British prince

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HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, husband and consort of the Queen. Prince Philip by Allan Warren cropped.jpg
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, husband and consort of the Queen.
HRH The Prince of Wales, first son and heir apparent of the Queen. Charles, Prince of Wales at COP21.jpg
HRH The Prince of Wales, first son and heir apparent of the Queen.
HRH The Duke of Cambridge, grandson of the Queen and elder son of the Prince of Wales. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.jpg
HRH The Duke of Cambridge, grandson of the Queen and elder son of the Prince of Wales.
HRH Prince George of Cambridge, great-grandson of the Queen, grandson of the Prince of Wales and elder son of the Duke of Cambridge. Prince George of Cambridge color fix.jpg
HRH Prince George of Cambridge, great-grandson of the Queen, grandson of the Prince of Wales and elder son of the Duke of Cambridge.
HRH The Duke of Sussex, grandson of the Queen and younger son of the Prince of Wales. Prince Harry at the 2017 Invictus Games opening ceremony.jpg
HRH The Duke of Sussex, grandson of the Queen and younger son of the Prince of Wales.
HRH The Duke of York, second son of the Queen. Prince Andrew August 2014 (cropped).jpg
HRH The Duke of York, second son of the Queen.
HRH The Earl of Wessex, third son of the Queen. Prince Edward February 2015.jpg
HRH The Earl of Wessex, third son of the Queen.

Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. It is also held by the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II. The title is granted by the reigning monarch, who is the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom Function and history of the British monarchy

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Member of the British Royal Family, consort to Queen Elizabeth II

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II.

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms

Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

Contents

Individuals holding the title of prince will usually also be granted the style of Royal Highness. When a British prince is married, his wife, if not already a princess in her own right, gains the title in her husband's princely title. For example, the wife of Prince Michael of Kent is known by the title of Princess Michael of Kent.

Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).

Prince Michael of Kent grandson of King George V and Queen Mary

Prince Michael of Kent, is a member of the British royal family. He is a paternal first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, being a grandson of King George V and Queen Mary. He is currently 48th in the line of succession to the British throne, but at the time of his birth was seventh in the line of succession.

Princess Michael of Kent wife of Prince Michael of Kent

Princess Michael of Kent is a member of the British royal family of German, Austrian and Hungarian descent. She is married to Prince Michael of Kent, a grandson of King George V. Princess Michael was an interior designer before becoming an author; she has written several books on European royalty. She also undertakes lecture tours as well as supporting her husband in his public duties.

History

Prior to 1714, the title of prince and the style of HRH was not customary in usage. Sons and daughters of the sovereign were not automatically or traditionally called a prince or princess. An exception was the Prince of Wales, a title conferred on the eldest son of the sovereign since the reign of Edward I of England. In the Kingdom of Scotland, even though an honorific principality was created by James I, the heir-apparent was only referred to as Duke of Rothesay. Some others include John, brother of Richard the Lionheart and later King John, who is sometimes called Prince John.

Prince of Wales British Royal Family Title

Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301.

Edward I of England 13th and 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved from an early age in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 19 August.

Duke of Rothesay

Duke of Rothesay is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall and Prince of Wales, which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.

After the accession of George I (the first monarch from the House of Hanover), it became customary for the sons of the sovereign and grandsons of the sovereign in the male line to be titled 'Prince' and styled His Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH). Great-grandsons of the sovereign were princes styled His Highness (abbreviated HH).

House of Hanover German royal dynasty

The House of Hanover, whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th through 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714. At Victoria's death in 1901, the throne of the United Kingdom passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The last reigning members of the House lost the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918 when Germany became a republic.

Highness is a formal style used to address or refer to certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty. It is typically used with a possessive adjective: "His Highness", "Her Highness" (HH), "Their Highnesses", etc. Although often combined with other adjectives of honour indicating rank, such as "Imperial", "Royal" or "Serene", it may be used alone.

Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh British Prince

Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, was a great-grandson of King George II and nephew and son-in-law of King George III of the United Kingdom.

