565–1567
also: Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch (1565)
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.jpg 19 November 1545
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of Matthew Stewart and Lady Margaret Douglas
Mary, Queen of Scots
29 July 1565
1 child
10 February 1567
Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh
aged 21
James Stuart
House of Stuart
1567
also: Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch (1565);
Duke of Rothesay (1398)
JamesIEngland.jpg 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh
son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany
Princess Anne of Denmark
29 July 1565
9 children
27 March 1625
De Vere Theobalds Estate, Cheshunt
aged 58
Prince James succeeded as James VI in 1567 upon his mother's abdication, and his titles merged with the crown.

Fourth creation, 1600

DukePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Charles Stuart
House of Stuart
1600–1625 [3]
also: Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch (1600–1625);
Duke of York (1605–1625);
Prince of Wales (1616), Duke of Cornwall (1337) and Duke of Rothesay (1398)
Charles I (1625).jpg 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of King James I and Queen Anne
Henrietta Maria of France
13 June 1625
9 children
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace, London
aged 48
Prince Charles succeeded as Charles I in 1625 upon his father's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Fifth creation, 1660

DukePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
James Stuart
House of Stuart
1633/1644–1685 [4]
also: Duke of York (1633/1644), Earl of Ulster (1659)
James II & VII.jpg 14 October 1633
St. James's Palace, London
son of King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria
Anne Hyde
3 September 1660
8 children

Mary of Modena
21 November 1673
7 children
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris
aged 67
Prince James succeeded as James II in 1685 upon his brother's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Sixth creation, 1881

DukePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Prince Leopold
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1882–1884
also: Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow (1881)
Leopoldalbany.jpg 7 April 1853
Buckingham Palace, London
son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont
27 April 1882
2 children
28 March 1884
Villa Nevada, Cannes
aged 30
Prince Charles Edward
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1884–1919
also: Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow (1881)
Carl Eduard Sachsen Coburg und Gotha.jpg 19 July 1884
Claremont, Esher
son of Prince Leopold and Princess Helena
Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein
11 October 1905
5 children
6 March 1954
Coburg
aged 69
The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 suspended the title on 28 March 1919.

Family tree

Family tree: Dukes of Albany
Robert II of Scotland
(1316–r.1371–1390)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1398
Robert III of Scotland
(1337–r.1390–1406)
Robert Stewart,
1st Duke of Albany

(c.1340–1420)
James I of Scotland
(1394–r.1406–1437)
Murdoch Stewart,
2nd Duke of Albany

(1362–1425)
Dukedom forfeit, 1425
James II of Scotland
(1430–r.1437–1460)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1458
James III of Scotland
(1451–r.1460–1488)
Alexander Stewart,
1st Duke of Albany

(1454–1485)
Forfeit 1479, restored 1482, forfeit 1483
James IV of Scotland
(1473–r.1488–1513)
John Stewart,
2nd Duke of Albany

(1484–1536)
Dukedom restored, 1515
James V of Scotland
(1512–r.1513–1542)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1541DUKE OF ALBANY, 1565
Prince Arthur Stewart,
Duke of Albany
(1541)
Mary, Queen of Scots
(1542–1587, r.1542–1567)
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley,
1st Duke of Albany

(1545–1567)
Prince James, 2nd Duke of Albany
King James VI & I
(1566–r.1567(Scot)/1603(Eng)–1625)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1604
Princess Elizabeth Stuart
(1596–1662)
m. Frederick V of the Palatinate
Prince Charles, Duke of Albany
King Charles I
(1600–r.1625–1649)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1660
Sophia of Hanover
(1630–1714)
m. Ernest Augustus of Brunswick
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
Prince James, Duke of Albany
King James II
(1633–1701, r.1685–1688)
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1716
King George I
(1660–r.1714–1727)
Ernest Augustus,
Duke of York and Albany

(1674–1728)
Queen Mary II
(1662–r.1689–1694)
Queen Anne
(1665–r.1702–1714)
King George II
(1683–r.1727–1760)
Prince Frederick Louis,
Prince of Wales

(1707–1751)
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1760
King George III
(1738–r.1760–1820)
Prince Edward,
Duke of York and Albany

(1739–1767)
DUKE OF YORK & ALBANY, 1784
King George IV
(1762–r.1820–1830)
Prince Frederick,
Duke of York and Albany

(1763–1827)
King William IV
(1765–r.1830–1837)
Prince Edward,
Duke of Kent

(1767–1820)
Queen Victoria
(1819–r.1837–1901)
DUKE OF ALBANY, 1881
King Edward VII
(1841–r.1901–1910)
Prince Leopold,
1st Duke of Albany

(1853–1884)
King George V
(1865–r.1910–1936)
Charles Edward,
2nd Duke of Albany

(1884–1954)
Dukedom forfeit, 1919
King Edward VIII
(1894–1972, r.1936)
King George VI
(1895–r.1936–1952)
Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–r.1952–)

Dukes of Albany in fiction

See also

Related Research Articles

Duke of York British aristocratic title

Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively.

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Duke of Buckingham, referring to Buckingham, is a title that has been created several times in the peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom. There have also been Earls of Buckingham and Marquesses of Buckingham.

Duke of Clarence title traditionally awarded to junior members of the English and British Royal families

Duke of Clarence is a substantive title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the British royal family. All three creations were in the Peerage of England.

House of Stuart European royal house

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain, with historical connections to Brittany. The family name itself comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family scion Walter fitz Alan. The name "Stewart" and variations had become established as a family name by the time of his grandson, Walter Stewart. The first monarch of the Stewart line was Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name, Stuart.