Princess Sophia of Gloucester British princess

Princess Sophia Matilda of Gloucester was a great-granddaughter of King George II of Great Britain and niece of King George III.

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover British prince

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884. Although he was the senior male-line great-grandson of George III, the Duke of Cumberland was deprived of his British peerages and honours for having sided with Germany in World War I. Ernst August was the last Hanoverian prince to hold a British royal title and the Order of the Garter. His descendants are in the line of succession to the British throne.

Just three weeks after the birth of her fourth grandchild but first male-line grandson, Queen Victoria issued letters patent in 1864 [1] which formally confirmed the practice of calling children and male-line grandchildren His Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names. The letters patent did not address the styling of great grandchildren or further descendants as His/Her Highness or Prince or Princess.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Subsequent to 1864 some amendments regarding princes were made, with the issuance of specific letters patent changing the title and style of the following groups:

Both the proclamation and the letters patent of 1917 remain in force today, excepting a few amendments and creations noted.

Styles of British princes

List of British princes since 1714

Prince of Great Britain from birth
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth
Created Prince of Great Britain by the sovereign
Created Prince of the United Kingdom by the sovereign
(Dagger-14-plain.png) - In Letters Patent dated 20 November 1917, King George V restricted the title of Prince to the children of the sovereign, the children of the sovereign's sons, and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales.
(Double-dagger-14-plain.png) - By an Order in Council dated 28 March 1919, as authorized by the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, King George V suspended the British peerage titles, princely dignities and honours of those who sided with Germany in World War I.
The descendants of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, head of the House of Hanover and the senior male-line descendant of King George III, who bear the title Prince or Princess of the United Kingdom with the style of Royal Highness as a secondary title of pretense.
List of British Princes
NameBornDiedRoyal lineageNotes
George Augustus
later, King George II
16831760Only son of King George I Duke of Cambridge – 1707; Created Prince of Great Britain by the sovereign – 1714; Duke of Cornwall & Duke of Rothesay – 1714; Prince of Wales – 1714; King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 11 June 1727 until his death. He was concurrently Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
Frederick Louis 170717511st son of King George IICreated Prince of Great Britain by the sovereign – 1714; Duke of Edinburgh – 1726; Duke of Cornwall & Duke of Rothesay – 1727; Prince of Wales from 8 January 1729 until his death.
George William 171717182nd son of King George IIPrince of Great Britain from birth (died age three months).
William Augustus 172117653rd son of King George IIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Cumberland from 27 July 1726 until his death.
George William Frederick
later, King George III
173818201st son of Frederick Louis
& Grandson of King George II
Prince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Edinburgh – 1751; Prince of Wales – 1751; King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two realms on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814.
Edward Augustus 173917672nd son of Frederick Louis
& Grandson of King George II
Prince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of York and Albany from 1 April 1760 until his death.
William Henry 174318053rd son of Frederick Louis
& Grandson of King George II
Prince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh from 19 November 1764 until his death.
Henry Frederick 174517904th son of Frederick Louis
& Grandson of King George II
Prince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn from 22 October 1766 until his death.
Frederick William 175017655th son of Frederick Louis
& Grandson of King George II
Prince of Great Britain from birth (died age fifteen years).
George Augustus Frederick
later, King George IV
176218301st son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Cornwall & Duke of Rothesay from birth; Prince of Wales – 1762; Prince Regent – 1811; King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and king of Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death.
Frederick Augustus 176318272nd son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of York and Albany from 27 November 1784 until his death.
William Henry
later, King William IV
176518373rd son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Clarence and St Andrews – 1789; King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death.
Edward Augustus 176718204th son of King George III
Also, Father of Queen Victoria
Prince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Kent and Strathearn from 24 April 1799 until his death.
Ernest Augustus
Later, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover
177118515th son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale from 23 April 1799 until his death. Additionally, King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death.