Earl of March Titles in the peerages of Scotland and England

Earl of March is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of England. The title derived from the "marches" or borderlands between England and either Wales or Scotland, and it was held by several great feudal families which owned lands in those districts. Later, however, the title came to be granted as an honorary dignity, and ceased to carry any associated power in the marches.

Earl of Carrick Title applied to the ruler of Carrick

Earl of Carrick or Mormaer of Carrick is the title applied to the ruler of Carrick, subsequently part of the Peerage of Scotland. The position came to be strongly associated with the Scottish crown when Robert the Bruce, who had inherited it from his maternal kin, became King of the Scots in the early 14th century. Since the 15th century the title of Earl of Carrick has automatically been held by the heir apparent to the throne, meaning Prince Charles is the current Earl.

Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany Scottish prince and statesman

Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany was a member of the Scottish royal family who served as regent to three different Scottish monarchs. A ruthless politician, Albany was widely regarded as having caused the murder of his nephew, the Duke of Rothesay, and brother to the future King James I of Scotland. James was held in captivity in England for eighteen years, during which time Albany served as regent in Scotland, king in all but name. He died in 1420 and was succeeded by his son, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, who was executed for treason when James returned to Scotland in 1425, almost causing the complete ruin of the Albany Stewarts.

The Earl of Fife or Mormaer of Fife was the ruler of the province of Fife in medieval Scotland, which encompassed the modern counties of Fife and Kinross. Due to their royal ancestry, the earls of Fife were the highest ranking nobles in the realm, and had the right to crown the king of Scots.

Earl of Lennox

The Earl or Mormaer of Lennox was the ruler of the district of the Lennox in western Scotland.

Earl of Menteith

The Mormaer or Earl of Menteith was the ruler of the province of Menteith in the Middle Ages. The first mormaer is usually regarded as Gille Críst, simply because he is the earliest on record. The title was held in a continuous line from Gille Críst until Muireadhach IV, although the male line was broken on two occasions. A truncated version of the earldom was given two years later to Malise Graham, 1st Earl of Menteith, in compensation for loss of the Earldom of Strathearn, which was a likely result of the execution of the Duke of Albany.

Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife & Menteith

Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England.

The Earl or Mormaer of Ross was the ruler of the province of Ross in northern Scotland.

Isabella, Countess of Lennox Scottish countess

Isabella of Lennox (d.1458) was the ruler of Lennox, from 1437–1458, and last in the line of Mormaers or Native Scottish rulers. As the wife of Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany (d.1425), she was also Duchess of Albany (1420–1425), but in 1425 her family would be almost completely destroyed when her husband, father and two sons were executed by the vengeful King James I of Scotland. Only one son, James the Fat, would escape the King's wrath, and he would die in exile in Ireland soon after. Isabella succeeded in escaping the fate of her family, and would eventually regain her title and estates, retiring to her castle in Loch Lomond where she raised her grandchildren, the children of her youngest son. She would eventually live to see the violent death of her former persecutor, King James. Though none of her four sons survived her, her grandson Andrew Stewart, 1st Lord Avandale would in time rise to become Lord Chancellor of Scotland.

Duke of Aubigny Wikimedia list article

Duke of Aubigny is a title in the Peerage of France created in 1684 by King Louis XIV of France for Louise de Kérouaille, the last mistress of King Charles II of England, and to descend to Charles's illegitimate issue by her, namely to the descendants of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lennox (1672-1723) of Goodwood House in Sussex. King Louis also granted her the Château de la Verrerie, a former secondary seat of the Stewart Seigneurs d'Aubigny, Franco-Scottish cousins of the Stewart monarchs, seated from 1422 to 1672 at the Château d'Aubigny in the parish and manor of Aubigny-sur-Nère in the ancient province of Berry in France.

Clan Stewart Scottish clan

Clan Stewart is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan is recognised by Court of the Lord Lyon; however, it does not have a Clan Chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because the clan has no chief it can be considered an armigerous clan; however, the Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the principal branch of this clan, and the crest and motto of The Earls of Galloway's arms are used in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court of the Lord Lyon recognises two other Stewart/Stuart clans, Clan Stuart of Bute and Clan Stewart of Appin. Clan Stuart of Bute is the only one of the three clans at present which has a recognised chief.

James Mor Stewart Coat of Arms of the Albany Stewarts

James Mor Stewart, called James the Fat, was the youngest son of Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany and Isabella of Lennox. When his father and brothers were executed by King James I for treason in 1425, James led a rebellion against the king, taking the town of Dumbarton and killing the keeper of Dumbarton Castle. His success was short lived and he soon fled to Ireland, where he would spend the remainder of his life in exile. A second attempt at rebellion in 1429 saw a fleet sail to Ireland to collect James "to convey him home that he might be king", but he died before the attempt could be made.

This page lists extant dukedoms in the Peerages of the British Isles, listed by the monarch who created them—see also List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland.

Lord Avondale

There have been several peerage titles created with the name Avondale, referring to the dale of the Avon Water in Scotland. The word strath also means valley, and the area is now better known as Strathaven.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Eilers, Marlene (1997). Queen Victoria's Descendants. Falkoping, Sweden: Rosvall Royal Books. pp. 106–108, 160–162, 164–165, 179–180. ISBN   91-630-5964-9.
  2. "Titles Deprivation Act 1917". The National Archives. 1917. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  3. Gregg, Pauline (1981), King Charles I, London: Dent
  4. Callow, John, The Making of King James II: The Formative Years of a King, Sutton Publishing, Ltd, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2000. Page