Augustus Frederick 177318436th son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Sussex from 17 November 1801 until his death.
Adolphus Frederick 177418507th son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Cambridge from 17 November 1801 until his death.
Octavius 177917838th son of George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth (died age four years).
Alfred 178017829th son of King George IIIPrince of Great Britain from birth (died age twenty-three months).
William Frederick 17761834Only son of William Henry
& Gt-grandson of King George II
Prince of Great Britain from birth; Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh from 22 July 1816 until his death.
George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus
Later, George V, King of Hanover
18191878Only son of Ernest Augustus
& Grandson of King George III
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale from 18 November 1851 until his death. Additionally, King of Hanover from 18 November 1851 until deposed on 20 September 1866.
George William Frederick Charles 18191904Only son of Adolphus Frederick
& Grandson of King George III
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Cambridge from 8 July 1850 until his death. Additionally, Prince of Hanover from birth.
Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel 18191861Husband of Queen VictoriaPrince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (later, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) from birth; Prince Consort of the United Kingdom from 25 June 1857 until his death. Created Prince of the United Kingdom by the sovereign.
Albert Edward
Later, King Edward VII
184119101st son of Queen VictoriaPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Cornwall & Duke of Rothesay from birth; Prince of Wales – 1841; King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death.
Alfred Ernest Albert 184419002nd son of Queen VictoriaPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Edinburgh from 24 May 1866 until his death. Additionally, reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 23 August 1893 until his death.
Arthur William Patrick Albert 185019423rd son of Queen VictoriaPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Connaught and Strathearn from 24 May 1874 until his death.
Leopold George Duncan Albert 185318844th son of Queen VictoriaPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Albany from 24 May 1881 until his death.
Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick 18451923Only son of George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus
& Gt-grandson of King George III
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png); Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale from 28 March 1878 until 28 March 1919(Double-dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, Prince of Hanover from birth; Head of the House of Hanover from 28 March 1878 until his death; heir to the title Duke of Brunswick from 18 October 1884 until 24 October 1913, when he renounced his succession rights.
Albert Victor Christian Edward 186418921st son of King Edward VIIPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Clarence and Avondale from 24 May 1890 until his death.
George Frederick Ernest Albert
Later, King George V
186519362nd son of King Edward VIIPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of York – 1892; Duke of Cornwall & Duke of Rothesay – 1901; Prince of Wales – 1901; King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death.
Alexander John 187118713rd son of King Edward VIIPrince of the United Kingdom from birth (died age one day).
Alfred Alexander William Ernest Albert 18741899Only son of Alfred Ernest Albert
& Grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth. Additionally, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert 18831938Only son of Arthur William Patrick Albert
& Grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth.
Carl Eduard Georg Albert Leopold 18841954Only son of Leopold George Duncan Albert
& Grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Albany from birth until 28 March 1919(Double-dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 30 July 1900 until the 8 November 1918 abolition of the German monarchy.
Georg Wilhelm Christian Albert Edward Alexander Friedrich Waldemar Ernst Adolf 188019121st son of Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick
& 2xGt-grandson of King George III
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth. Additionally, Prince of Hanover from birth.
Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Peter Waldemar 188519012nd son of Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick
& 2xGt-grandson of King George III
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth. Additionally, Prince of Hanover from birth.
Ernst August Christian Georg 188719533rd son of Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick
& 2xGt-grandson of King George III
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png); heir to the title Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale from 30 January 1923 until his death(Double-dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, Prince of Hanover from birth; Duke of Brunswick from 1 November 1913 until the 8 November 1918 abolition of the German monarchy; Head of the House of Hanover from 30 January 1923 until his death.
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
later, King Edward VIII
189419721st son of King George VPrince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 January 1936 and again after 11 December 1936; Duke of Cornwall & Duke of Rothesay – 1910; Prince of Wales – 1910; King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 20 January 1936 until his abdication 11 December 1936; Duke of Windsor from 8 March 1937 until his death. Additionally, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from birth until 1917
Albert Frederick Arthur George
later, King George VI
189519522nd son of King George VPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of York – 4 June 1920; King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions 11 December 1936 until his death and Emperor of India from 11 December 1936 until title renounced 14 August 1947.
Henry William Frederick Albert 190019743rd son of King George VPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Gloucester from 31 March 1928 until his death.
George Edward Alexander Edmund 190219424th son of King George VPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Kent from 12 October 1934 until his death.
John Charles Francis 190519195th son of King George VPrince of the United Kingdom from birth (died age thirteen years).
Alastair Arthur 19141943Only son of Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert
& Gt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Also a female-line 2xGt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png); Duke of Connaught and Strathearn from 16 January 1942 until his death.
Johann Leopold William Albert Ferdinand Victor 190619721st son of Carl Eduard Georg Albert Leopold
& Gt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png); heir to the title Duke of Albany from 6 March 1954 until his death(Double-dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from birth.
Dietmar Hubertus Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp 190919432nd son of Carl Eduard Georg Albert Leopold
& Gt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from birth.
Ernst August Georg Wilhelm Christian Ludwig Franz Joseph Nikolaus Oskar 191419871st son of Ernst August Christian Georg
& 3xGt-grandson of King George III
Also a female-line Gt-gt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom (created by the sovereign) from 17 June 1914 until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png); heir to the title Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale from 30 January 1953 until his death(Double-dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, Prince of Brunswick from birth; head of the House of Hanover from 30 January 1953 until his death.
George Wilhelm Ernst August Friedrich Axel 191520062nd son of Ernst August Christian Georg
& 3xGt-grandson of King George III
Also a female-line Gt-gt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth until 20 November 1917(Dagger-14-plain.png). Additionally, Prince of Brunswick from birth.
Philip 1921Husband of Queen Elizabeth II
Also a female-line Gt-gt-grandson of Queen Victoria
Prince of Greece and Denmark from birth until renounced title 18 March 1947; Duke of Edinburgh – 1947; Prince of the United Kingdom (created by the sovereign) since 22 February 1957.
William Henry Andrew Frederick 194119721st son of Henry William Frederick Albert
& Grandson of King George V
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth.
Richard Alexander Walter George 19442nd son of Henry William Frederick Albert
& Grandson of King George V
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Gloucester since 10 June 1974.
Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick 19351st son of George Edward Alexander Edmund
& Grandson of King George V
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Kent since 25 August 1942.
Michael George Charles Franklin 19422nd son of George Edward Alexander Edmund
& Grandson of King George V
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth.
Charles Philip Arthur George 19481st son of Queen Elizabeth IIPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay – 1952; Prince of Wales since 26 July 1958.
Andrew Albert Christian Edward 19602nd son of Queen Elizabeth IIPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of York since 23 July 1986.
Edward Antony Richard Louis 19643rd son of Queen Elizabeth IIPrince of the United Kingdom from birth; Earl of Wessex since 19 June 1999.
William Arthur Philip Louis 19821st son of Charles Philip Arthur George
& Grandson of Queen Elizabeth II
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Cambridge since 29 April 2011.
Henry Charles Albert David 19842nd son of Charles Philip Arthur George
& Grandson of Queen Elizabeth II
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth; Duke of Sussex since 19 May 2018.
George Alexander Louis 20131st son of William Arthur Philip Louis
& Gt-grandson of Queen Elizabeth II
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth.
Louis Arthur Charles 20182nd son of William Arthur Philip Louis
& Gt-grandson of Queen Elizabeth II
Prince of the United Kingdom from birth.

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. Velde , 1864 Royal Styles and Titles – 1864 Letters Patent
  2. Velde , 1898 Letters Patent
  3. Velde , 1914 Letters Patent
  4. Velde , 1917 Royal Proclamation
  5. "No. 30428". The London Gazette . 14 December 1917. p. 13086.
  6. Velde , Second 1917 Letters Patent
  7. Velde , 1937 Letters Patent
  8. Velde , 1948 Letters Patent
  9. "No. 41009". The London Gazette . 22 February 1957. p. 1209.
  10. "No. 60384". The London Gazette . 8 January 2013. p. 213.

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References